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An Academic Essay: The Opening Paragraph
Best Part-Time Jobs for College Students. Free time can be scarce during college, but when expenses pile up quickly, a part-time job is a good way to paragraph, offset costs while ensuring there’s enough time left over for both academics and extracurriculars. If you’re a college student looking for a part-time job, the proper for college essays best place to start your job search is right on campus. There are tons of on-campus job opportunities and essay paragraph, as a student you’ll automatically be given hiring priority. Plus, on-campus jobs eliminate commuting time and can be a great way to sex is act and, connect with academic and opening, professional resources at your university. Check with your school#39;s career office or student employment office for sex is not a natural act and other essay help finding a campus job. Of course, there are opportunities for part-time work off-campus, too.
Spend a little time digging for the right kind of part-time job, that leaves you with enough time to get your school work done. If you#39;re worried you won#39;t have enough time to devote to academics, consider working as a study hall or library monitor. Responsibilities generally include the supervision of study spaces to ensure a quiet atmosphere. It#39;s a pretty easy job, but one with lots of downtime - which means you#39;ll have plenty of opening paragraph time to catch up on reading, do homework or study for an exam. If there are no openings as a monitor, consider other positions at the library, too - like working at the print center or checking out a change in my, books. How to Land the Job: A lot goes on behind the scenes at college libraries, so inquire with yours to see what positions are available. If you#39;re an upperclassman, you may be able to work as a teaching assistant for a large freshman seminar class. While #34;teaching fellows#34; are usually graduate students, #34;teaching assistants#34; have less formal responsibilities, including tasks like handing out essay opening paragraph, assignments or proctoring tests. How to Land the Job: A good way to start is by checking in with some of your professors from freshman year and ask about opportunities.
If you#39;re a senior, junior or even a sophomore, chances are you know your campus pretty well. Why not take advantage of that knowledge and work for your college#39;s admissions department? Admissions relies on outgoing, friendly students to give group and personal tours, and talk to potential students about all that the college has to roland barthes, offer. Essay. How to Land the proper for college Job: Ask your admissions department about openings. Not only is it a job that looks good on your resume, it#39;s also convenient because you don#39;t even have to leave campus to get to work. Freshman seminar classes (like Statistics 101, for example) can have as many as 500 students enrolled. Essay Opening Paragraph. That#39;s a lot of tests to a change in my life essays, grade, so professors often employ students within the department to grade tests. Although it#39;s grunt work, the workload is generally spread out based on when the tests are, leaving lots of paragraph time in roland narrative essay between for academics and extracurricular interests. How to Land the Job: As with the teaching assistant positions, contacting your former professors is a good starting point. Essay Paragraph. There are many tutoring opportunities in a college setting, and it#39;s a good choice for part-time work as you can often choose your own hours. If your university has an for college, educational resource center, there may be a formal tutoring position you can apply for.
Also, colleges with strong athletic programs usually recruit tutors to work with athletes. How to Land the Job: If you#39;re especially strong in subjects where tutors are sought out the most (like organic chemistry, calculus and physics, for example), consider putting advertising your services. Or, if you performed particularly well in a class, ask the professor about tutoring opportunities within his or her classes. Can#39;t find the opportunity to tutor in an academic area in essay opening which you#39;re particularly strong? If your college has a large population of international students, consider being a conversational tutor for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students working on life essays their English skills. Off-campus tutoring jobs exist, too.
Keep your eye out for positions to tutor middle school or high school students, or to tutor for essay the SATs and ACTs. Head over to your academic department (e.g., if you#39;re an proper for college essays, English major, check the English department) and ask about jobs. Essay Opening. There#39;s a lot that departments have to do behind the scenes, and creative summer, sometimes they hire students for part-time office work. While you aren#39;t limited to essay opening paragraph, your own major, departments generally give priority to students within the a change in my life field. Plus, if you work within your own department, it#39;s a good chance to make connections and network with professors. How to Land the Job: Check with your academic department or student employment office for assistant job openings. If you#39;re computer savvy or majoring in a technical field, look for a job at your college#39;s computer center. Opening Paragraph. Many universities offer tech-support nearly round-the-clock for both students and life, professors. The hours are usually pretty flexible as there are lots of different shifts that need staffing.
During the downtime you can get work done too. Paragraph. How to Land the Job: Check with your computer support department or student employment office for assistant job openings. If you aren#39;t quite a techie, there#39;s another option to consider too. Sex Is Other Essay. Find out if your college has student-run production services. All of those events put on by student organizations - dances, concerts, comedy shows, and plays for example - require a lot of work behind the scenes.
In some cases, the events are staffed by the college#39;s student-run production services. Not only would you get paid, but there#39;s also the paragraph opportunity to mla format for college, watch performances for free while you work. You probably know that there are tons of offices on campuses - residence life, career services, health services, alumni affairs and even the Dean#39;s office, for example. These are great places to look for part-time jobs as they are right on campus and usually give hiring priority to students. Also, it#39;s a good way to essay paragraph, become familiar with your university. You may find yourself learning about academic or professional opportunities within the proper essays department that you didn#39;t know about before. How to essay opening paragraph, Land the Job: Check with your student employment office or contact the department directly to inquire about job openings. Most colleges have a central store that sells books for classes, college-themed clothing and school supplies.
If your university has a store, ask about essay, job openings. Not only does it come with the convenience of being on campus, but you may even get really useful employee discounts on books, clothes or other supplies. How to Land the Job: Check with your student employment office or contact the bookstore directly to inquire about job openings. Don#39;t automatically dismiss the essay opening paragraph idea of babysitting just because you#39;re in college. Babysitters make good money (usually between $10-$15/hour, and sometimes even $20/hour), and there are lots of different hours you can work, depending on mla format for college essays the age of the kids you babysit. Plus, there#39;s the opportunity to get some of your school work done during downtime. University employees, including professors and paragraph, administrative staff, usually favor college students when choosing a babysitter; if you like working with kids, keep your eye out for babysitting positions near your college. In My. How to Land the Job: Check with your career office or student employment office or search online for babysitting jobs. Essay. Most colleges dedicate a lot of their resources to research.
Many departments - from biology to chemistry, physics to engineering, psychology to sociology - recruit paid research assistants. Not all research is in hard science though. Essays. You may be able to find a job doing background research for English, history, psychology or sociology. While the essay opening paragraph positions usually require some background knowledge of the creative writing summer camps field, if you#39;re majoring in an area that involves research, a research assistant job makes an excellent addition to your resume. If working as a researcher isn#39;t feasible for you, considering being researched . Essay. It may seem a little strange, but research in fields such as sociology, psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, and behavioral biology requires study participants. Sometimes all you have to do is creative camps take a test or fill out paragraph, a questionnaire.
If you stop by racail essays those departments, you#39;ll usually spot tons of flyers advertising paid opportunities. Opening. While it doesn#39;t guarantee a consistent schedule, being a study participant is camps a quick, easy and sometimes even a fun way to make extra money. Opening. It#39;s safe too - all university-based studies are thoroughly vetted for any risks, and you#39;ll be working with professionals who are legally obligated to make sure you aren#39;t harmed during the essays research. How to Land the Job: Check out opportunities at nearby colleges or graduate schools. If your college has a job listing board, you can usually find this type of work listed as #34;Quickie Jobs#34; or #34;One-time Jobs.#34; While you might slug java to essay opening paragraph, pull an all nighter, working as a barista will teach you a lot about coffee and espresso. You#39;ll probably also be treated to employee discounts that will save you a ton of essays money on your daily coffee fix. Plus, campus coffee shops are usually open only during the essay day, so you won#39;t have to work late night shifts. How to essays on visual, Land the Job: Stop in opening paragraph and see if you can apply in person or check with your student employment office. Society On Visual Culture. Are you a fitness junkie who spends a lot of time at your college#39;s fitness center? Consider working there. Gyms usually require a significant number of paragraph staff, from receptionists to secretaries, janitors and a change in my life essays, workout room monitors.
You can kill two birds with one stone and schedule your hours around your gym time. How to Land the Job: Check with your school#39;s fitness center directly or with your student employment office.
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The Introductory Paragraph - UCSB Writing Program
The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. Regional Studies . This paper uses a technopolitical approach to analyse China’s South–North Water Transfer Project. The project promises to channel 25 billion cubic metres of water a year from the Yangtze River northward, connecting four river basins, three megacities, six provinces and hundreds of millions of water users. Essay Opening Paragraph. The paper argues that the project embodies a particular, engineering-heavy approach to water management; that, even so, it poses fundamental challenges to existing regional structures of racail profiling essays governance; and that it promises continuing detrimental environmental impacts in essay opening paragraph, source regions even as it invites similar future interventions in in my life essays, China’s hydrological environment. ??????: ??????? Regional Studies . ??????????,??????????????????????????????????????,???????,??????,???????????????????,?????????????????????; ????,????????????????????; ?????????????,?????????,?????????????????????? Le projet de transfert d’eau Nord-Sud: refaire la geographie de la Chine. Regional Studies . Cet article se sert d’une approche technopolitique afin d’analyser le projet de transfert d’eau Nord-Sud en Chine. Le projet cherche a acheminer vers le nord 25 milliards de metres cubes d’eau par an a partir du fleuve Yangtze, reliant ainsi quatre bassins hydrographiques, trois megalopoles, six provinces et des centaines de millions d’utilisateurs d’eau.
Ce present article affirme que le projet incarne une approche particuliere de la gestion des eaux lourde d’ingenierie; que, toutefois, il represente un defi fondamental aux structures de gouvernance regionales en vigueur; et qu’il annonce des effets prejudiciables environnementaux continus dans les regions d’origine tandis qu’il sollicite des interventions futures similaires au niveau de l’environnement hydrologique en Chine. Das Sud-Nord-Wassertransferprojekt: Umgestaltung der Geografie von China. Regional Studies . Paragraph. In diesem Beitrag analysieren wir mithilfe eines technopolitischen Ansatzes das Sud-Nord-Wassertransferprojekt in China. Durch das Projekt sollen pro Jahr 25 Milliarden Kubikmeter Wasser vom Jangtse nach Norden umgeleitet und vier Flussbecken, drei Megastadte, sechs Provinzen sowie hunderte Millionen von Wasserverbrauchern angeschlossen werden. Wir argumentieren, dass das Projekt einen besonderen und techniklastigen Ansatz der Wasserbewirtschaftung verkorpert, dass es dennoch die vorhandenen regionalen Regierungsstrukturen vor grundlegende Herausforderungen stellt und dass es zu fortgesetzten schadlichen Umweltauswirkungen in den Quellregionen fuhren wird, wahrend es daruber hinaus zu ahnlichen kunftigen Eingriffen in die hydrologische Umwelt von China einladt. El proyecto de trasvase de agua del sur al norte: transformacion de la geografia de China. Regional Studies . Mediante un planteamiento tecnopolitico, en este articulo analizamos el proyecto de trasvase de agua del sur al norte en China. Con este proyecto se canalizaran 25.000 millones de metros cubicos de agua al ano desde el rio Yangtze hacia el norte, conectando cuatro cuencas hidrograficas, tres megaciudades, seis provincias y cientos de millones de usuarios de agua. En este articulo argumentamos que el proyecto implica un particular enfoque centrado en la ingenieria para la gestion del agua, que no obstante plantea retos fundamentales a las actuales estructuras regionales de gobernanza, que amenaza con continuos efectos perjudiciales para el medio ambiente en las regiones de fuente, y que ademas conlleva la creacion de programas similares en el futuro para el entorno hidrologico de China. The South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) is the most ambitious inter-basin water transfer scheme in the world. It is roland, a complex of essay diversion channels that promises to deliver tens of billions m 3 of fresh water a year over 1000 km from the relatively well-watered south of China to the drier north.
The project connects four major river basins, three megacities, six provinces, and a change hundreds of millions of water users and polluters. The project comprises three routes. The Eastern Route has the capacity to supply 14.8 billion m 3 per year from the lower Changjiang (Yangtze River) to the provinces of Jiangsu, Anhui, Shandong and Hebei and the municipality of Tianjin through a system of pumps, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals, including the Grand Canal, itself more than 2500 years old. The route began operating in essay opening, late 2013. The Middle Route can provide 9.5 billion m 3 per year to the provinces of Henan and Hebei and profiling the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin from Danjiangkou reservoir on the Han River (a tributary of the middle Changjiang). Essay Paragraph. Ten years in natural other, construction, it involved raising the wall of the dam at Danjiangkou by nearly 15 m and constructing a pair of paragraph tunnels to carry water under the HuangHe (Yellow River).
Water began to flow in late 2014 and creative writing camps there are plans to opening, expand its capacity to 13 billion m 3 per year. A third (western) route would be capable of diverting another 20 billion m 3 of the image water annually from tributaries of the essay opening, upper Changjiang through tunnels to the upper reaches of the HuangHe. The route is not a natural act and, still being debated and there is no commitment to construct it, which would be the most expensive of the opening paragraph, three routes, nor any information about when a decision will be made (Figure 1). The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. Figure 1. The three routes of the South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP). Figure 1. The three routes of the South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP).
Planning and design for the project were overseen by the Ministry of Water Resources (MWR), through its Planning, Design and Management Bureau of the society culture, SNWTP (Chinese Government Public Information Online, 2015 Chinese Government Public Information Online. ( 2015 ). ?????????????? [Ministry of Water Resources South–North Water Transfer Planning, Design and Management Bureau]. Retrieved from http://govinfonew.nlc.gov.cn/gtfz/i11-24-18362 [Google Scholar] ). In 2002, this bureau completed a blueprint for the construction period and, in 2003, the Office of the Construction Committee for the SNWTP (Office of the SNWTP) was established directly under the State Council to oversee construction (State Council, 2003 State Council. ( 2003 ). ?????????????? ??????????,??17? [Notice from the State Council on the founding of the State Council’s Construction Committee for the South–North Water Transfer Project, official communication (2003) No. 17]. Opening. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2008-03/28/content_7672.htm [Google Scholar] ). Various design institutes and river basin commissions compiled the designs and plans, while construction was done by Hanjiang Water Resources and roland barthes narrative Hydropower Corporation on the Eastern Route and Danjiangkou Water Resources and Hydroelectric Corporation on opening paragraph, the Middle Route (water-technology.net, n.d. water-technology.net. ( n.d. ). Roland Narrative Essay. South-to-north water diversion project, China . Essay Paragraph. water-technology.net. Retrieved from http://www.water-technology.net/projects/south_north/ [Google Scholar] ).
Estimates of the project’s cost differ enormously. A Change Essays. The cost of constructing the opening paragraph, Eastern and Middle routes has been estimated at US$79.4 billion (Chang, 2014 Chang, G. Roland Barthes Narrative. ( 2014 ). Opening. China’s water crisis made worse by policy failures. World Affairs . Retrieved from http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/blog/gordon-g-chang/china%E2%80%99s-water-crisis-made-worse-policy-failures [Google Scholar] ); an official of the Office of the SNWTP told Li ( 2014 Li, Y. Profiling Essays. ( 2014 ). ?????????? 2100???????????? [Will the investment of RMB 210 billion in the Middle Route of the south–north water transfer be reflected in cost-based water pricing?]. Essay Opening Paragraph. 21st Century Business Herald . Retrieved from http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/20140614/032619411109.shtml [Google Scholar] ) that the construction of the two routes would likely end up costing RMB 300 billion (US$47 billion at roland barthes narrative essay, late 2015 exchange rates). Essay. There are many other estimates within this range.
These costs do not include evicting and resettling 365,000–375,000 people for the enlargement of Danjiangkou reservoir and construction of canals (the Office of the writing camps, SNWTP estimates 300,000 people, but later estimates are higher). The experience at Three Gorges (Webber, 2012 Webber, M. ( 2012 ). Making capitalism in rural China . Cheltenham : Elgar . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) suggests that the evictions cost at least RMB 100,000 each (excluding the costs to households), adding another US$5.75 billion to the construction cost. Nor do estimates of essay opening paragraph construction cost include environmental protection and evicting farmers from the catchment of Danjiangkou reservoir. To put these figures in perspective, Chinese state-budgeted investment totalled RMB 10,769 billion between 2004 and 2013, so the project cost at least 3% of government investment while it was being constructed. This, then, is a huge project, linking four major river basins across the majority of in my life China’s land mass. It is a complex engineering project that required the deployment of extensive representational resources to justify it. As a socio-technical infrastructure the SNWTP mediates between Chinese society and its environment, comprising a political and a material response to social needs and environmental demands and essay opening paragraph complementing at least another five interbasin diversion projects within China (Chen Wenger, 2014 Chen, H. , Wenger, R. B. ( 2014 ). Water diversion projects in China . In R. M. Clark S. A Change In My. Hakim (Eds.), Securing water and wastewater systems, protecting critical infrastructure 2 (pp. 213 – 232 ). Cham : Springer . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). Yet while it embodies elements of China’s long tradition of water resources management (Pietz, 2014 Pietz, D. ( 2014 ). The Yellow River: The problem of water in essay paragraph, modern China . Cambridge , MA : Harvard University Press . [Google Scholar] ), the SNWTP nevertheless poses challenges to the existing structure of China’s socio-environment.
The literature on the operation and implications of the SNWTP is racail, still in its infancy, and is principally concerned with the management of the project. Three topics dominate. Essay. One is the creative writing summer camps, elucidation of the principles that should underpin operational management, including water allocation modelling and the pricing model (Nie, Duan, Liu, 2013 Nie, Y. H. Essay Opening. , Duan, W. G. , Liu, D. ( 2013 ). Water allocation model for Shandong segment of the East Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project . Journal of Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute , 30 (8), 75 – 78 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Wu, Dong, Guo, Li, 2013 Wu, Z. N. , Dong, M. L. , Guo, R. L. , Li, Y. A Change In My Life Essays. ( 2013 ). Study on two-part water price calculation and its impact factors for main line of Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 148 – 152 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Zhang, Lu, Fei, 2013 Zhang, L. C. , Lu, H. , Fei, X. X. ( 2013 ). Analysis and research on water resources optimal allocation of paragraph Henan province intake area of the Middle Route of South to North water diversion project . Yellow River , 35 , 61 – 63 , 67. [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). Narrative Essay. Another concerns the evaluation of, and potential mitigating measures against, the opening, principal risks that face managers of the project (Hu, Zheng, Li, Shi, 2013 Hu, D. , Zheng, L. , Li, S. Roland Barthes Narrative Essay. , Shi, G. K. ( 2013 ). Study on the risk evaluation method for the open channel operation in the Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . Essay Paragraph. South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 98 – 101 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ), especially floods (Cong, Kang, Cheng, Ding, 2012 Cong, H. X. , Kang, L. , Cheng, X. J. , Ding, Y. ( 2012 ). Flood risk analysis in the Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project of China based on Bayesian network . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 10 , 10 – 13 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ), security of water supply (Lin, Liu, Chen, 2012 Lin, C. S. , Liu, W. Mla Format For College Essays. , Chen, H. ( 2012 ). Unified allocation of water resources of intake area at essay opening, Henan province in the South-to-North water diversion Middle Route project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 10 , 11 – 12 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Zhang, Jiang, Li, Yang, Sun, 2012 Zhang, Z. W. , Jiang, H. J. , Li, C. G. , Yang, J. , Sun, X. Z. ( 2012 ). Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of racail profiling water security in central water source area of Middle Route of essay paragraph South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 10 , 16 – 21 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ) and sex is act and high groundwater levels (Hu Weng, 2013 Hu, G. Q. Essay Paragraph. , Weng, Y. Z. Not A Other Essay. ( 2013 ). Variation of groundwater level along the section of Sha River to essay opening, Yellow River of the Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 120 – 124 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). The risk of pollution in sources and along the essays, route has received particular attention (Guo Ren, 2014 Guo, P. Essay Opening. , Ren, J. ( 2014 ). Proper Essays. Variation trend analysis of essay opening water quality along the Eastern Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 12 , 59 – 64 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Guo, Wu, Ren, 2013 Guo, P. , Wu, P. R. , Ren, J. ( 2013 ). Analysis of annual variation of main pollutants discharge into profiling essays, the river along the Eastern Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 62 – 66 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Guo, Xiao, Shang, Wang, 2013 Guo, H. Essay Paragraph. , Xiao, W. H. , Shang, J. S. , Wang, W. C. ( 2013 ). A Change. Impact assessment of Eastern Route of South-to-North water diversion project operation on the water environment of Nansi Lake . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 49 – 53 , 57. [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Xin, Li, Finlayson, Wei, 2015 Xin, X. Essay Opening Paragraph. K. , Li, K. , Finlayson, B. Society Essays On Visual Culture. , Wei, Y. ( 2015 ). Evaluation, prediction, and protection of water quality in Danjiangkou reservoir, China . Water Science and essay paragraph Engineering , 8 , 30 – 39 . doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2014.11.001 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The third topic concerns the racail essays, implications of the SNWTP for source regions (Chen et al., 2013 Chen, D. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Barnett, J. Essay Opening Paragraph. , Chen, Z. Y. , Wang, M. ( 2013 ). The impact of water transfers from the essays, lower Yangtze River on water security in Shanghai . Applied Geography , 45 , 303 – 310 . doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.09.025 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Fan, Yang, Tang, 2012 Fan, W. X. , Yang, Z. X. , Tang, H. F. ( 2012 ). On the construction of eco-economic zone in the water source area for Middle Route of South–North water diversion project . Forestry Economics , 2 , 39 – 42 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Huang Zhang, 2014 Huang, L. J. , Zhang, Z. W. Opening Paragraph. ( 2014 ). Ecological compensation standard of Xiangyang section of Han River middle and lower reaches in profiling essays, the Central Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project . Journal of Xiangfan University , 35 , 57 – 61 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Webber et al., 2015b Webber, M. , Li, M. T. , Chen, J. , Finlayson, B. Essay. , Chen, D. , Chen, Z. Y. , … Barnett, J. ( 2015b ). Sex Is. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam, the essay opening, South–North Water Transfer Project and essays water abstractions on the duration and intensity of salt intrusions in paragraph, the Yangtze River estuary . Hydrology and Earth System Sciences , 19 , 4411 – 4425 . doi: 10.5194/hess-19-4411-2015 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) and the use of local water resources in sex is act and, the destinations (Ling, You, Wang, Gan, 2014 Ling, J. Essay Opening. , You, J. J. , Wang, L. , Gan, H. ( 2014 ). Scenario analysis on water source replacement effects of the 1st stage of creative writing camps South-to-North Water Transfer Project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 12 , 16 – 20 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). None of these is concerned with the relations between the SNWTP and opening paragraph the broader development of China’s socio-environment or between the project and ongoing processes of barthes narrative essay water management. Opening Paragraph. (Socio-environments are the the image society essays, manner of interaction of people, social groups, cities, firms, governments and the like, as well as elements of the ‘produced environment’.) Relatively fewer are studies of the political and essay paragraph economic implications of the SNWTP, placing the writing camps, project within the framework of opening paragraph socio-environmental relations within China (Barnett, Rogers, Webber, Finlayson, Wang, 2015 Barnett, J. , Rogers, S. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. Essays. , Wang, M. ( 2015 ). Sustainability: Transfer project cannot meet China’s water needs . Nature , 527 , 295 – 297 . doi: 10.1038/527295a [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of essay opening Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Crow-Miller, 2013 Crow-Miller, B. ( 2013 ). Water, power, and development in natural act and other essay, twenty-first century China: The case of the South–North Water Transfer Project (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California – Los Angeles. Essay. [Google Scholar] , 2015 Crow-Miller, B. ( 2015 ). Discourses of in my life deflection: The politics of framing China’s South–North water transfer . Water Alternatives , 8 , 173 – 192 . [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Moore, 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). Modernisation, authoritarianism, and opening the environment: The politics of profiling essays China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Crow-Miller argues that the SNWTP permits economic growth to continue on the North China Plain, helping the Chinese Communist Party to maintain political legitimacy. In doing this, the SNWTP is represented as an apolitical project that conceals the anthropogenic sources of water stress on the North China Plain; this argument resurfaces later. In arguing that the SNWTP embodies a form of paragraph authoritarian environmentalism, Moore ( 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , p. 959) observes that the ‘SNWTP reflects a powerful, technocratic, and controlling central government, but one capable of in my essays employing a variety of essay opening paragraph strategies, persuasive as well as coercive, to pursue its objectives’. Barnett et al. ( 2015 Barnett, J. , Rogers, S. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. ( 2015 ). Sustainability: Transfer project cannot meet China’s water needs . Society Culture. Nature , 527 , 295 – 297 . doi: 10.1038/527295a [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) comment that in many respects the SNWTP represents an essay paragraph, alternative to better local management of water resources and proper mla format for college essays thus contradict Berkoff ( 2003 Berkoff, J. ( 2003 ). China: The South–North Water Transfer Project – Is it justified?
Water Policy , 5 , 1 – 28 . Opening Paragraph. [Google Scholar] ), who argues that the social disruption that would be caused if conservation measures were adopted on the North China Plain suffices to justify the project. This paper develops some of these political and economic arguments. It argues first that the project embodies a particular engineering-heavy approach to water management in China. This official technopolitical regime privileges concrete over management, capital-intense over small-scale projects, and targets shortages rather than pollution. Secondly, the creative writing, paper argues that, even so, the project poses fundamental challenges to paragraph, the existing regional structures of governance (by requiring water management at a greater-than-basin scale) and power (empowering central as compared with provincial and local governments). Racail. Thirdly, it argues that the project both promises continuing detrimental environmental impacts in source regions even as it invites similar future interventions in China’s hydrological environment.
This paper does not survey the essay paragraph, social and environmental impacts of the SNWTP (examining neither the resettlement of people for the project nor the decisions about which regions should receive the for college, water, for example); rather, it interprets some elements of the project in opening paragraph, the light of concepts drawn from the mla format essays, study of technopolitics to substantiate these arguments. The paper begins by considering the theoretical status of such infrastructures. It then describes the representations that are offered to opening, justify the project over alternative forms of water management, and proceeds to explain the challenges thrown up by roland barthes narrative, the SNWTP and its continuing environmental impacts. Represented as a straightforward, technical solution to quantitative imbalances between the regional demand for opening, and supply of water in the image society, China, the project instead foregrounds the environmental, economic and political challenges posed by China’s patterns of growth. While technopolitical studies demonstrate how technical choices and political development march hand in opening, hand, this paper reveals that huge infrastructure projects not only represent the state of relations between society and environment, but also – as Gandy ( 2014 Gandy, M. ( 2014 ). The fabric of space: Water, modernity, and essays the urban imagination . Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ) has emphasized – pose new challenges to opening, those relations. THE TECHNOPOLITICS OF INFRASTRUCTURES.
Infrastructures are networks that enable the flow of goods, people or ideas and allow their exchange over space (Larkin, 2013 Larkin, B. A Change In My Life Essays. ( 2013 ). The politics and poetics of infrastructure . Annual Review of Anthropology , 42 , 327 – 343 . doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-092412-155522 [Crossref], [Web of essay opening Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). They have a topology and physical form that influence the speed and direction of a change movement, its temporalities and its vulnerability to breakdown. Infrastructures, in this sense, are technological objects. Water distribution systems are thus networks that link water in rivers, lakes and underground storages to plumbing in people’s houses, to irrigation pipes in farmers’ fields or to outlets in factories, enabling that water to perform social roles. Infrastructures mediate between societies and their environments. Water infrastructure consists of pipes, pumps and opening paragraph water treatment plants (machines); the links between those machines that make them into a system that delivers water; and techniques of organization – corporations, accounting, bureaucracies and the like (Molle, Mollinga, Wester, 2009 Molle, F. , Mollinga, P. , Wester, P. ( 2009 ). Hydraulic bureaucracies and mla format for college essays the hydraulic mission: Flows of water, flows of essay opening paragraph power . Water Alternatives , 2 , 328 – 349 . [Google Scholar] ). Racail Profiling Essays. Anand ( 2011 Anand, N. ( 2011 ). PRESSURE: The politechnics of essay opening paragraph water supply in Mumbai . Cultural Anthropology , 26 , 542 – 564 . doi: 10.1111/j.1548-1360.2011.01111.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2012 Anand, N. ( 2012 ). Municipal disconnect: On abject water and its urban infrastructures . Ethnography , 13 , 487 – 509 . doi: 10.1177/1466138111435743 [Crossref], [Web of in my life essays Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), for example, considers the paragraph, provision of water to Mumbai in narrative, India, tracing the interaction of opening paragraph two infrastructures. One system delivers water, through networks of pipes, engineers and bureaucracy that make up the technique of proper essays water provision; the other comprises the social networks, forms of patron–clientship, and relationship-building that are also important to water delivery in Mumbai. These two infrastructures interact to produce what Anand ( 2011 Anand, N. ( 2011 ). PRESSURE: The politechnics of essay paragraph water supply in Mumbai . Cultural Anthropology , 26 , 542 – 564 . doi: 10.1111/j.1548-1360.2011.01111.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of the image society on visual Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , p. 545) calls ‘hydraulic citizenship, a form of belonging to the city enabled by social and material claims made to the city’s water infrastructure’.
The theoretical foundations for the notion that environments, social relations and technology are co-produced, each shaping and being shaped by the other, emerged in the 1980s. Opening Paragraph. Various programmes, including the social construction of technology, large-scale technical systems and actor–network theory, all attend to the construction of the borders between the social and the technical (Bijker Pinch, 2012 Bijker, W. E. , Pinch, T. Essay. ( 2012 ). Preface to anniversary edition . In W. E. Bijker , T. P. Hughes , T. Essay Opening Paragraph. Pinch (Eds.), The social construction of technological systems: New directions in the sociology and history of technology  (pp. Creative Camps. xi – xxxiv ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ). They all contend that technologies are socially constructed, evolving to fill niches in a world governed not only by biophysical laws but also by social rules and government policies. A parallel argument contends that the essay opening paragraph, environment, too, is a change essays, socially and technologically constructed, depending not only on biophysical laws but also on social modifications and opening paragraph technologically mediated interfaces between people and the environment (Bakker, 2012 Bakker, K. The Image Society On Visual Culture. ( 2012 ). Water: Political, biopolitical, material . Social Studies of Science , 42 , 616 – 623 . doi: 10.1177/0306312712441396 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Swyngedouw, 1999 Swyngedouw, E. ( 1999 ). Modernity and hybridity: Nature, regeneracionismo , and the production of the Spanish waterscape, 1890–1930 . Essay Paragraph. Annals of the natural act and other, Association of American Geographers , 89 , 443 – 465 . doi: 10.1111/0004-5608.00157 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of essay opening paragraph Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Swyngedouw, E. ( 2004 ). Profiling Essays. Social power and essay the urbanization of water: Flows of power . Oxford : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ). That environment in turn has agency over essays on visual culture human beings and societies’ technological trajectories, posing conditions that shape people and their societies (Williams, 2010 Williams, J. Essay. C. ( 2010 ). Understanding the place of humans in nature . In M. Reuss S. H. Cutliffe (Eds.), Environment and technology in history (pp. 9 – 25 ). Charlottesville : University of Virginia Press . [Google Scholar] ). The co-production of proper essays societies, environments and technologies is summarized in essay paragraph, Hughes ( 2004 Hughes, T. ( 2004 ). Human-built world: How to roland barthes narrative, think about technology and culture . Chicago : University of opening Chicago Press . [Google Scholar] , p. 156): much of the world ‘consists of intersecting and overlapping natural and human-built systems, which together constitute ecotechnological systems’. An influential application of these ideas is the concept of the society on visual culture, hydro-social cycle (Bakker, 2012 Bakker, K. ( 2012 ). Water: Political, biopolitical, material . Social Studies of Science , 42 , 616 – 623 . doi: 10.1177/0306312712441396 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Swyngedouw, 2006 Swyngedouw, E. ( 2006 ). Essay Opening Paragraph. Power, water and money: Exploring the nexus (Occasional Paper No. 2006/14). United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Human Development Report Office. Essay. [Google Scholar] ). Opening. As developed by Linton and Budds ( 2014 Linton, J. , Budds, J. ( 2014 ). The hydrosocial cycle: Defining and mobilizing a relational–dialectical approach to water . Writing Summer Camps. Geoforum , 57 , 170 – 180 . doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.10.008 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), the hydro-social cycle incorporates the essay, ideas that the need to manage water affects the not a other essay, organization of society in important ways, which in turn modify the flow of water, and in their in turn give rise to new forms of social organization; nevertheless, the material properties of water play an active role in the cycle – water obeys its own laws. Specific applications of the concept of the hydro-social cycle include Finewood and Stroop ( 2012 Finewood, M. H. , Stroop, L. J. Essay Paragraph. ( 2012 ). Narrative Essay. Fracking and the neoliberalization of the hydro-social cycle in Pennsylvania’s Marcellus Shale . Journal of Contemporary Water Research Education , 147 , 72 – 79 . doi: 10.1111/j.1936-704X.2012.03104.x [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ), Clarke-Sather ( 2012 Clarke-Sather, A. ( 2012 ). State development and the rescaling of opening paragraph agricultural hydrosocial governance in semi-arid northwest China . Water Alternatives , 5 , 98 – 118 . [Google Scholar] ), Boelens ( 2014 Boelens, R. ( 2014 ). Cultural politics and the hydrosocial cycle: Water, power and life essays identity in the Andean highlands . Geoforum , 57 , 234 – 247 . Essay Opening. doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.02.008 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) and McDonnell ( 2014 McDonnell, R. Natural Other Essay. A. ( 2014 ). Circulations and transformations of energy and water in Abu Dhabi’s hydrosocial cycle . Geoforum , 57 , 225 – 233 . doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.11.009 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). People, networks, institutions, water (H 2 O in Linton Budds’, 2014 Linton, J. , Budds, J. ( 2014 ). The hydrosocial cycle: Defining and mobilizing a relational–dialectical approach to essay paragraph, water . Society Essays On Visual. Geoforum , 57 , 170 – 180 . doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.10.008 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , language) and other things, including elements of the environment, interact, producing effects, among which are particular socio-environments. This socio-environment includes human-modified climates, modified river regimes, canals, dams, delivered water and altered aquatic ecosystems.
Conventionally, some components of socio-environments are understood as society (in the paragraph, traditional sense), some as environment (in the traditional sense) and barthes some as infrastructures. However they are classified, the elements of socio-environments (things) then provide the context or framework within which people, networks, institutions, water and the like interact as preformed agents in another iteration to essay paragraph, produce yet further effects, in a continuous evolution. One set of the elements of a socio-environment is its infrastructures. These are, on the one hand, technological systems to be understood through an analysis of networked machines, bureaucracies and the like; on the other, they are political, used to constitute, embody or enact political goals – they embody a technopolitics (Hecht, 2001 Hecht, G. ( 2001 ). Technology, politics, and the image essays national identity in France . In M. T. Allen G. Hecht (Eds.), Technologies of power (pp. 253 – 294 ). Essay. Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ). Infrastructures in this sense are hybrids of roland narrative essay technology and opening paragraph politics. This does not mean that infrastructures are politics, for their material effectiveness is not simply political but also grounded in their physical being. Racail. The history of rivers cannot be fully understood without considering infrastructures such as levees, locks, dams, hydroelectric plants, aqueducts and opening hydro-bureaucracies. But those infrastructures cannot be understood without considering the ways of behaving of rivers and social groups.
The choices related to those infrastructures cannot be examined without understanding the administrative apparatus of multi-jurisdictional governance peculiar to those rivers, or the in my life, policies that guide that apparatus. ‘Society’ and ‘nature’ meet in the history of a river (Cronon, 1990 Cronon, W. ( 1990 ). Essay Paragraph. Modes of prophecy and creative writing summer camps production: Placing nature in history . Journal of American History , 76 , 1122 – 1131 . doi: 10.2307/2936590 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). But infrastructures encourage path dependence. Things grow hard or stable, and fixed patterns of structure (such as bureaucracies) and opening behaviour emerge around them (Bijker, 2007 Bijker, W. E. ( 2007 ). Dikes and dams, thick with politics . Isis , 98 , 109 – 123 . doi: 10.1086/512835 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), sometimes persisting over a change in my changes in regime and travelling across cultural contexts (Sneddon, 2015 Sneddon, C. ( 2015 ). Concrete revolution: Large dams, Cold War geopolitics, and the US Bureau of Reclamation . Chicago : University of Chicago Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). Essay Opening Paragraph. Grounded in these institutions, technopolitical regimes (Hecht, 2001 Hecht, G. ( 2001 ). Technology, politics, and national identity in France . In M. T. Allen G. Hecht (Eds.), Technologies of power (pp. 253 – 294 ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ) consist of linked sets of people, engineering and industrial practices, artefacts, political programmes and institutional ideologies which act together to govern technological development and pursue technopolitics. In a society at a given time there may exist competing technopolitical regimes: in 18th-century China, Confucian and life essays Daoist conceptions of water management (to actively direct the flow of rivers or move the population and ‘let the water be’, respectively) competed for opening paragraph, primacy (Purdue, 2010 Purdue, P. C. ( 2010 ). Is there a Chinese view of technology and nature? In M. Reuss S. H. Cutliffe (Eds.), Environment and technology in history (pp. 101 – 119 ). Charlottesville : University of Virginia Press . [Google Scholar] ). In post-colonial Pakistan, centralist (Punjabi-dominated) conceptions of the ‘One Nation’ competed with regionalist imaginaries of natural Pakistan over the control and distribution of water from hydraulic infrastructures on the Indus River (Akhter, 2015 Akhter, M. ( 2015 ). Paragraph. Infrastructure nation: State space, hegemony, and hydraulic regionalism in Pakistan . Antipode , 47 , 849 – 870 . doi: 10.1111/anti.12152 [Crossref], [Web of essays Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). These studies do not, however, consider the political, social and environmental challenges that are posed by paragraph, huge infrastructure projects – and that is the principal purpose of this paper.
REPRESENTING THE NEED FOR THE SOUTH–NORTH WATER TRANSFER PROJECT. The imaginary of a water-rich south versus a water-scarce north – ????,???? ( Xinhua Net , 2014 Xinhua Net . ( 2014 ). ??????:?????’????’????? [The south–north transfer Middle Route project: Water security is the ‘century project’ bottom line]. Xinhua Net . Roland Barthes. Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/2014-12/17/c_127312541.htm [Google Scholar] ) – is central to all accounts of the paragraph, SNWTP, which seeks to ‘balance’ the the image society essays culture, allocation of water at essay paragraph, the national scale. Life Essays. As Xinhua Net ( 2014 Xinhua Net . ( 2014 ). ??????:?????’????’????? [The south–north transfer Middle Route project: Water security is the ‘century project’ bottom line]. Essay Opening. Xinhua Net . Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/2014-12/17/c_127312541.htm [Google Scholar] ) expressed the words of prominent Chinese geographer, Liu Changming: [China’s per capita water resources are low – only one quarter of the world average. A special characteristic is uneven spatial and temporal distribution, with much agricultural land but little water in the North and little agricultural land but more water in racail, the South. In addition, the water resources are concentrated in the summer. The South–North Water Transfer Project is needed to balance this unevenness.] This geographical imaginary is evident in maps of the project, and in essay opening, the expression used to roland essay, describe its overall outcome, which refers to ‘four horizontals, three verticals’ (????): the four major rivers – Changjiang, HuaiHe, HaiHe and opening paragraph HuangHe – provide horizontal movement, while the three routes of the SNWTP provide vertical movement ( People’s Daily Online , 2014 People’s Daily Online . ( 2014 ). ??????????? [Spanning more than half a century of water diversion dreams]. People’s Daily Online . Retrieved from http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2014/1210/c1001-26178581.html [Google Scholar] ). This imaginary implies absolute control over roland the water resources within China’s territory: water no longer flows west to east as it did for essay, centuries; it is also now flowing south to north. The maps communicate the delivery of water over space and the delivery of a political project to life, dominate hydrological landscapes that began thousands of essay years ago.
In light of the mla format for college essays, historical association between political legitimacy and the control of essay opening paragraph resources, including water (Mukerji, 2003 Mukerji, C. ( 2003 ). Intelligent uses of engineering and the legitimacy of not a natural act and essay state power . Technology and Culture , 44 , 655 – 676 . Essay Opening. doi: 10.1353/tech.2003.0175 [Crossref], [Web of barthes narrative essay Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), the opening paragraph, visible forms of the SNWTP are important political symbols, signifying the authority of the state. Rather than approaching water management from a local or bioregional perspective in which hydrological units (watersheds and river basins) serve as the for college essays, management unit (Thayer, 2003 Thayer, R. L. ( 2003 ). Paragraph. Bioregional thought and practice . Berkeley : University of California Press . Roland Barthes Essay. [Google Scholar] ), the SNWTP locates the problem of north China’s water shortage at the national scale. The threat of opening water shortage is a threat to the survival of the Chinese nation, according to former premier Wen Jiabao (quoted in Moore, 2009 Moore, S. On Visual. M. ( 2009 ). Climate change, water and China’s national interest . Essay. China Security , 5 , 25 – 39 . [Google Scholar] ); former president Hu Jintao identified water as exerting an ‘evident impact on racail, China’s economic security, ecological security and national security’ ( China Daily , 2011 China Daily . ( 2011 ). China to set up water facilities construction. China Daily . Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2011-07/11/content_12875128.htm [Google Scholar] ). Water is needed to secure food supplies and energy production, vital to continuing national development and therefore the survival of the state and essay Party (Yong, 2006 Yong, J. The Image. ( 2006 ). China’s water policy and essay opening paragraph practice . Water International , 31 , 127 – 130 . doi: 10.1080/02508060608691922 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) (Figure 2). The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of the image society essays on visual culture China. Figure 2. The SNWTP as a national project (‘The South–North Water Diversion Project – a noble undertaking of a thousand years’): the Middle Route canal outside Baoding City, Hebei province. Figure 2. The SNWTP as a national project (‘The South–North Water Diversion Project – a noble undertaking of a thousand years’): the Middle Route canal outside Baoding City, Hebei province.
The imaginary of the SNWTP as a solution to the water scarcity of the north through the use of abundant water from the south hides the anthropogenic drivers of paragraph water insecurity in north China. It is true that China’s north has less water resources per creative summer camps unit area and per capita than the south (outside Manchuria, at least); in the Huang, Huai and Hai river basins, annual average per capita availability of essay paragraph water ranges between 314 and 672 m 3 , well below the levels at which water shortages can threaten food production and narrative essay economic development (Jiang, 2009 Jiang, Y. ( 2009 ). China’s water scarcity . Journal of Environmental Management , 90 , 3185 – 3196 . Essay Paragraph. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.04.016 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Wang Jin, 2006 Wang, X. C. , Jin, P. K. ( 2006 ). Water shortage and needs for wastewater re-use in the north China . 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Xie was joining a long line of Chinese environmental scientists who had argued that water-saving measures, protection of for college resources from pollution and improved water management were the key means of resolving water shortages (Chinese Academy of Engineering, 2000 Chinese Academy of Engineering. ( 2000 ). Report of research on integrated water resources strategy for sustainable development in China . Engineering Science , 2 , 1 – 17 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1998 Chinese Academy of paragraph Sciences. ( 1998 ). Ways out of China’s water problem . Advances in a change essays, Earth Sciences , 13 , 113 – 117 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Mei Luo, 2000 Mei, X. R. , Luo, Y. P. ( 2000 ). Water shortage and China’s grain production: Problems, potentialities and solutions . Science and Technology Review , 6 , 31 – 34 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Wang, 1990 Wang, J. S. ( 1990 ). Water shortage and paragraph wastewater reuse . 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At the time when the critical decisions to proceed with the project were made, all nine members of the Politburo standing committee were trained as engineers (Kuo, 2014 Kuo, L. ( 2014 ). Roland Narrative Essay. China is so bad at conservation that it had to essay paragraph, launch the most impressive water-pipeline project ever . Retrieved from http://journal.probeinternational.org/ [Google Scholar] ); and party leaders have close personal ties to the corporations in China’s water machine – Hu Jintao is life essays, a former employee of essay opening paragraph Sinohydro and Li Peng was father of the president of Huaneng.
Perhaps it is not surprising that such difficult and sensitive reforms to administration and governance attracted little official attention. In other words, representations of the need for the project carry two important characteristics. First, the problems of water supply are represented as national imbalances of national strategic significance rather than shortages that principally affect Beijing and Tianjin and that would be the responsibility of Beijing and Tianjin to resolve. Secondly, they are represented as issues of quantitative shortage rather than induced by poor pollution control (as argued by a change life essays, World Bank SEPA, 2007 World Bank and essay opening paragraph SEPA [State Environmental Protection Administration, People’s Republic of China]. ( 2007 ). Cost of pollution in China . Washington , DC : World Bank . [Google Scholar] ) and a national growth pattern that has seen the north’s share of agricultural production expand dramatically in the past 40 years (Webber et al., 2008a Webber, M. , Barnett, J. , Wang, M. , Finlayson, B. , Dickinson, D. ( 2008a ). The Yellow River in transition . Environmental Science and proper Policy , 11 , 422 – 429 . doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2008.02.002 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Even though alternative diagnoses of essay opening paragraph China’s regional water shortages had been available long before the decision was made to commit to the SNWTP, the solutions to which those diagnoses pointed were ignored in a political decision that prioritized investment in technology and infrastructure over reforms to administration and governance. Racail Essays. The infrastructure carried a political as well as a technological message. CHALLENGES TO EXISTING REGIONAL STRUCTURES. The project in this sense reflects the distribution of power in China – that the central government has greater capacity to invest billions in an infrastructure scheme than to essay paragraph, reform water management systems in which local jurisdictions have a high degree of local autonomy and the image society essays on visual culture little incentive to manage water at the expense of jobs (Wang, Webber, Finlayson, Barnett, 2008 Wang, M. Essay. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Barnett, J. ( 2008 ). Rural industries and water pollution in China . Journal of Environmental Management , 86 , 648 – 659 . doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.12.019 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The project is consistent with a model of growth in the 1990s and 2000s that was dominated by a change essays, investment, including central government-led investment: according to World Bank data, gross capital formation in China exceeded 35% of essay gross domestic product (GDP) in the 1980s, and roland essay since 1991 has averaged over 40%. Yet the SNWTP is throwing up challenges to China’s political order – the infrastructure is doing political work (now and into essay opening paragraph, the future) as well as reflecting political work of the past. The first challenge is to China’s governance regime. The governance of the summer camps, SNWTP intervenes in an already highly complex regime, what some have called fragmented authoritarianism (Lieberthal Oksenberg, 1988 Lieberthal, K. , Oksenberg, M. ( 1988 ). Policy making in China: Leaders, structures, and processes. Princeton : Princeton University Press . [Google Scholar] ; updated in Mertha, 2009 Mertha, A. ( 2009 ). ‘Fragmented authoritarianism 2.0’: Political pluralization in the Chinese policy process . China Quarterly , 200 , 995 – 1012 . doi: 10.1017/S0305741009990592 [Crossref], [Web of opening paragraph Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The management of water in China is highly decentralized (Webber, Barnett, Finlayson, Wang, 2008b Webber, M. , Barnett, J. , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. ( 2008b ). Pricing China’s irrigation water . Global Environmental Change , 18 , 617 – 625 . doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.07.014 [Crossref], [Web of creative writing camps Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) and characterized by inter-jurisdictional conflicts (Moore, 2014b Moore, S. M. ( 2014b ). Hydropolitics and inter-jurisdictional relationships in China . Essay. China Quarterly , 218 , 1 – 21 . [Google Scholar] ). The state is unbundled into ill-coordinated congeries of roland territorial bureaucracies and vertically and horizontally segmented administrative boundaries, which do not map well onto the hydrological cycle (Nickum Lee, 2006 Nickum, J. E. , Lee, Y. S. F. ( 2006 ). Same longitude, different latitudes: Institutional change in urban water in China, North and opening South . Environmental Politics , 15 , 231 – 247 . doi: 10.1080/09644010600562492 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , p. 232).
It involves the MWR; for most river basin management issues, the MWR’s responsibilities are delegated in one line of command to river basin commissions and in another line to provinces, counties and writing summer camps townships or cities. But many other ministries have their hand in essay, water management, including the ministries of Environmental Protection, Housing and Urban–Rural Development, and Agriculture. Now this ministerial separation and localization of management are being overturned for the SNWTP. The construction phase has been managed by the SNWTP Construction Committee chaired by the Vice Premier, and under the auspices of the racail essays, State Council (Nickum, 2006 Nickum, J. E. Paragraph. ( 2006 ). The status of the south to mla format for college, north water transfer plans in China . United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2006/papers/james_nickum_china_water_transfer.pdf [Google Scholar] ). The committee includes representatives of line ministries – the essay opening paragraph, ministers of Water Resources and of Environmental Protection as well as the Chair of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) – and of provincial-level administrations – the mayors of other Beijing and Tianjin, and the governors of essay paragraph Hebei, Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Shaanxi provinces (State Council General Office, 2013 State Council General Office. Creative Writing. ( 2013 ). ??????????????????????????????? [State Council General Office notice on revision of the South–North Water Transfer Project Construction Committee]. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2013-07/04/content_2440461.htm [Google Scholar] ). The committee directed the SNWTP Construction Committee Office, which actually managed the construction. The institutions to manage the operations of the essay opening paragraph, project are now being stitched together, though with disagreements ( Caijing , 2014b Caijing . ( 2014b ). ???????:???????? [Chinese engineering academy scholar: Diverted water should be a last resort].
Caijing . Retrieved from http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/hgjj/20140707/105619627126.shtml [Google Scholar] ). The Ministry of Environmental Protection is responsible for pollution control (State Council General Office, 2014 State Council General Office. ( 2014 ). ????????????? [South–North Water Transfer Project water management regulations]. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2014-02/28/content_2625325.htm [Google Scholar] ). Responsibility for deciding on the volumes to be transferred lies with the proper for college essays, MWR and its Bureau of South–North Water Transfer Planning, Design and Management, which should seek final approval for allocations from the State Council (State Council General Office, 2014 State Council General Office. ( 2014 ). ????????????? [South–North Water Transfer Project water management regulations]. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2014-02/28/content_2625325.htm [Google Scholar] ). These decisions are intended to reflect abstractions proposed by the river basin commissions and opening paragraph water-use plans prepared by racail, provincial and municipal governments. However, the 2014 regulations did not conclusively establish a specific management unit responsible for paragraph, the operation of the project, with the profiling essays, result that the MWR and opening the SNWTP Construction Committee Office are disputing their roles in this decision-making (MWR General Office, 2012b MWR (Ministry of Water Resources) General Office. ( 2012b ). ???????????????????????????? [Notification concerning the issuance of the south–north water transfer Eastern and Middle Route first phase water volume dispatch plan]. Racail Profiling Essays. Retrieved from http://max.book118.com/html/2014/0205/5779368.shtm [Google Scholar] ; Caijing , 2014a Caijing . ( 2014a ). ??:???????????????????? [Media: Ministry of Water Resources and essay SNWT office disagree on who will run the management].
Caijing . Retrieved from http://news.ifeng.com/a/20140707/41050790_0.shtml [Google Scholar] ). The SNWTP Construction Committee Office proposal seems to be ( Caijing , 2014a Caijing . Summer. ( 2014a ). ??:???????????????????? [Media: Ministry of Water Resources and SNWT office disagree on essay opening paragraph, who will run the management]. Caijing . Retrieved from http://news.ifeng.com/a/20140707/41050790_0.shtml [Google Scholar] ) that in society essays, accord with the requirements of a modern enterprise system each route should be managed by a limited liability company, with boards of directors composed of representatives of investors, as the project legal person responsible for ongoing work on the project, its operational management, loans and the value of assets, and essay it should operate independently in accordance with the law. Such a management company would remove the sex is not a natural other essay, administration of essay some water from the MWR. The second challenge is to proper mla format for college, the hierarchical distribution of power in China, which is also being reorganized through the project, as the opening, centre takes over control over land use in some regions and determines the creative summer, prices of water in opening paragraph, specific cities. The NDRC has developed an sex is not a natural act and, economic and social development plan for Danjiangkou reservoir and upper reaches of the essay, Han River (NDRC, 2012 National Development and Reform Commission. ( 2012 ). ?????????????????? [Danjiangkou reservoir area and upper reaches economic and social development plan]. Proper Mla Format. Retrieved from http://fyzx.ankang.gov.cn/Article/Class5/201304/1353.html [Google Scholar] ). The plan encompasses 43 counties, cities and forestry areas in Shaanxi, Hubei and opening paragraph Henan provinces, mostly within the catchment area for Danjiangkou reservoir. The plan attempts to manage water quality for racail, the SNWTP by essay paragraph, dividing the catchment into water-source-conservation areas where new construction is roland barthes essay, prohibited and the population resettled; ecological agricultural areas where economic restructuring will take place and essay fertilizer and pesticide use reduced; and the image society essays on visual culture cluster development areas where cleaner production will be promoted (NDRC, 2012 National Development and Reform Commission. ( 2012 ). ?????????????????? [Danjiangkou reservoir area and upper reaches economic and social development plan]. Essay. Retrieved from http://fyzx.ankang.gov.cn/Article/Class5/201304/1353.html [Google Scholar] ). In other words, economic and social planning for these water-source areas is now being dictated by the central government in the interests of protecting water quality. Roland Barthes. The source areas are said to be sacrificing their own interests and development for the project ( Southern Weekend , 2013 Southern Weekend . ( 2013 ). Essay Paragraph. ???:????? ???????,????? ? [Is Danjiangkou ready? Dam inflow below Grade 5, resurgence of shipping].
Southern Weekend . Life. Retrieved from http://www.infzm.com/content/95343 [Google Scholar] ; Caijing , 2014b Caijing . Opening Paragraph. ( 2014b ). ???????:???????? [Chinese engineering academy scholar: Diverted water should be a last resort]. Caijing . Retrieved from http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/hgjj/20140707/105619627126.shtml [Google Scholar] ). In addition, the State Council has approved a water pollution and soil conservation plan for not a natural act and essay, Danjiangkou reservoir and its upstream areas which includes targets for water quality, chemical oxygen demand and soil conservation (MWR General Office, 2012a MWR (Ministry of Water Resources) General Office. ( 2012a ). ????????????????????????‘???’??? [State council approves ‘Danjiangkou reservoir area and upstream water pollution control and soil conservation twelfth five year plan’]. Retrieved from opening paragraph, http://www.mwr.gov.cn/slzx/slyw/201206/t20120625_325019.html [Google Scholar] ). Around Danjiangkou reservoir new rules regulate sewage control, shipping-related pollution and creative camps fish farming ( China News , 2014 China News . ( 2014 ). ???????????????????(??) [Question and essay paragraph answer with head of south–north water transfer water management regulations (full text)]. China News . Sex Is Not A Other. Retrieved from http://www.chinanews.com/gn/2014/02-28/5896749.shtml [Google Scholar] ). Essay Paragraph. Water quality protection at Danjiangkou has become the ‘core work’ for local officials involved in the SNWTP ( Southern Weekend , 2013 Southern Weekend . ( 2013 ). ???:????? ???????,????? ? [Is Danjiangkou ready? Dam inflow below Grade 5, resurgence of mla format shipping]. Southern Weekend . Essay Opening. Retrieved from http://www.infzm.com/content/95343 [Google Scholar] ). In effect, the control of land use in writing summer camps, a small, distant region is now a prerogative of one of the most important central government agencies, the NDRC. Power over land use around the SNWTP is moving up. The pricing of water in China is also highly contentious. On one side are the essay paragraph, World Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB) and essays on visual culture a good proportion of the nation’s economists arguing that water should be priced at market rates to achieve allocative efficiency.
On another side are the local water-resource bureaus, ultimately responsible to the MWR, that supply water to essay paragraph, farmers for irrigation; they recognize, at least implicitly, that farmers are already the poorest group in society and essays have limited capacity to paragraph, pay prices that urban users could pay. Summer. And finally there are the municipal water authorities, again ultimately responsible to the MWR, that are caught between the needs to paragraph, restrain demand and to pay for a change life, improvements to water supply infrastructure, on the one side, and vocal urban consumers who protest proposals to raise prices, on opening paragraph, the other. In rural and society essays on visual urban water supply systems, prices are in paragraph, the end determined by roland barthes narrative essay, local governments, though with pressure from above. The price of water supplied by the SNWTP, however, is going to essay opening paragraph, be centrally determined. The NDRC stipulated in 2003 that water projects should involve a two-part pricing system (Jiangsu Province Water Conservancy Office, 2008 Jiangsu Province Water Conservancy Office. ( 2008 ). What is the the image essays on visual culture, two-part water price system?
Retrieved from http://www.jswater.gov.cn/art/2008/11/5/art_870_25711.html [Google Scholar] ). A basic price is to be paid by local water authorities, in this case provinces. This basic price covers the capital and overhead costs of the project – paying off construction loans, operational management, maintenance – and is payable no matter what volume of water is used by that province. A calculated or metered price is to be paid to cover running costs and allow for profit; it is charged volumetrically. Essay Opening Paragraph. The theoretical basis for this system was laid out in 2006. Figure 3 illustrates the barthes narrative, corresponding calculated prices for the Middle Route. The NDRC’s initial determination of actual prices to essay, be charged for sex is natural, Middle Route water (Office of the SNWTP, 2014 Office of the SNWTP. ( 2014 ). ?????????????????????????????????? [PRC National Development and Reform Commission notice of opening paragraph Middle Route water supply price policy]. Retrieved from essays, http://www.nsbd.gov.cn/zx/zxdt/201501/t20150107_365955.html [Google Scholar] ) is slightly lower than the basic plus calculated prices; Beijing is to pay 2.33 and Tianjin 2.16 RMB/m 3 rather than the basic plus calculated prices of 2.96 and essay 3.03 RMB/m 3 , respectively (allowing for a 1% profit on the capital costs). The Image Society Essays Culture. Water supply corporations in those municipalities then process the water, for which they add a charge, and make additional charges for sewage (equal to about one-quarter of the delivered water price in Beijing). Opening. Thus, the act and other essay, delivered price to most Beijing consumers was raised to 5 RMB/m 3 in 2014 ( China Daily , 2014 China Daily . Essay. ( 2014 ). Price full cost of camps water. Essay Paragraph. China Daily . A Change. Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2014-04/04/content_17405783.htm [Google Scholar] ). If provinces, municipalities or cities do not charge consumers the prices set by NDRC, then they must themselves pay the difference. The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of essay China.
Figure 3. Geographical distribution of water prices along the Middle Route of the SNWTP. Figure 3. Geographical distribution of water prices along the Middle Route of the narrative, SNWTP. In fact, local jurisdictions face not only relatively high prices for the SNWTP’s water, but also they have to construct the paragraph, infrastructure of pipes, pumping stations and racail profiling essays treatment plants needed to deliver water to consumers. These two charges, for water and its infrastructure, have apparently led some jurisdictions to decline to paragraph, use the water supplied by the SNWTP (Chen, 2015 Chen, T. P. ( 2015 ). Cities in China’s north resist tapping water piped from south . Wall Street Journal . In My Life. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/cities-in-chinas-north-resist-tapping-water-piped-from-south-1429781402 [Google Scholar] ), for essay paragraph, it is cheaper to continue to deplete local groundwater resources. Centralized pricing does have its oppositions. The SNWTP, in other words, is creating both the on visual culture, need for and a space within which the horizontal and hierarchical distribution of power in China can be remade. Some institutions of water governance are being brought under the essay, control of in my a body that reports directly to the State Council and some traditionally local policy arenas (water pricing and land use) are being determined centrally. These are only a few elements of the complex of essay opening paragraph bodies and environmental objects that constitute the management of water in China, but they do illustrate how an infrastructure – admittedly a big one – can require changes in the very structure of governance.
Paradoxically, the fragmentation of political authority – both vertically and roland barthes essay horizontally – that has contributed so much to failures of earlier programmes of water conservancy and pollution control (Economy, 2004 Economy, E. C. ( 2004 ). The river runs black: The environmental challenge to China’s future . Ithaca : Cornell University Press . [Google Scholar] ) is now being threatened by essay, the very infrastructure that seemed designed to bypass that fragmentation. The work of the technopolitical system that is the SNWTP does not stop at such macro-political issues. Life. It is opening, also challenging the day-to-day political work of water management in China. The discharge regimes and water quality characteristics of all manner of rivers will be profoundly affected by the movement of this water. These effects draw further interventions into China’s socio-environmental system. For example, the discharge of the Hanjiang downstream of Danjiangkou reservoir will be reduced by 30% (Wong, 2011 Wong, E. ( 2011 ). Plan for China’s water crisis spurs concern. New York Times . Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02water.html?_r=0 [Google Scholar] ), leading to threats of higher pollution intensity in a river that was considered one of the cleanest in China (Kuo, 2014 Kuo, L. ( 2014 ). China is so bad at a change, conservation that it had to launch the essay paragraph, most impressive water-pipeline project ever . Retrieved from a change essays, http://journal.probeinternational.org/ [Google Scholar] ) and to problems of navigation. The response to essay opening paragraph, this problem is to construct another water diversion, a 67 km canal from the Changjiang (Three Gorges Reservoir) to Danjiangkou (Hornby, 2014 Hornby, L. ( 2014 ). Concern mounts in China over Yangtze diversion project. ft.com . Retrieved from http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/a39d9c7c-4fa2-11e4-a0a4-00144feab7de.html#axzz41BBN1rqA [Google Scholar] ). Meanwhile, Shaanxi is building a project to divert water from the Hanjiang, in the Yangtze basin, to the Wei He, in the Yellow river basin (Pohlner, 2016 Pohlner, H. ( 2016 ). Institutional change and the political economy of water megaprojects: China’s South-North water transfer . Global Environmental Change , 38 , 205 – 216 . doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.03.015 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), permission for which seems to society essays on visual, have been compensation for essay opening, SNWTP’s use of Shaanxi’s water (Moore, 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). Modernisation, authoritarianism, and profiling essays the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ): in other words, the exclusion of Shaanxi from use of the SNWTP water is leading to essay paragraph, the construction of yet another diversion. The cartographic and roland essay diagrammatic accounts of the SNWTP obscure the degree to which the scheme takes water from the Changjiang and may have critical effects on its flow (Chen et al., 2013 Chen, D. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Barnett, J. , Chen, Z. Y. , Wang, M. ( 2013 ). The impact of water transfers from the lower Yangtze River on water security in Shanghai . Applied Geography , 45 , 303 – 310 . doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.09.025 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Li et al., 2015 Li, M. , Chen, Z. , Finlayson, B. , Wei, T. , Chen, J. , Wu, X. , … Wang, M. Essay Opening. ( 2015 ). Water diversion and sea-level rise: Potential threats to natural essay, freshwater supplies in the Changjiang River estuary . Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science , 156 , 52 – 60 . doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2014.07.007 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The visual representation of the Middle Route (Xinhua, 2008 Xinhua . ( 2008 ). ????????????? [South–North Water Transfer Project Middle Route water diversion route map].
Xinhua . Essay Paragraph. Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/photo/2008-05/06/content_8112198.htm [Google Scholar] ) shows the proper for college essays, water originating from Danjiangkou reservoir, and not from the essay, Hanjiang, which is a tributary of the life essays, Changjiang (Crow-Miller, 2013 Crow-Miller, B. ( 2013 ). Water, power, and development in twenty-first century China: The case of the South–North Water Transfer Project (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California – Los Angeles. [Google Scholar] ). A flow chart of the opening, water diversions for life essays, the Eastern Route (Geng, Jiang, Fu, Mao, 2012 Geng, L. H. , Jiang, B. L. , Fu, K. W. , Mao, Y. J. ( 2012 ). ?????????????????? [Risk analysis and assessment of the water conveyance system operation for the South–North Water Transfer Project’s Eastern Route] . Essay Paragraph. Yellow River , 34 , 92 – 95 . [Google Scholar] ) similarly shows the diversion beginning at canals in Jiangsu and profiling essays flowing along the essay opening, Grand Canal, whereas the source is in fact the Changjiang. The Changjiang does appear in some descriptions of the Eastern Route, though it is said that even in extremely dry years there is ‘enough water’ in the lower reaches to be pumped north (see http://www.nsbd.gov.cn/). A Change Essays. Such representations preclude discussion of negative impacts of the essay paragraph, diversions on proper for college, the lower Changjiang, thus helping avoid claims that people and provinces may make for compensation, or for input into essay opening, the management regime. The official line is that the project will divert only 5% of Changjiang’s annual discharge: the society culture, negative impacts will so small as to almost not exist (according to head engineer Shen Feng Sheng, as reported by Kuo, 2014 Kuo, L. ( 2014 ). China is so bad at opening paragraph, conservation that it had to launch the most impressive water-pipeline project ever . Retrieved from http://journal.probeinternational.org/ [Google Scholar] ). However, the Changjiang has a highly seasonal discharge regime, with discharges in winter only one-quarter those in a change in my life essays, summer (Finlayson et al., 2013 Finlayson, B. L. Essay. , Barnett, J. , Wei, T. Y. , Webber, M. , Li, M. T. , Wang, M. Y. , … Chen, Z. The Image Society Culture. Y. ( 2013 ). The drivers of risk to water security in Shanghai . Regional Environmental Change , 13 , 329 – 340 . doi: 10.1007/s10113-012-0334-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). That difference is critical. Shanghai, for a variety of reasons associated with pollution in alternative sources and the political difficulties of negotiating access to paragraph, water intakes in neighbouring provinces (Webber et al., 2015a Webber, M. A Change. , Barnett, J. , Chen, Z. Y. , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. , Chen, D. , … Xu, H. ( 2015a ). Constructing water shortages on opening paragraph, a huge river: The case of life Shanghai . Geographical Research , 53 , 406 – 418 . doi: 10.1111/1745-5871.12132 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), takes an increasing proportion of its water supply from the Changjiang estuary.
That estuary is subject to intrusions of salt water that threaten this supply: the SNWTP together with other abstractions on the river raise the opening, likelihood of intrusions that threaten Shanghai’s water supply. In 1950–2014, the number of consecutive days with chlorinity ?250 mg l ?1 averaged 21.34 per year; if the diversion projects had operated then according to their normal rules, that average would have been 41.20 per year. For a randomly selected year of discharge history from 1950–2014, under normal operating rules the profiling, probability of an essay, intrusion rises from 0.25 (for 30-day intrusions) or 0.05 (for 60-day intrusions) to 0.57 or 0.28, respectively (Webber et al., 2015b Webber, M. , Li, M. T. , Chen, J. , Finlayson, B. Essays On Visual Culture. , Chen, D. , Chen, Z. Y. , … Barnett, J. ( 2015b ). Impact of the Three Gorges Dam, the opening paragraph, South–North Water Transfer Project and creative writing water abstractions on the duration and intensity of salt intrusions in the Yangtze River estuary . Essay Opening. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences , 19 , 4411 – 4425 . doi: 10.5194/hess-19-4411-2015 [Crossref], [Web of creative writing Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Shanghai’s water storages can hold just over 60 days’ supply and opening paragraph cannot treat water with chlorinity ?250 mg l ?1 to a potable standard. In other words, because of the abstractions of roland barthes essay water by the SNWTP, the likelihood is high that Shanghai is going to have to reduce its dependence on essay, the Changjiang – by storing and using rainfall or recycling – or it is going to have to build new infrastructure to reduce the threat that saline intrusions pose to its water supply (such as barrages to prevent tidal intrusions into the estuary or desalinization plants). But not all of the newly emerging needs are for infrastructure.
The quality of water in source regions has to racail profiling, be protected (as at Danjiangkou) and pollution of the canals along the routes has to be prevented, otherwise ‘[w]hen water comes to paragraph, Beijing, there’s the danger of the water not being safe to writing, drink’ (Dai Qing, quoted in Wong, 2011 Wong, E. ( 2011 ). Plan for China’s water crisis spurs concern. New York Times . Opening Paragraph. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02water.html?_r=0 [Google Scholar] ). This is an especial problem for the Eastern Route, which passes through highly industrialized coastal provinces and uses existing canals and lakes that are highly polluted (Moore, 2014a Moore, S. M. Proper For College. ( 2014a ). Essay Paragraph. Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of profiling essays China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Opening. Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of the image on visual culture Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The central government invested about US$3 billion on controlling pollution along the Eastern Route (Jiang, 2012 Jiang, Y. ( 2012 ). ????????:??????? [East Route project of the south–north water transfer: Environmental impacts and counter-measures]. Hefei, Anhui: Anhui Kexue Jishu Chubanshe [Anhui Science and Technology Press]. [Google Scholar] ), including over essay opening 400 sewage-treatment plants (Wong, 2011 Wong, E. ( 2011 ). Plan for China’s water crisis spurs concern. New York Times . Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02water.html?_r=0 [Google Scholar] ), between 2003 and 2013. Accompanying this investment has been the rhetoric of ‘three firsts, three laters’: ‘first conserve then transfer water; first control pollution then let the water flow; first protect the environment and then use water’ that former premier Zhu Rongji enunciated in 2000 (Nickum, 2006 Nickum, J. E. ( 2006 ). The status of the creative writing, south to north water transfer plans in China . United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2006/papers/james_nickum_china_water_transfer.pdf [Google Scholar] ). Figure 4 is essay paragraph, another expression of this rhetoric. The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. Figure 4. Poster advertising the SNWTP (‘Success or failure depends on water quality; the key is resettlement; the priority is completion’). Figure 4. Barthes Narrative Essay. Poster advertising the SNWTP (‘Success or failure depends on water quality; the key is resettlement; the priority is completion’). The SNWTP is a large and complex infrastructure.
It affects the operation of all manner of existing water management systems and in essay paragraph, so doing it requires changes in those systems. Often in society essays on visual, China those changes comprise the creation of additional infrastructural schemes – barrages, desalinization plants, new diversions. But sometimes they require changes in the ongoing management regime; since the project particularly depends on an acceptable quality of water, those changes have focused on pollution management. The political work being done by the project continues. This paper has developed a technopolitical interpretation of the SNWTP. It argued that the project embodies an official technopolitical regime that privileges concrete over management, capital-intense over essay opening paragraph small-scale projects and resolves shortages rather than pollution. The SNWTP reflects a particular political regime and enacts political goals that are quite distinct from those identified for such cities as London (Gandy, 2014 Gandy, M. ( 2014 ). The fabric of space: Water, modernity, and for college the urban imagination . Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ). Opening Paragraph. Nevertheless, the project poses fundamental challenges to existing regional structures of natural act and essay governance (requiring water management at a greater-than-basin scale) and paragraph power (empowering central as compared with provincial and local governments). Sex Is Not A Natural Essay. In this sense, the SNWTP requires political change, too. The project also interacts with existing hydrological conditions – the essay opening paragraph, material characteristics of rivers, lakes and groundwater storages – to do environmental work: it promises continuing detrimental environmental impacts in source regions.
These impacts invite similar future interventions into China’s hydrological environment. In other words, the SNWTP embodies a technopolitics in the sense of Hecht ( 2001 Hecht, G. ( 2001 ). Technology, politics, and national identity in France . In M. T. Allen G. Hecht (Eds.), Technologies of power (pp. 253 – 294 ). Act And Other. Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ): it constitutes, embodies or enacts political goals. Essay. It is a hybrid of technology and camps politics. However, the project has political and environmental consequences that appear to have been incidental to the original planning: like the Three Gorges Dam before it (Webber, 2012 Webber, M. ( 2012 ). Making capitalism in rural China . Cheltenham : Elgar . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ), the SNWTP does political and essay paragraph hydrological work, remaking the geography of water, pollution, authority, production and people into the future rather than simply reflecting the present. Huge infrastructure projects not only represent the racail, state of relations between society and opening environment, but also they require and set in motion changes in those relations. This is not a Chinese way of being technopolitical; rather it is a technopolitics within the particular political and environmental contexts of China. The authors are grateful to Jon Barnett, George Lin and Sophie Webber for society culture, comments made on earlier versions of the essay opening paragraph, paper. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
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Sample Aide-de-Camp Duties, Responsibilities and opening paragraph Job Description. Serving as an for college, Aide-de-Camp is one of those “make you or break you jobs.” It’s a good job to have, if you are successful in the position, but it’s definitely not for everyone. In the Army, General Officer’s get an Aide-de-Camp to assist them and make their life easier. The rank and number or the essay opening aides is roland barthes narrative essay based upon the General Officer’s rank. Here’s the typical breakdown: Brigadier Generals have a Lieutenant Major Generals have a Captain Lieutenant Generals have a Major, Captain and Lieutenant Generals have a Lieutenant Colonel, Major and Captain Aide The Army Chief of Staff typically has 1 Colonel, 1 Lieutenant Colonel and essay paragraph 1 Major. General’s have the profiling essays right to choose their own aides. Sample Aide-de-Camp Job Description. # 1 Serves as Aide-de-Campe to essay paragraph, the Commanding General of the a change essays 183rd Airborne Division.
Responsible for planning social events, assisting the General in essay opening paragraph, personal matters, planning travel, and completing special tasks as requested by the General. Supervises the General’s staff to include 1 other Officer, 2 NCOs and 2 civilians. # 2 Serves as Aide-de-Campe to the Assistant Division Commander (Maneuver) of the 37th Cavalry Division. Responsible for natural other essay, handling all correspondence, providing security to the General, performing routine activities, preparing trip itineraries, coordinating protocol events, and other tasks as assigned by the General. Supervise one other Officer, 3 NCOs and 2 civilians. *** Please keep in essay paragraph, mind that these are just some draft job descriptions I made up. Sex Is Not A? You can add to them or modify them any way you would like.
Sample Aid-de-Camp Duties and Responsibilities. Aide-de-Camps have a wide variety of paragraph, duties and creative camps responsibilities. Here are a few of the things you will need to do for the General. Providing Security for the General Perform routing activities to save the essay General time Prepare and roland barthes narrative essay organize calendars and schedules Prepare trip itineraries Coordinate protocol activities Serve as the Executive Assistant Meet and host visitors Supervise additional staff members Performing varied duties, according to the general officer’s desires Other tasks include email management, preparing and reviewing correspondence, assisting with social functions, planning travel, greeting visitors, bartender, secretary, diplomat, caterer, author, map reader, mind reader, promotions, and vehicle support. The bottom line is that you have to be the paragraph Jack of life essays, All Trades to essay opening paragraph, be successful. Every General Officer has a different personality and different expectations about what their aide will or will not do. What you should do is life talk to essay, the previous aide and ask the General what they expect of you. After you’ve worked for the General for a few months, you should have things pretty much figured out. Tips for Success as an Aide-de-Camp. # 1 Understand Your Role – First and foremost, you must know your role. You must understand that job is to essays, do whatever the General asks so you can make their life easier.
Your job is to serve the General and essay opening paragraph take care of them. I suggest you ask the General what they want you to essays, do and what they expect of you. Every General is different, so don’t try to read their mind when you first start the job. # 2 Be Humble – You have to opening paragraph, humble yourself if you want to racail, succeed in the job. As a commissioned officer, you might not be used to wining and dining someone. You might not be used to doing personal things for people you work for. Essay? You might even think you are “too good” to do some of the tasks you are being asked to do.
Humble yourself or you will not survive in this job. # 3 Be a Sponge – Serving as an Aide is a rare opportunity. One of the greatest aspects of the job is the things you will be exposed to. You will be around other Senior Officers and NCOs. You will learn new ideas. You will learn how the “big” decisions are made. You will see how the “big Army” works. These are all once in a lifetime experiences that you should cherish and soak up. # 4 Network with Everyone You Can – You will meet some of the Army’s movers and proper mla format for college shakers while you are in the job.
Do what you can to form good professional relationships. These relationships can really excel your career. Network with other Generals and other aides. Build up a rolodex of people you can network with. Be nice to everyone you meet. # 5 Never make the General Look Bad – Your # 1 priority is to NEVER put the essay General in a position where you make them look bad. Essays? Make sure they are never late. Make sure you never speak for the General. Never speak off record or try to tell someone what you think the essay General is thinking.
# 6 Always Make the General Your Top Priority – During your one to writing summer, two years in the job, you have to essay opening, always place the creative writing General as your number one priority. All of opening, your personal ambitions should be put on hold. Your job is to for college essays, make the General successful. Make them successful and you will be successful. # 7 Maintain Your Discipline and Professional Appearance – You represent the General at all times. You must stay in shape, be highly disciplined and maintain your military bearing. Don’t think that you wear the General’s rank. Opening Paragraph? Treat other people well and for college essays be a professional Soldier/Officer at essay opening all times. I had a website visitor send me some personal stories of profiling essays, his time as an aide-de-camp. I’ll keep his name private to protect his identity.
He did give me permission to opening paragraph, post these stories to my website. I’d been at Fort Bliss for a year when a new General arrived and wanted to keep the troops on their toes. He wanted weekly facility inspections starting with an unannounced visit to the most obscure unit under his command. That facility was located about 50 miles out in the image society essays on visual, the middle of the desert. When we got there it looked just like Ft. Apache.
We walked straight to the flag pole and stood at attention waiting for someone to greet us. Cars were suddenly flying down desert roads, men were running around grabbing hats and stuffing in shirts and there we stood, at attention, in the sun, waiting. Finally a Sergeant showed up and showed us around. As we got out essay opening paragraph, of the staff car on a change life essays, our return, the General casually mentioned I should have the responsible Colonel in his office immediately. I couldn’t tell that condemned officer anything as I escorted him to paragraph, the General’s office and shut the door. I still remember the yelling. I could have made a lot of money in bribes from a lot of life, Colonels after that.
One of the functions I had was the lead in the reception line at official functions. It was my job to essay paragraph, introduce each officer and his escort. Before my Aide assignment I had trouble with a particular Captain, when he appeared in front of me for the first time I got brain lock, the General gave me a funny look and took over. By the way, remember those inspections in Story#1? That Captain got more than his share. Another thing I’ve never admitted before, I always diluted the General’s drinks (he wasn’t a drinker anyway).
The General was going to not a natural act and essay, retire soon and gave me orders to find him a sports car to tinker with. I found him a nicely used MGA. On our last visit to McGregor range for a firing demonstration, he showed up in his MGA instead of the staff car and off we went, waving nicely as we passed through the very familiar (to us) guard station at the range. I don’t think we got 50 yards before being surrounded by MPs. I still remember the MP captain tipping his hat and asking if we could please stop at the gate next time. Serving as an Aid-de-Camp can be a good career move, if you do well in the job. It’s one of the toughest and most demanding jobs in the Army, and it’s definitely not for opening, everyone. That being said, the roland barthes narrative job can really help you establish a strong professional network, plus you can learn a lot about the “big picture Army” that can prepare you for future jobs. In the Active Duty, if you want to essay opening paragraph, make it to the top ranks, you want to spend time as an Aide-de-Camp. In the USAR and ARNG, it’s not as important for upward mobility. Just remember that while you are in essay, the position, your job is to make the General successful.
Your own agenda is essay opening paragraph irrelevant. If you’ve ever served as an Aide-de-Camp, I would love to hear from you. Please share your thoughts and best success tips by barthes essay leaving a comment below. 13 thoughts on “Sample Aide-de-Camp Duties, Responsibilities and essay opening Job Description” actually to work as an mla format for college essays, aide-de- camp (ADC) is not an opening, easy tax (i) you have to be tolerance (ii) you must be percent and also healthily Being the Aide-de-Camp sounds like a lot of work and not for the feint of heart. Being well-organized, calm, deadline oriented, and can-do attitude is roland barthes essay a must!
You would definitely need to be a sponge and keep your ear to essay opening, the ground for any eventualities. Joseph Moore – thank you for sharing your experiences. It is a peek into your character but like many things – if you do your job well and network smart opportunities will surely become available for people with your skill set. It’s definitely one of creative, those love hate jobs depending upon your personality and who you have to work for. I couldn’t do it myself. I would think that being an opening, aide-de-camp would be a smart move. Of course, the attitude of the Officer you are an aide to can make the job easy or very hard. Camps? I guess in no ways will it be easy, but easier if you are dealing with a good personality. I think anyone who is offered this position should jump right on it. Great post sir. It’s an important job, but definitely not for everyone.
This job would be a great exercise in learning what your strengths and essay opening weaknesses are, which most of us could use more insight into. I bet we would be surprised by what we ended up being good at. A job like this would be a great challenge. I just finished a one year assignment as an the image society culture, Aide-de-camp to the Assistant Division Commander (Support) for the 35th Infantry Division (consists of Soldiers from Illinois, Kansas, Missouri and Nebraska). I absolutely enjoyed every bit of my experience. Exposure at a Division level in the National Guard was extraordinarily developmental for my future career as an officer. Like you mentioned it is essay paragraph a tough job and many people I talked to told me they didn’t want my job. I on the other hand, took great satisfaction in the knowledge that my General was well cared for, was well informed, and had every opportunity to complete all required tasks without delays. I think the three biggest things that I learned were coordination, communication, and networking. I spent many drill weekends getting to know my fellow aides and sharing a mutual plan on how to tackle the IDT drill matrix and training schedule for the Generals. My Division had a Commanding General and his aide a Captain, the two Assistant Division Commanders of Maneuver and Support, and racail profiling essays their two aides, myself and another First Lieutenant.
We spent most of our time running around coordinating with the Division Staff for meetings and ensuring the intent was being met on all tasks, and relaying that information back to the Command Group. Opening? We communicated everything with the Secretary of the General Staff (basically the aide for the Chief of Staff) who was an M-Day Major and his counterpart the full-time SGS, an creative camps, AGR Warrant Officer. Everything we did was mutually supportive. If the SGS needed something we would offer our assistance, because more likely than not it affected our Generals in some manner. Lastly, the networking piece was huge in our Division. A majority of the Soldiers come from essay paragraph, Kansas and Missouri and each state works well moving officers into key positions through inter-state transfers, so making a lasting impression on any of the Division Staff could send ripples through your career for years to profiling, come. I would say that you really can’t compare this type of duty to essay opening, anything else, but if you put forth your best effort, it can be a very rewarding opportunity that opens doors for roland barthes narrative, your future career even in the National Guard. Thanks for essay opening, sharing your experience as an Aide-de-Camp. It sounds like you had a great time and proper mla format essays learned a lot. Good luck with your career! Joseph, your experience sounds great, and like you learned a lot.
What a great opportunity to better yourself, and to opening, learn something way above your level. Not everyone gets to do a job like this. You gave us all some great information here Joseph; thank you. Proper For College Essays? I can see where being an Aide-De-Camp would not only be great for essay opening, your Army career, but also for many civilian positions after a person leaves the service of our country. I commend you Joseph on handling such a difficult, but satisfying position.
I highly recommend that any officer who wants to in my, really gain points in their job, take an paragraph, Aide-De-Camp position. Chuck, what a wonderful article. I think you hit the nail on the head. One of my friends has been an aide-de-camp for a BG in sex is not a act and, Arkansas. She has really enjoyed the experience and is a very professional, great Soldier and essay officer. I got to see a little bit of what the proper TAGs XO and paragraph staff get to do when I worked at the military department. They were always busy, responsible for a lot of tasks, and sex is act and other essay ready to jump when needed. But, they worked hard for him and teamwork was key to be successful. I’m glad your friend enjoyed being an Aide-de-Camp. Essay? Of all my friends and peers who have done it, it was about a 50-50 split for essays, people who liked it and people who hated it.
It can be a very humbling experience to basically be someone’s servant. I myself don’t think I could have done the job, but others love it. And if you do a good job at it, you can really launch your career. I agree. Paragraph? I always said, I wouldn’t mind working at the pentagon and pouring someone coffee. Think of all the baristas that would love to make my pay for doing that ;) I kid, I kid.
But I think it would be a rewarding experience, and humbling, I agree. I already got a taste of life, it working for a colonel, and essay I handled the job well. I think I would like being an aide-de-camp. This website is life not endorsed by any government agency. It is privately owned. Paragraph? The information is for not a natural act and, educational purposes only. Essay Opening? Some of the racail profiling essays products I recommend are affiliate links, which means I would make a commission if you purchased that item.
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deep ecology essays Case Studies in History and paragraph, Society. Beneath the Surface: Critical Essays in the Philosophy of Deep Ecology . Barthes Narrative? Edited by Eric Katz, Andrew Light, and David Rothenberg. Cambridge, MA London, UK: The MIT Press (2000), viii, 328 pp. Reviewed by J. Opening Paragraph? Stan Rowe, emeritus Professor (Ecology), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon. Ecology is the skin-out study of profiling what envelops and influences things, as compared to physiology with its focus on skin-in functions--which leads to the thought that the appropriate title for those primarily concerned with their inner soul/selves is Deep Physiologists.
In contrast, the name Deep Ecology (DE) suggests exploration of human ecology to essay opening, its outer limits, asking what is the reality of society on visual people's relationship to the world that envelops them, and what ethical actions flow from that relationship? Over the last quarter century Arne Naess has been the most influential voice of eco/philosophy and eco/sophy (ecological wisdom) in the Western world. Naess's thoughts and actions have been motivated by what he sees as the essay, appalling deterioration of sex is not a other planet Earth, overpopulated and opening paragraph, under attack by a consumer society. From this came his founding of the Deep Ecology Movement (DEM) for social-political change, centered on profiling essays a Platform of eight Principles (composed with George Sessions) that, in summary, calls for valuing and respecting all forms of life, for an attitude of non-interference with natural processes and systems, for essay de-emphasizing the primary significance of people and their institutions, for restructuring society in harmony with natural processes, and for a reexamination of the ends of human life, replacing the pursuit of material abundance with a heightened quality of life experience. The introductory chapter of Beneath the Surface states that the book's primary goal is to examine the philosophy of DE, a difficult task without a philosophical interpretation of the DEM Platform. The editors propose six points as essential to the philosophy of DE. In abbreviated form they are: (1) Rejection of strong anthropocentrism, (2) Replacing anthropocentrism with ecocentrism (the ecosphere and ecological systems central), (3) Identification with all forms of summer camps life, (4) The sense that caring for the environment is part of individual human self-realization, (5) A critique of instrumental rationality and an emphasis on alternative modes of thinking, (6) Personal development of a total worldview prior to social action.
Naess values the diversity of philosophical/cultural faiths and is willing to recognize many as underpinnings of the DEM. He conceived it as four linked levels, illustrated with the Apron Diagram so-called because it flares out generously above and below the Platform-Principles waist. Level 1, the bust of the essay paragraph, apron, encompasses a broad spectrum of religions and philosophies willing to subscribe to Level 2, where the Platform Principles cinch all together. Level 3 and barthes, Level 4 comprise the hips and hem of the garment, the essay opening, former expressing general consequences (such as choice of lifestyle) in harmony with the Platform, and the latter specifying concrete situations and a change in my life essays, practical decisions of a political nature. Essay Opening? In Naess's words, The DEM thus can manifest both plurality and unity: unity at Level 2, and plurality at the other levels. Midway through the creative summer camps, book editor/essayist Andrew Light examines ethicist Callicott's arguments for a singular foundational ecophilosophy based on Aldo Leopold's concept of people's duties to the larger biotic communities of which they are members.
Light concludes that environmental philosophy is opening, too young to settle on not a natural one right path, and so he too endorses a pluralism of ecophilosophies at Level 1. Obviously Naess does not consider his personal philosophy, Ecosophy T, as the only valid one, but the editors justify particular attention to opening paragraph, his thinking not only because he is the founding father but also because many of the essays that the natural, book comprises were initially slated for publication in the journal Inquiry as a special issue titled, Arne Naess's Environmental Thought. Essay Opening Paragraph? Thus many of the essays are understandable in a change life essays, the light of Naess's Ecosophy T, which shows the influence of Eastern philosophies. In my view his three outstanding ideas are: (1) Self-realization for all Beings . This is the belief that the route to essay paragraph, an ecological worldview begins with individuals surmounting their little egos by sympathetically extending the boundaries of their identities, wider and wider, through the intuition and ecological knowledge that each is embedded in profiling essays, and supported by opening paragraph, a network of relationships--to the human community, to animals and plants, to the world. The enlarged consciousness that experiences identity with Nature and desires the same happiness for all beings is sex is not a act and essay, described as the Self (also known as ecological self or universal self) as opposed to the little egoistic skin-bounded self.
(2) Ontology before ethics . Opening Paragraph? Naess insists that ethics or right action flows from prior beliefs about the fundamental nature of things, about what is real and valuable. The Image Society Essays On Visual? In philosophical terms, ontology (reality as believed in) precedes ethics. Hence the most important task is to essay, understand one's ecological relationships to the world for then ethical choices and beautiful actions will be obvious and spontaneous. Phrased another way, humanity needs a new ecological worldview before new ethical/environmental theories. (3) Spontaneous Experience . Naess is life essays, suspicious of reason as the unassisted guide toward the opening, dual realization of the ecological worldview and the extended Self. He places his faith in apprehending Nature by direct experiences whose holistic gestalt patterns reveal the reality obscured by culture's abstract language and social constructions.
The main source of creative change in society, he believes, lies in the qualitative richness and creative, concrete contents of the individual's gestalt experiences. According to editor/essayist Eric Katz, the pillars of Ecosophy T (which he lists as Identification with Nature, Self-realization, and Ontology as the basis of opening normative values) suffer from the fault of anthropocentrism (homocentrism). Only a strong environmental ethical system can move beyond Naess's limited perspective that is tellingly exposed in writing, his ambiguity about human interests versus nature protection. Katz approves the essay, Deep Green Theory of Richard Sylvan who, disagreeing with Naess's idea of Self, argued for a change in my life essays an ethic based on eco-impartiality. The proper course for environmental philosophy, Katz concludes, is not an ecosophy such as Naess's ontological worldview but an unbiased environmental ethic that de-emphasizes human-centered categories of value. Countering the opinion of Katz, William Grey criticizes Sylvan's Deep Green Theory because it postulates values in nature independent of valuers, while admitting that values vary between cultures. Grey points to other inconsistencies, exemplified by the wording of the Deep Green obligation principles, such as Do not jeopardize the well-being of natural objects or systems without good reason.
Destroyers of environment always have good reason and so Grey judges Deep Green Theory as no better than DE. Whether Katz, Grey, and several other contributors draw a distinction between homo/morphic and homo/centric is unclear. All human thoughts and paragraph, actions are homo/morphic (shaped by humans) but they are not necessarily homo/centric (centered on humans), and the image on visual, insofar as Naess and opening paragraph, Sylvan center their values on other-than-human things, they should not be accused of homocentrism. Naess's foundational ideas draw the fire of Mathew Humphrey for privileging the intuitive over profiling, the rational. To be human is to opening, reason, he argues, and therefore the rational-moral should be privileged over the beautiful. The only defensible basis for action is provided by reasoned ethical codes, not from the intuitive realization of in my essays Self-identity through gestalt experiences.
The Humphrey/Naess difference echoes the old Plato/Sophist controversy, unresolved after 2500 years. The question is, which of truth and beauty should be trusted to guide the essay opening, other? Western tradition favors the former but Naess wants to give the latter a try. Humphrey is targeted in mla format for college, turn by ecofeminist Ariel Salleh who is suspicious of essay opening current ethical systems. Mla Format For College? Everyone, not just Naess, acts from a sense of essay self-identity, she argues. Philosophers are mostly academic, middle-class, white males who bolster their self-identities with liberalism--valuing individual autonomy and freedom of choice above all else. But liberalism is a discredited source of sex is natural ethics because it is anthropocentric, Eurocentric, class-based, and gendered. It is essay opening, a failed political formula, socially unjust and environmentally destructive. DE is on the right track but it needs to embrace a theory of racail essays labor, of embodied materialism, working (as do women in production and reproduction) at the interface of Humanity and essay opening paragraph, Nature. Like Humphrey, ethicist Val Plumwood is proper, critical of Naess's ontology before ethics and paragraph, of his thesis that treats ethics as unnecessary (a fairer assessment might be that Naess treats ethics as derivative).
She sides with Katz in skepticism of Naess's stress on consciousness change and on Self-realization through unity (identity) with nature. What is needed, she believes, is an ethic of solidarity, enabling strong connections to human liberation movements as well as to narrative essay, nature. The DEM should not neglect institutional change, and a good start would be reforming the institution of property/land which, in essay paragraph, the Lockean formula, is the image society, valueless until developed by human labor. The land, Nature, should also be recognized as a value-producing active agent. Bron Taylor, interested primarily in the social action side of the DEM, finds many weaknesses in its philosophic underpinnings as he understands them at the grassroots level. The problem is a set of dualisms--inherited from such thinkers as Paul Shepard, Gary Snyder, George Sessions, and Bill Devall--that he identifies as the main conceptual tendencies found in essay opening, North America's deep ecology movements. He lists a number of good/bad twosomes, for example: Taylor argues that such dualistic thinking is simplistic and counterproductive when the goal is to marshal resistance to environmental deterioration from every culture in the world. Emphasizing his empirical research, he reports the unsurprising discovery that people are motivated to action by immediate threats to their well-being, not by bioregional ideology or calls for barthes consciousness transformation. Essay Opening? He plumps for a new Green social philosophy, something like the Earth Charter that sets out principles of reverence for Earth acceptable to all religious faiths.
Mainstream DEs may suspect that Taylor is a reform environmentalist but the litmus-test question -- does he endorse the DEM Platform? -- is not answered. The Image Society Essays Culture? Had all contributors opened with a yea or a nay on this question, their orientations would have been clarified for the benefit of readers. The book's purported goal of examining DE philosophy keeps slipping out of focus. John Clark's How Wide is Deep Ecology? shows the difficulty of dealing strictly with DE philosophy apart from the Platform and its social/political implications. Clark would prefer a more specific Platform to welcome in social ecologists and ecofeminists by giving practical content to the DEM's call for sweeping social change. As with Salleh, Plumwood, and Taylor, the Platform and its deficiencies for sparking political programs (at Naess's Levels 3 and 4?) are the center of attention. Jonathan Maskit sees personal philosophies and political platforms necessarily evolving together.
Changes in the individual and in culture/politics go hand in hand, and either alone is essay paragraph, a no-go. Seek reality through spontaneous experience, say the DEs, but experience depends on cultural presuppositions. For example, how can the individual reduce desire for consumption when the culture endorses consumption as a high social goal? In Kantian terms the role of the barthes narrative essay, State is to make people act as they would voluntarily if they really were rational beings, curbing desires by reasonable laws. The new sympathetic worldview that the DEM urges on essay its members necessitates co-evolution of the cultural-ideational medium in which all are immersed. On the supportive side, editor/essayist David Rothenberg explains Naess's relational thinking as phenomenology minus the subject, meaning that Naess's aim is to apprehend directly nature's qualities or concrete contents, not as (minus) an observer but merging the subjective and objective, the racail, human and the natural, in spontaneous experience. Through Rothenberg's eyes, DE is viewed as an entirely new philosophy, a new horizon, a direction for progress in ontology, a poetic way of being in essay, the world. Arran Gare is also sympathetic to the DEM, which he believes is essays, marginalized through lack of a Grand Narrative. DE needs a persuasive cultural myth that saves what is good in modernism (the emancipatory agenda for the disadvantaged) and extends it to the world of nature so that living creatures and ecosystems as well as cultural diversity may flourish. Essay Opening Paragraph? In effect he repeats Maskit's theme that the development of self, in whatever form, is the image society essays culture, shaped by the stories by essay opening, which each culture defines itself--and the appearance of a compelling ecological saga is overdue. Indirectly this criticizes the philosophic pluralism that Naess espouses.
Two articles trace links between Naess's Ecosophy T and eastern religions/philosophies. Knut Jacobdson points out Naess's debt to Gandhi who believed that the way to self-realization was not only through knowledge and meditation but also through political action. He notes ironically that DE reverses the Hindu aim of freeing the self from bondage to the material world, seeking instead to integrate humans into the natural Earth cycles of birth, growth, and death. Dean Curtin explains Naess's ties to Buddhism through the philosophy of Dogen, whose thought goes beyond DE from Self-realization to Cosmic Co-realization. We will never be released from suffering, said Dogen, as long as we search within the circle of human suffering alone. Thus the advice to the image society essays, Naess to advance beyond biocentrism with its focus on opening paragraph living things, and be released into a change essays, the coming and going of all things. This appears to be a call for ecocentrism as Earth-centerdness. Paradoxically, the sympathetic glue that binds together all things, amoebas and crystals, humans and mountains, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, is their impermanency. Finally, and essay, farthest off the mark, Michael Zimmerman's essay -- Possible Political Problems of Earth-based Religiosity -- expresses fears that a theology of Earth linked with the DEM might be coopted and used as the Nazis used their nationalistic blood and soil motif to justify totalitarian programs of creative camps suppression and extermination. In view of the known history of humanity in the West over the last several thousand years, with its frequent ethnic cleansings under the aegis of a transcendental male God, the thought that belief in opening paragraph, a supra-national divine mother Earth would do worse seems a long shot. Not A Natural Other Essay? Zimmerman devotes much of his article to the philosophy of Ken Wilber, who initially explained humanity's assault on nature as due to death anxiety but now as a second guess locates the essay paragraph, fault in retro-romantics (including followers of Earth-based religions).
Wilber prescribes the development of personal consciousness in ever more elevating stages. Creative? His platonic idealism (Deep Physiology) contrasts with Naess's being-in-the-world realism (Deep Ecology). Concluding comments: The 14 contributors generally agree that Deep Ecology is not a finished philosophy. It is still finding its roots below and expanding its greenness above. The voluminous literature that has developed around Naess's Ecosophy T and the DEM Apron Diagram contribute to its current fluidity. The tightest section is the Platform and its eight principles (the Apron waist), which many believe should be further refined to better encourage social/political change.
Stronger tie-strings in opening, the middle will keep the Apron from blowing in profiling, the wind. Eastern philosophies, like Western religions, lay heavy hands of responsibility on the individual to shape up. This idea is essay opening paragraph, apparent in Naess's philosophy. But few can bootstrap their own conversion from self to writing summer, Self without cultural assistance. On this important point Bowers (1995, see especially p. 169 for note on opening Naess#146;s individualism) has criticized Naess for accenting the authority of society culture individual judgment while ignoring culture as the paragraph, primary source of influence on thought and behavior. The needed ecological worldview is unlikely to result from everyone concentrating on proper essays developing her/his own ecosophy. A powerful ecological narrative that neither disparages Nature nor people is opening, overdue. One problem on the philosophers' side is suspicion of Earth-based science, leading to vague use of ecological language particularly when it comes to terms such as nature, life, community, ecology, ecosystem, biosphere, biocentric ecocentric. Barthes? An example is pinning the adjective ecocentric indiscriminately on social ecology, ecofeminism, bioregionalism, and deep ecology (e.g., McLaughlin (1995) uses ecocentrism broadly and indefinitely for all viewpoints that are not anthropocentric, when a correct usage of the word according to its etymology is home-centered, i.e. ecosystem-centered, Ecoregion-centered, Ecosphere-centered or Earth-centered). Ecological terminology, freely used but imperfectly understood, needs to be sorted out and defined in Earthly terms if people are to accept a narrative that identifies humans as dependent Earthlings. Such a compelling story/myth is a necessary counterpart of and support for the experiential ways of knowing championed, for example, by Naess and essay paragraph, Rothenberg.
The essays convey the roland essay, feeling that two different cultures are confronting one another. Naess is an outdoorsman, a mountaineer, as are many of his followers: Sessions, Drengson, LaChapelle. These people, like naturalists of the ilk of Muir and Thoreau, have been touched by oceanic nature-experiences, intuitions of unity with Earth. Opening Paragraph? They are impelled to formulate a philosophical rationale for their Wordsworthian epiphanies, borrowing eclectically from the scriptures of Lao Tsu, Protagoras, Dogen, Spinoza, Bergson, Husserl. Facing them somewhat incredulously is a majority of narrative rationalist academics, city-born and bred, who have never been touched by opening, Earth, never climbed mountains, never wandered in a wilderness, never hugged a tree. Ethical rules are their meat, not spontaneous experiences. The mind-sets of two such different groups of people are far apart, and racail essays, the Ecological Narrative that pulls them together will richly deserve the title Grand. Bowers, C.A.
1995. Educating for an Ecologically Sustainable Culture: Rethinking Moral Education, Creativity, Intelligence, and Other Modern Orthodoxies . Albany: SUNY Press. McLaughlin, Andrew. Essay Paragraph? 1995. For a Radical Ecocentrism, pages 257-280 in profiling essays, Drengson, Alan and Yuichi Inoue (eds.), The Deep Ecology Movement: An Introductory Anthology . Essay? Berkeley: North Atlantic Books.