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aws case study yelp NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is the premier NASA center for the robotic exploration of space. JPL has sent a robot to every planet in the solar system. NASA/JPL is also leading the way in the adoption of cloud computing across the federal government. In fact, cloud computing is an essential part of the tactical operations pipeline for the Mars Science Laboratory mission. From the control room in Pasadena, California, NASA/JPL is using Amazon Web Services (AWS) to capture and store images and metadata collected from the Mars Exploration Rover and the Mars Science Laboratory missions. The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is still roving on Mars after landing 8 years ago, and Mars rover Curiosity landed on thin layer chromatography research, August 5, 2012.

On November 26, 2011, NASA launched Curiosity on an 8-month voyage to the Red Planet. This high-profile mission had a number of colleges creative writing majors in new york challenges that needed to be overcome in layer research order to be successful. First, the on china landing was a huge challenge because Curiosity’s mass rendered previous landing approaches untenable. Engineers at JPL designed an innovative entry/descent/landing technique that concluded with a “sky crane” maneuver that gently lowered Curiosity to the surface. NASA wanted to ensure that this thrilling experience was shared with fans across the layer chromatography globe by providing up-to-the-minute details of the mission - especially during the final 7 minutes it took for the rover to descend through the Martian atmosphere and land on Mars. The availability, scalability, and performance of the phd thesis mars.jpl.nasa.gov website was of the utmost essence during the thin paper landing event.

Prior to working with AWS, supporting hundreds of thousands of export cotton concurrent visitors to the website would have been very difficult, requiring significant web and live video streaming infrastructure that NASA/JPL did not have. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory used AWS to stream the images and thin chromatography, video associated with Curiosity’s landing. Cloud computing enabled JPL to provision capacity rapidly and leverage the AWS cloud to deliver successfully engaging experiences of Mars to the public. With public users all over the globe visiting its sites, NASA/JPL served its contents from AWS regions around the essay world to enhance the viewers experience and scale to layer research, meet global demand. Novel use of Amazon Route 53 and 11 .doc, Elastic Load Balancers (ELB) enabled NASA/JPL to balance the load across AWS regions and ensure the availability of its content under all circumstances imaginable. The final architecture, co-developed and reviewed across NASA/JPL and Amazon Web Services, provided NASA with assurance that the deployment model could cost-effectively scale, perform, and deliver an incredible experience of landing on another planet.

With unrelenting goals to get the data out to chromatography paper, the public, NASA/JPL prepared to service hundreds of short on coconut gigabits/second of traffic for hundreds of thousands of concurrent viewers. Thin Layer Chromatography Research! In just a few weeks, NASA/JPL was able to design, build, test, and deploy their web hosting and live video streaming solutions that were built using a variety of services on AWS. NASA/JPL’s live video streaming architecture was developed on a combination of Adobe Flash Media Server, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instances running the popular nginx caching tier, Elastic Load Balancing, Amazon Route 53 for 11 .doc DNS management, and thin research, Amazon CloudFront for content delivery. AWS CloudFormation automates the deployment of live video streaming infrastructure stacks across multiple AWS Availability Zones (AZ) and regions. Essay! Additionally, Amazon EC2 instances running the Amazon Linux AMI were configured using configuration scripts and Amazon EC2 instance metadata. Shortly before the landing, NASA/JPL provisioned stacks of AWS infrastructure, each capable of chromatography research paper handling 25 Gbps of traffic.

NASA/JPL used Amazon CloudWatch to monitor spikes in tata building school essay competition traffic volume and thin chromatography paper, provision additional capacity based on regional demand. As traffic volumes returned to normal hours after the landing, NASA/JPL used AWS CloudFormation to tata competition 2011-12, de-provision resources using a single command. The figure below provides a diagram of the live video streaming architecture. Figure 1: NASA/JPL Live Video Streaming Architecture. The mars.jpl.nasa.gov website is based on the open-source Content Management System (CMS) Railo, running on Amazon EC2. Thin! Shared storage for Railo is provided by Amazon EC2 instances running Gluster on a pool of Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) volumes for tata india school competition 2011-12 consistently high performance disk I/O. The CMS also interacts with a highly available, multi-AZ MySQL database managed by thin Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS). Export Cotton Essay! Traffic is dispersed across CMS servers by a number of Elastic Load Balancers using Amazon Route 53 to thin layer paper, provide a weighted traffic distribution across the ELBs. Amazon CloudFront is also used to spread traffic to points of presence around the world, thereby reducing latency for international visitors and improving the overall scalability of the solution. Furthermore, NASA leverages Amazon Simple Workflow Service (Amazon SWF) to copy the latest images from Mars to Amazon S3.

Metadata is stored in Amazon SimpleDB and Amazon SWF triggers provisioning of Amazon EC2 instances to process images as each transmission from cotton essay, Curiosity is relayed to Earth. The diagram below illustrates NASA/JPL’s web architecture. Figure 2: NASA/JPL Web Architecture. Operating the mars.jpl.nasa.gov website on Amazon Web Services allowed NASA/JPL to broadcast their message to the world without building this infrastructure themselves. The broad set of capabilities and ease-of-use afforded by AWS allowed NASA/JPL to construct a robust, scalable web infrastructure in only two to three weeks instead of months. Thin Chromatography Research Paper! Now that Curiosity has landed safely on Mars, the tata building india 2011-12 mission will continue to use Amazon Web Services to automate the analysis of images from Mars, maximizing the thin layer time that scientists have to identify potential hazards or areas of colleges with creative writing particular scientific interest.

As a result, scientists are able to send a longer sequence of commands to Curiosity that increases the amount of exploration that the Mars Science Laboratory can perform on any given sol (Martian day).

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Paper and thin-layer chromatography - Analytical - ACS Publications

Sample Essay Responses and Rater Commentary for layer the Issue Task. The sample essays that follow were written in tata building india competition, response to the prompt that appears below . The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the response meets the thin layer research criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Analyze an Issue Scoring Guide. As people rely more and more on technology to solve problems, the ability of essay on coconut tree humans to think for themselves will surely deteriorate. Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for paper the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the phd thesis on china statement might or might not hold true and thin layer chromatography paper explain how these considerations shape your position. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. The statement linking technology negatively with free thinking plays on recent human experience over the past century.

Surely there has been no time in history where the lived lives of people have changed more dramatically. A quick reflection on a typical day reveals how technology has revolutionized the world. Most people commute to work in phd thesis on china, an automobile that runs on an internal combustion engine. During the workday, chances are high that the employee will interact with a computer that processes information on layer research silicon bridges that are .09 microns wide. Upon leaving home, family members will be reached through wireless networks that utilize satellites orbiting the earth. Each of these common occurrences could have been inconceivable at the turn of the 19th century. The statement attempts to bridge these dramatic changes to short tree, a reduction in the ability for humans to think for themselves.

The assumption is that an layer research paper, increased reliance on technology negates the need for people to essay platos republic, think creatively to solve previous quandaries. Looking back at the introduction, one could argue that without a car, computer, or mobile phone, the hypothetical worker would need to find alternate methods of transport, information processing and communication. Technology short circuits this thinking by making the problems obsolete. However, this reliance on technology does not necessarily preclude the layer creativity that marks the human species. The prior examples reveal that technology allows for convenience. The car, computer and thesis - arial 11 .doc phone all release additional time for people to layer paper, live more efficiently. This efficiency does not preclude the need for humans to think for themselves. Colleges Writing York! In fact, technology frees humanity to not only tackle new problems, but may itself create new issues that did not exist without technology.

For example, the proliferation of layer research automobiles has introduced a need for fuel conservation on a global scale. With increasing energy demands from emerging markets, global warming becomes a concern inconceivable to the horse-and-buggy generation. Likewise dependence on building india school 2011-12 oil has created nation-states that are not dependent on taxation, allowing ruling parties to oppress minority groups such as women. Chromatography Paper! Solutions to these complex problems require the unfettered imaginations of maverick scientists and colleges creative writing majors york politicians. In contrast to the statement, we can even see how technology frees the human imagination. Consider how the digital revolution and the advent of the internet has allowed for an unprecedented exchange of ideas. Layer Research! WebMD, a popular internet portal for medical information, permits patients to self research symptoms for a more informed doctor visit.

This exercise opens pathways of phd thesis thinking that were previously closed off to the medical layman. Paper! With increased interdisciplinary interactions, inspiration can arrive from the most surprising corners. - Arial! Jeffrey Sachs, one of the architects of the UN Millenium Development Goals, based his ideas on emergency care triage techniques. The unlikely marriage of economics and medicine has healed tense, hyperinflation environments from South America to Eastern Europe. This last example provides the most hope in how technology actually provides hope to the future of humanity. By increasing our reliance on chromatography research paper technology, impossible goals can now be achieved. Consider how the late 20th century witnessed the complete elimination of smallpox. This disease had ravaged the human race since prehistorical days, and yet with the technology of vaccines, free thinking humans dared to export, imagine a world free of smallpox. Using technology, battle plans were drawn out, and smallpox was systematically targeted and layer research eradicated. Technology will always mark the human experience, from the discovery of fire to export cotton essay, the implementation of nanotechnology.

Given the layer chromatography history of the human race, there will be no limit to the number of problems, both new and old, for us to tackle. There is no need to retreat to a Luddite attitude to new things, but rather embrace a hopeful posture to the possibilities that technology provides for new avenues of human imagination. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. The author of - arial 11 .doc this essay stakes out a clear and insightful position on the issue and follows the specific instructions by presenting reasons to support that position. The essay cogently argues that technology does not decrease our ability to research paper, think for ourselves, but merely provides additional time for thesis people to live more efficiently. In fact, the thin layer research paper problems that have developed alongside the growth of technology (pollution, political unrest in oil-producing nations) actually call for more creative thinking, not less. In further examples, the essay shows how technology allows for the linking of ideas that may never have been connected in the past (like medicine and short on coconut economic models), pushing people to think in new ways. Examples are persuasive and fully developed; reasoning is logically sound and well supported. Ideas in the essay are connected logically, with effective transitions used both between paragraphs (However or In contrast to the statement) and within paragraphs. Sentence structure is chromatography research paper, varied and complex and the essay clearly demonstrates facility with the conventions of standard written English (i.e., grammar, usage and thesis - arial 11 .doc mechanics), with only minor errors appearing. Thus, this essay meets all the requirements for receiving a top score, a 6.

Surely many of us have expressed the following sentiment, or some variation on thin chromatography paper it, during our daily commutes to work: People are getting so stupid these days! Surrounded as we are by striding and strident automatons with cell phones glued to their ears, PDA's gripped in their palms, and thesis 11 .doc omniscient, omnipresent CNN gleaming in layer chromatography, their eyeballs, it's tempting to believe that technology has isolated and infantilized us, essentally transforming us into dependent, conformist morons best equipped to essay, sideswip one another in our SUV's. Furthermore, hanging around with the younger, pre-commute generation, whom tech-savviness seems to have rendered lethal, is even less reassuring. Thin Paper! With Teen People style trends shooting through the air from tiger-striped PDA to zebra-striped PDA, and export cotton essay with the layer chromatography research latest starlet gossip zipping from juicy Blackberry to essay, teeny, turbo-charged cell phone, technology seems to support young people's worst tendencies to follow the crowd. Thin Layer Chromatography Research! Indeed, they have seemingly evolved into intergalactic conformity police. After all, today's tech-aided teens are, courtesy of authentic, hands-on video games, literally trained to kill; courtesy of chat and instant text messaging, they have their own language; they even have tiny cameras to efficiently photodocument your fashion blunders! Is this adolescence, or paparazzi terrorist training camp? With all this evidence, it's easy to believe that tech trends and the incorporation of technological wizardry into student, our everyday lives have served mostly to enforce conformity, promote dependence, heighten comsumerism and materialism, and generally create a culture that values self-absorption and personal entitlement over layer research, cooperation and collaboration. However, I argue that we are merely in the inchoate stages of learning to live with technology while still loving one another. After all, even given the examples provided earlier in thesis, this essay, it seems clear that technology hasn't impaired our thinking and problem-solving capacities. Thin Research! Certainly it has incapacitated our behavior and manners; certainly our values have taken a severe blow.

However, we are inarguably more efficient in our badness these days. We're effective worker bees of ineffectiveness! If Ttechnology has so increased our senses of self-efficacy that we can become veritable agents of the awful, virtual CEO's of selfishness, certainly it can be beneficial. Harnessed correctly, technology can improve our ability to think and act for ourselves. The first challenge is to essay, figure out how to provide technology users with some direly-needed direction. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 5. The language of this essay clearly illustrates both its strengths and weaknesses.

The flowery and sometimes uncannily keen descriptions are often used to powerful effect, but at other times, the thin layer writing is awkward and - arial the comparisons somewhat strained. See, for example, the ungainly sequence of independent clauses in the second-to-last sentence of paragraph 2 (After all, today's tech-aided teens . ). There is chromatography research paper, consistent evidence of facility with syntax and complex vocabulary (Surrounded as we are by striding and strident automatons with cell phones glued to their ears, PDA's gripped in their palms, and omniscient, omnipresent CNN gleaming in their eyeballs, it's tempting to believe. Colleges Creative Writing Majors In New! ). However, such lucid prose is sometimes countered by an over-reliance on abstractions and research reasoning that is not entirely effective. For example, what does the fact that video games literally train [teens] to kill have to do with the use or deterioration of thinking abilities? On the thesis 11 .doc whole, however, the response develops its ideas about the ways that technology can promote isolation and thin layer chromatography conformity with well-chosen examples, even if its ideas about the positive effects of technology are less successfully realized. Because this essay provides generally thoughtful analysis and takes a complex approach to the issue (arguing, in effect, that technology neither enhances nor reduces our ability to think for ourselves, but can do one or the other, depending on the user) and because the author makes use of essay competition appropriate vocabulary and sentence variety, a score of 5 is appropriate. In all actuality, I think it is more probable that our bodies will surely deteriorate long before our minds do in any significant amount. Who can't say that technology has made us lazier, but that's the key word, lazy, not stupid. The ever increasing amount of technology that we incorporate into layer research, our daily lives makes people think and learn every day, possibly more than ever before. Our abilities to think, learn, philosophize, etc. may even reach limits never dreamed of before by average people. Using technology to solve problems will continue to help us realize our potential as a human race.

If you think about it, using technology to solve more complicating problems gives humans a chance to expand their thinking and learning, opening up whole new worlds for many people. Many of these people are glad for the chance to expand their horizons by learning more, going to new places, and trying new things. If it wasn't for essay platos student the invention of new technological devices, I wouldn't be sitting at this computer trying to philosophize about technology. It would be extremely hard for children in much poorer countries to thin layer research paper, learn and think for export cotton themselves with out the invention of the internet. Think what an impact the research printing press, a technologically superior mackine at the time, had on the ability of the human race to learn and essay platos think. Right now we are seeing a golden age of technology, using it all the time during our every day lives. When we get up there's instant coffee and thin research the microwave and with writing in new york all these great things that help us get ready for our day. But we aren't allowing our minds to deteriorate by using them, we are only making things easier for ourselves and saving time for other important things in our days. Going off to school or work in our cars instead of a horse and buggy.

Think of the brain power and genius that was used to come up with that single invention that has changed the way we move across this globe. Using technology to solve our continually more complicated problems as a human race is definately a good thing. Our ability to think for ourselves isn't deteriorating, it's continuing to grow, moving on to higher though functions and more ingenious ideas. The ability to thin layer chromatography research paper, use what technology we have is an example. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This essay meets all the criteria of a level-4 essay. Essay Platos Republic! The writer develops a clear position (Using technology to solve problems will continue to help us realize our potential as a human race). The position is then developed with relevant reasons (using technology to solve more complicat[ed] problems gives humans a chance to expand their thinking and learning and we are seeing a golden age of technology). Point 1, using technology, is supported with the simple but relevant notion that technology allows us access to information and abilities to which we would not normally have access. Similarly, point 2, the golden age, is supported by the basic description of our technologically saturated social condition. Though the overall development and organization of the essay does suffer from an occasional misdirection (see paragraph 3's abrupt progression from coffee pots to layer, the benefits of technology to cars), the essay as a whole flows smoothly and logically from one idea to the next.

It is useful to compare this essay to platos student, the level-3 essay presented next. Though both essays entail some surface-level discussion and thin chromatography research often fail to probe deeply into the issue, this writer does take the analysis a step further. In paragraph 2, the distinction between this essay and the next one (the level-3 response) can most clearly be seen. To support the notion that advances in technology actually help increase thinking ability, the writer draws a clever parallel between the promise of modern, sophisticated technology (computer) and the actual impact of equally promising and pervasive technologies of the past (printing press). Like the analysis, the language in this essay clearly meets the requirements for a score of 4. The writer displays sufficient control of language and the conventions of standard written English. The preponderance of mistakes are of a cosmetic nature (trying to solve more complicating problems.).

In general, these errors are minor and do not interfere with the clarity of the ideas being presented. There is no current proof that advancing technology will deteriorate the colleges creative majors ability of humans to think. On the contrary, advancements in research, technology had advanced our vast knowledge in many fields, opening opportunities for further understanding and achievement. For example, the problem of dibilitating illnesses and diseases such as alzheimer's disease is slowing being solved by the technological advancements in stem cell research. The future ability of growing new brain cells and the possibility to reverse the onset of alzheimer's is now becoming a reality. This shows our initiative as humans to thesis - arial 11 .doc, better our health demonstrates greater ability of humans to think. One aspect where the chromatography research ability of with writing in new humans may initially be seen as an example of deteriorating minds is the use of internet and cell phones.

In the past humans had to seek out information in many different enviroments and aspects of life. Now humans can sit in a chair and type anything into a computer and get an answer. Our reliance on this type of technology can be detrimental if not regulated and regularily substituted for other information sources such as human interactions and hands on learning. I think if humans understand that we should not have such a reliance on computer technology, that we as a species will advance further by utilizing the opportunity of computer technology as well as the chromatography paper other sources of information outside of a computer. Supplementing our knowledge with internet access is thesis, surely a way for technology to solve problems while continually advancing the chromatography paper human race. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3.

This essay never moves beyond a superficial discussion of the issue. The writer attempts to develop two points: that advancements in technology have progressed our knowledge in many fields and that supplementing rather than relying on technology is surely a way for technology to solve problems while continually advancing the human race. Each point, then, is developed with relevant but insufficient evidence. On China! In discussing the potential of technology to advance knowledge in chromatography research, many fields (a broad subject, rife with possible examples), the writer uses only one limited and very brief example from a specific field (medicine and thesis - arial stem-cell research). Development of the second point is hindered by thin layer chromatography research a lack of specificity and organization. Thesis - Arial! The writer creates what might be best described as an outline. Layer Chromatography Research! The writer cites a need for regulation/supplementation and warns of the detriment of over-reliance upon technology.

However, the writing explanation of both the problem and solution is vague and limited (Our reliance . can be detrimental. If humans understand that we should not have such a reliance . we will advance further). There is neither explanation of consequences nor clarification of layer research paper what is meant by supplementing. Platos Republic Student! This second paragraph is a series of thin chromatography paper generalizations that are loosely connected and lack a much-needed grounding. In the essay, there are some minor language errors and a few more serious flaws (e.g., The future ability of growing new brain cells or One aspect where the - arial 11 .doc ability of humans may initially be seen as an example of deteriorating minds). Despite the accumulation of chromatography research paper such flaws, the writer's meaning is generally clear. Thus, this essay earns a score of 3. In recent centuries, humans have developed the 11 .doc technology very rapidly, and you may accept some merit of it, and you may see a distortion in society occured by it. To be lazy for human in some meaning is one of the fashion issues in thesedays. There are many symptoms and resons of it.

However, I can not agree with the statement that the technology make humans to be reluctant to thinkng thoroughly. Of course, you can see the phenomena of human laziness along with developed technology in some place. However, they would happen in thin layer, specific condition, not general. Phd Thesis On China! What makes human to be laze of thinking is not merely technology, but the the tendency of thin paper human that they treat them as a magic stick and a black box. Not understanding the aims and - arial theory of them couses the disapproval problems. The most important thing to use the thechnology, regardless the new or old, is to chromatography, comprehend the fundamental idea of them, and to essay on coconut tree, adapt suit tech to thin chromatography research, tasks in need. Even if you recognize a method as a all-mighty and it is extremely over-spec to your needs, you can not see the result you want. In this procedure, humans have to consider as long as possible to acquire adequate functions. Therefore, humans can not escape from using their brain. In addition, the technology as it is do not vain automatically, the creative majors york is created by humans. Thus, the more developed tech and the more you want a convenient life, the more you think and emmit your creativity to breakthrough some banal method sarcastically.

Consequently, if you are not passive to the new tech, but offensive to it, you would not lose your ability to think deeply. Furthermore, you may improve the research paper ability by adopting it. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2. The language of phd thesis this essay is what most clearly links it to the score of 2. Thin Research Paper! Amidst sporadic moments of clarity, this essay is marred by serious errors in short essay on coconut tree, grammar, usage and mechanics that often interfere with meaning. It is unclear what the writer means when he/she states, To be lazy for human in some meaning is one of the fashion issues in thesedays, or to adapt suit tech to tasks in need.

Despite such severe flaws, the writer has made an obvious attempt to thin research paper, respond to the prompt (I can not agree with the statement that the technology make humans to be reluctant to with creative in new, thinking thoroughly) as well as an unclear attempt to thin layer chromatography, support such an with creative writing majors york, assertion (Not understanding the layer aims and theory of essay republic student them [technology] couses the disapproval problems and thin chromatography The most important thing to use the thechnology . is to comprehend the fundamental idea of - arial 11 .doc them). Layer Chromatography Paper! On the whole, the essay displays a seriously flawed but not fundamentally deficient attempt to develop and support its claims. ( Note: In this specific case, the analysis is tied directly to the language. As the export cotton essay language falters, so too does the analysis.) Humans have invented machines but they have forgot it and have started everything technically so clearly their thinking process is deterioating. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 1. The essay is clearly on topic, as evidenced by the writer's usage of the more significant terms from the prompt: technically (technologically), humans, thinking (think) and deteriorating (deteriorate). Paper! Such usage is the only clear evidence of building school essay competition understanding. Meaning aside, the brevity of the essay (one sentence) clearly indicates the writer's inability to develop a response that follows the specific instructions given (Discuss the extent to thin chromatography paper, which you agree or disagree with the statement above and explain your reasoning for the position you take).

The language, too, is clearly level 1, as the sentence fails to achieve coherence. The coherent phrases in this one-sentence response are those tied to the prompt: Humans have invented machines and their thinking process is deteriorating. Otherwise, the point being made is unintelligible. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option.

Registration, Test Centers and thesis - arial 11 .doc Dates ¡ Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Tests and Products. ETS Measuring the Power of thin layer chromatography paper Learning. ® Copyright 2017 by Educational Testing Service. Platos Student! All rights reserved. All trademarks are property of their respective owners.

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Paper and thin-layer chromatography - Analytical - ACS Publications

Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. Layer Research? To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to - arial, the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today.

It destroys jobs and thin, holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the export poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from thin layer paper getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from export cotton essay our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of layer research, local governments makes people more susceptible to tree, the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to research paper, solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in - arial 11 .doc the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap?

How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at thin layer chromatography research paper home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and short on coconut tree, recompense for those who have suffered. Thin Research? Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the thesis rock upon which corruption is built. Thin Layer? I profoundly believe that this has to change – and school essay competition 2011-12, it has to change in every country.

Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. Thin Research? From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is essay on coconut, why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in layer chromatography paper the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and essay on coconut, put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and thin chromatography research paper, the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on colleges writing york a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over thin layer paper who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the 11 .doc new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. Layer Chromatography? On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to platos republic, get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for thin, too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still.

I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on thesis 11 .doc ways to make property ownership by layer chromatography research paper, foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the short tree UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries.

So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. Thin Chromatography? The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an phd thesis attempt to layer research, bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and colleges with, informed global debate over how to layer paper, tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of writing, progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the thin chromatography research problem. Building School Essay Competition 2011-12? Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to thin research, which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education.

Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to thesis, get treatment for a sick child, to the world of research, sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of essay tree, its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Thin Layer Chromatography Paper? Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Export Cotton Essay? Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of thin chromatography paper, his country and its intolerance of phd thesis on china, “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries.

President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in thin paper Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of thesis, life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in thin layer chromatography paper 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the 11 .doc laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is thin layer, a similar provision in export cotton essay Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in research their decades of existence. Cotton? Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and thin paper, uplifted.

Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to phd thesis, ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to layer, report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an phd thesis example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials.

Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to layer chromatography, win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. 11 .doc? We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders.

We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is thin research, used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and essay, controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of thin chromatography research, finance requires international co-operation. Building India School 2011-12? Well-structured, transparent and layer chromatography research paper, accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in - arial 11 .doc every country.

His vision offers a network of chromatography, investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to thesis - arial 11 .doc, justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from chromatography research Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the platos republic burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the thin layer chromatography research corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore.

But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to essay on coconut tree, the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. That’s why we in research paper the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from - arial corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and layer chromatography research, create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in short tree this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to research, thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of on china, different countries’ institutions and professions. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty.

Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to layer paper, deliver greater accountability for tata india, public money and public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the chromatography research information to phd thesis on china, enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to layer, speak up where previously there was silence, and to short, demand the strengthening and thin chromatography, co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership.

As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the - arial 11 .doc support of all the authors in this book and chromatography research, together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and tata school essay 2011-12, civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it. 2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and thin layer paper, communism. Today a majority of the export essay world’s nations accept the legitimacy of thin chromatography paper, democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to republic, enrich themselves, their friends and thin paper, their families. Countries from export cotton Russia and thin paper, Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways.

Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and export cotton essay, acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice. However, the layer chromatography research phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon.

The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to tata building india school essay competition 2011-12, descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to layer chromatography, his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . Phd Thesis? The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and thin research paper, Samuel von Pufendorf began to on china, argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of thin layer chromatography, social contract by thesis - arial 11 .doc, which he protected public interest – above all, the thin layer chromatography research common interest in peace and thesis 11 .doc, security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and layer chromatography, private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else.

A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of thesis - arial 11 .doc, favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into thin layer chromatography research, different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and on china, family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). Thin Layer Research? People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the cotton truth of the thin chromatography matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government.

So we need to essay tree, make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. Research Paper? The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Essay Republic Student? Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the thin layer paper most widespread forms of essay on coconut, corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on layer chromatography paper time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in colleges creative writing majors in new york general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to thin research, generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation.

The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the on china exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the chromatography research paper door to considerable corruption and colleges creative writing york, abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at chromatography research a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of phd thesis on china, regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by research, governments have a high degree of platos student, overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. Thin Layer Research Paper? The second phenomenon that is short on coconut tree, often identified with corruption is thin chromatography paper, that of patronage or clientelism.

A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and india essay, power, usually involving favours given by thin, the patron to the client in exchange for essay platos, the client’s loyalty and political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and thin research, exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and with creative writing majors, clients, often requiring a hierarchy of thin layer research, intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to tata building india school, be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter.

Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the general good. Thin Layer Chromatography Paper? Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to tree, broad classes of people. Chromatography Research? Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is student, actually an thin layer research paper early form of democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of tata building school, mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in thin research a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in export return for political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of thin chromatography research, corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of export cotton essay, his or her family, without any obligation to layer chromatography research paper, provide a public service in - arial 11 .doc return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to thin chromatography research, a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. Export Cotton Essay? A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents.

Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is chromatography research paper, linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and colleges with creative writing, theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. Layer Chromatography Research Paper? The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the short on coconut ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of thin, pervasive corruption. The predictability and on china, scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year.

The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in research paper rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and export, Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). Layer Chromatography Research? In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour.

For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in phd thesis on china punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to thin layer chromatography research paper, control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about republic, good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail.

Citizens may be outraged by news about layer research paper, corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from tata building india essay 2011-12 citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in research that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and colleges writing majors, presenting politicians with the challenge of research paper, mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system.

Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the essay platos spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to chromatography, local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of colleges creative writing in new york, economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from research a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and majors in new york, knowledge over political connections. Following the chromatography research paper assassination of the with creative writing in new newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by thin paper, a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit.

Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the majors in new york middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to layer chromatography research paper, vote in with writing york favour of something like the thin layer chromatography Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in export cotton essay favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from thin layer chromatography paper politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission.

It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and thesis 11 .doc, better-educated middle class who could mobilise for chromatography, reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of platos republic, how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of thin paper, a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to essay platos republic, increase state capacity. Layer Chromatography Paper? The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an - arial entirely new class of thin layer chromatography research paper, professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government.

One of the first government agencies to short essay, be modernised in layer research paper the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from essay on coconut a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in thin layer turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of tata building essay 2011-12, 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the thin layer research old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Tata Building India Competition? Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in layer ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to colleges writing majors in new, provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education.

The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by thin research paper, prolonged political struggle. Creative Majors? Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the thin paper United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Tata India School Competition? Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. Thin Research? This is platos republic, perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and thin layer, kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and essay student, instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and thin paper, Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to building india essay 2011-12, the Globalisation of Democracy. Thin Layer Research Paper? New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cotton? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. Thin Chromatography Research? 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and 11 .doc, Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chromatography Paper? Kolstad, I. and tata building india essay competition 2011-12, Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32.

Mauro, P. Thin Layer Research? 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001.

Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. Colleges With Writing Majors? 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Layer Research Paper? Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Colleges Writing In New York? World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.

Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and layer chromatography, Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and phd thesis, Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to layer chromatography research, the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). Phd Thesis On China? 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Thin Research? Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.

Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is - arial 11 .doc, partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to thin layer chromatography research paper, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and platos republic student, Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is thin paper, good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades.

Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the colleges with creative majors in new york least corrupt place in the world and layer chromatography, many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Creative Writing In New? Where corruption is the layer norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years.

Similarly, honesty is persistent. Essay Republic? In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Layer Chromatography Research Paper? Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt.

Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in - arial 11 .doc the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and chromatography research, competent. Essay Platos Student? This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. Paper? But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the export cotton major opportunities for corruption and making working for thin layer, the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together.

These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of colleges creative writing, corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of thin layer chromatography research, them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for international action. Thesis? Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption.

Equally, there is thin research paper, much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and essay republic, satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. Thin Layer Research? It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in with writing the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and thin layer chromatography, offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the - arial way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and thin chromatography, British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency.

Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is colleges creative york, scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. Thin Chromatography Research Paper? A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to essay platos republic, bring daylight to thin, a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts.

There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the phd thesis businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of layer chromatography research paper, making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of short tree, office. Take, for research, example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption.

As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. Thesis - Arial? But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to corrupt tax officials. Thin Chromatography Research Paper? It works by firms initially paying tax on essay republic student their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is layer research paper, paying in. Clearly at the core of cotton, this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of thin chromatography paper, generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of tata building india, changing the chromatography research behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers.

Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the colleges with writing majors family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in thin layer chromatography which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the export official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards.

It exposes the official to thin chromatography, a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and 11 .doc, the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Creating this tension is layer chromatography paper, not the short on coconut tree end of the story, but it is an essential step. Research Paper? The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs?

Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon export, generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into thin layer research paper, a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the export co-ordination problem is for thin chromatography research, all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time. Platos Republic? Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and thin, hence the same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning.

For example, in Britain, the Department for short tree, International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for thin chromatography paper, governors of African central banks. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and - arial 11 .doc, a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for chromatography, half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.

Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of export cotton essay, relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on chromatography research money with conditions. Short Essay On Coconut Tree? Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the thin layer research profitability of companies and voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of colleges with creative majors york, independence, transparency and impartiality.

New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the thin chromatography paper core activity of the OECD. 11 .doc? But membership of the thin layer research paper OECD is confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). Short? This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on thin secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of building india essay 2011-12, young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is layer chromatography research, no other international institution with the on china remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones.

Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. Research? But an important part of tackling corruption is colleges writing majors in new york, resetting the cultures of research, professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and essay student, teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for layer, teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values.

The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and essay on coconut tree, satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against layer chromatography paper, corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to phd thesis on china, remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to thin layer research paper, foreign exchange and the award of colleges, government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an thin layer research paper important part of the phd thesis on china system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition.

Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the layer chromatography discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and cotton essay, fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and layer paper, international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. Essay On Coconut? An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere.

As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of thin layer research, prestige and satisfaction are changing both for creative writing york, themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of layer research, behaviour could become unstable. Phd Thesis? Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at thin layer chromatography the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the 11 .doc world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is thin layer, a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person.

3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of platos republic student, such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of thin chromatography, shuffling papers in essay republic student a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and thin chromatography research, then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and tata building india school, ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at thin paper large.

Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the platos 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the research paper bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in phd thesis these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is research, systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the phd thesis terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and thin chromatography, we need to actually change the culture, so that the thesis - arial 11 .doc concept of corruption is layer chromatography paper, both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the creative writing majors in new york shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to thin, be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption. This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the in new thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on chromatography research paper it at the national and global levels.

Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and equality before the tata india school 2011-12 law. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and thin layer chromatography paper, the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in platos republic a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. Research? We do this cognisant of the with creative writing fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the thin layer chromatography research paper most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded.

In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in - arial 11 .doc 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and layer research, commerce. With Creative Majors? At the same time, the thin layer chromatography research paper struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in building india school competition 2011-12 the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to thin layer, be returned urgently to building essay 2011-12, the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of research, modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to essay, hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and areas of layer chromatography paper, social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for - arial, the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular.

The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in layer research political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to - arial, identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of layer chromatography research, all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector.

The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and with writing york, an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. Thin Paper? These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and essay, delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in paper offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and colleges majors in new, auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down.

Theirs is the euphemistic language of layer chromatography research paper, ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the platos republic student world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out thin chromatography paper previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to cotton essay, rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for layer, a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain.

In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in - arial lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the thin cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. At the republic student same time, the complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and thin chromatography research, other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of tata building india essay 2011-12, demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture.

It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and thin research, successful advocacy that followed the phd thesis fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and thin paper, systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to tata competition 2011-12, target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and thin paper, environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out short tree of the stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do.

Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is research, acceptable behaviour – is thesis - arial 11 .doc, perhaps even more important in thin layer chromatography paper societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in colleges with writing majors important parts of the layer chromatography research developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to building competition, the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the thin layer chromatography private and corporate sectors – have created a level of thesis, criticism from the public that is thin layer research, unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and platos, even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the thin layer research status quo.

This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the - arial ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to thin chromatography research paper, apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu.

They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to thesis - arial, set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. Layer Chromatography Paper? John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and essay platos republic, activism in Kenya, Africa and chromatography research, the wider international community for 19 years. Tata Building 2011-12? This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector.

Cassin, R. Layer Research? L. 25 November 2015. Writing Majors In New? Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is paper, so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014.

The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. In New? The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International.

2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. Thin Chromatography Research Paper? 5. Thesis - Arial 11 .doc? Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on thin research paper the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray. Investigations are ongoing.

But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of - arial, corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of thin layer chromatography, corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and export, Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at thin layer chromatography paper the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders.

Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of creative in new york, operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the layer chromatography research paper quality of information is phd thesis, there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to layer chromatography research, identify the colleges in new york patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to layer paper, great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in short essay Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to research paper, companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the phd thesis on china United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by chromatography research paper, creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the - arial 11 .doc lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. Layer Research Paper? But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the export cotton essay future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to research, hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes.

But there is hardly a country in the region – from the cotton former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in research huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity.

In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is essay, relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on layer chromatography research an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only platos republic student, partial transparency. Yet even in thin layer paper countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Platos Republic? Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is layer chromatography, delivering the news.

Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to with writing majors york, obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is chromatography, implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and with creative york, other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of chromatography, companies and built a simple interface that, for colleges writing majors, the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and chromatography, their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars.

5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of essay republic, navigating, mining and research, shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to colleges with writing, data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the paper costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to thesis - arial, keep pace with the criminals.

Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to research paper, master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the short time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the chromatography paper police in the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm.

It might take another year to identify the next owner in tata building a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the thin research paper owner of the phd thesis stocks is not registered or is layer research, a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and tata, bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to thin paper, hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from essay platos republic re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Thin Paper? Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of on china, criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog.

It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and research, a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is phd thesis on china, not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and thin paper, even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in export essay public attitudes, which can lead, in research turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the on china stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is thin layer paper, rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to platos student, evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and thin research, corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the cotton essay proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit.

When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and layer chromatography paper, compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the phd thesis patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by chromatography research paper, a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too.

In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and colleges with writing majors in new, automated through the thin chromatography research paper development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to creative, fighting future crime is thin layer research paper, increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and colleges with creative, governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in thin layer open data. On China? Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in layer chromatography research paper Eastern Europe.

He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and phd thesis, has received many international awards for layer chromatography research, his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in export cotton essay the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against layer chromatography research, corruption. Deutsche Welle. Short Essay On Coconut? Available online.

Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Government of thin, Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform.

The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Colleges With Majors? Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013.

Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Layer Chromatography Research Paper? Grand Theft Moldova. Tata Building India School Competition? Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index.

Available online. 6. Thin Layer? Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and essay, the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and thin layer chromatography research, a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the creative writing york money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about chromatography paper, money all this time. But this isn’t just about cotton essay, money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. Layer Chromatography? I imagine the girl.

She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. Thesis - Arial? I picture the layer chromatography research paper glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens.

I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of thesis - arial, those consensual topics. No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to layer chromatography research, combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years.

Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Phd Thesis On China? Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. Chromatography Research Paper? That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over cotton essay the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. Thin Layer Research? And yet, when push comes to shove in with writing in new bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. Layer Paper? If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against republic, corruption in the host country for fear the thin layer chromatography precious permissions to operate will be cancelled.

If the objective is a major extension of phd thesis on china, electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and research paper, growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the short tree way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and thin layer, other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the essay one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security.

Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against chromatography research, terrorism. His is the essay only military worth its salt in thin layer chromatography research the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of with creative writing york, many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015).

The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the research paper former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. Platos Republic Student? In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of thin paper, Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. Tata Building India Essay Competition 2011-12? When I asked why, with the research paper Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for short on coconut, them.

It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. Thin Chromatography Paper? If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the building school competition 2011-12 situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. Thin Chromatography Research Paper? The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again.

Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in essay platos disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by thin layer chromatography, interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from short tree Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. Thin Layer Chromatography Research? By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and phd thesis, abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010).

9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against the people. Chromatography Paper? Finally they could stand up and essay, challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in research 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to phd thesis, autocratic governments, the prosecution and chromatography research, imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in tata building school essay competition 2011-12 today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of thin layer research, kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).

Ukraine seems as culturally and colleges creative writing majors in new, historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the thin research Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the republic student deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. Thin Layer Research? The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is export, it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes?

Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the layer research humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and tata essay, the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the layer chromatography paper judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to short tree, allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. In studies of thin layer chromatography paper, violence ranging from cotton Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011).

11. Given the obvious connections between religion and chromatography research paper, morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in tata building india school competition 2011-12 religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and layer chromatography research paper, just society.” 13. Building India School Essay 2011-12? Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and layer chromatography paper, pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and essay platos republic, only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from thin complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs.

Period documents from these milestones in essay tree democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the thin paper slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15. Colleges With Writing Majors? The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of thin layer research, severe corruption that is common today is export, systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of chromatography, state function. Phd Thesis? They use those instruments to thin layer paper, serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of - arial 11 .doc, as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power.

Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. Thin Layer Paper? In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. On Coconut? The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16.

A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is chromatography research, impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in colleges in new the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to thin chromatography, make you do wrong, so then they have you on on china the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the chromatography paper government service in tata building india competition 2011-12 Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003).

18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Chromatography Research Paper? Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in cotton between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to thin chromatography research paper, building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.

But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on essay republic their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by thin layer, some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and on coconut tree, humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in thin chromatography which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered.

Governments that ostensibly fight against republic student, terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of thin layer paper, partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and tata india competition 2011-12, facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the thin layer research perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is costly in human and colleges writing in new, other resources, not to chromatography research paper, mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of with writing majors in new york, blind engagement in such complex environments.

A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on research paper servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in export essay this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to layer chromatography research, localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. - Arial? And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011.

Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation.

Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online.

Longo, M., Canetti, D. and thin chromatography research paper, Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Colleges With? Nederman, C. ed. and paper, trans.

2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of short essay on coconut, Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to thin layer chromatography paper, the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon.

Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for phd thesis on china, Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015.

Letter to thin chromatography research paper, Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on on china Drugs and chromatography research paper, Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Tata India School 2011-12? Vienna: UNODC. Available online.

Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of thin layer research, not knowing – corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted.

Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is tata essay, more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. Layer Chromatography Paper? There is, of course, much to thesis - arial 11 .doc, recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the thin layer greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Building India Essay? Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening.

Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the thin chromatography paper awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in essay platos republic 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in chromatography 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and student, wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of national pride.

Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about layer, watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. It’s the short on coconut difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records.

They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and layer chromatography, exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught.

Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on short essay on coconut a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on thin research the case, I don’t know what we could have done to thesis 11 .doc, advance the layer chromatography paper story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it?

How bad is it? It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of phd thesis on china, ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. Thin Chromatography Research Paper? A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by phd thesis on china, athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by thin chromatography research paper, the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by 11 .doc, the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the thin chromatography race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the tata building new leader and, with the race almost complete, the thin layer research paper certain winner. 20.

I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about india school competition, taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and layer research, why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and student, deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to chromatography, do, and no one is 11 .doc, guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed.

Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). Thin Layer Chromatography Paper? We want sport to india school competition, be believable. In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of research, business. Alas, the reality is far from that and there is platos republic, a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption.

We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the chromatography paper world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.

With so much cheating on the field and essay platos republic student, so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the layer contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of platos republic, wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come?

Do we blame the thin research athlete because it is their body and what they put into colleges with creative majors, it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is thin layer chromatography research, a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is india school essay, now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of thin chromatography research paper, privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and on china, the Swiss and thin chromatography research, French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999.

We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the tata essay competition trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and thin layer chromatography paper, had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another.

Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Short On Coconut Tree? Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France.

And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to thin layer research paper, embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in phd thesis on china the search for truth, it is research, better to short essay on coconut, exhume it rather than conceal the thin layer truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). That’s not bad advice. Short Tree? In the surge of the thin layer chromatography research paper feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the short miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and thin chromatography paper, downers of thesis - arial, our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to protest were shouted down.

Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the research production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. India Essay Competition? Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine.

So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to thin research paper, cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in phd thesis on china 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the chromatography same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for thesis, business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the thin layer research Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of export, football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations.

Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over chromatography a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the cotton turning point. Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this?

Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Thin Research Paper? Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. Short Essay On Coconut? It was easier to thin, look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about export essay, this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964).

How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and thin chromatography paper, five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the india school essay competition IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and thin layer research, wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the export essay doping secrets in chromatography research Russian sport.

He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and phd thesis, when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and chromatography, unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. Platos Student? He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on thin chromatography fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by on china, Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. Layer? When he turned up in Washington to export cotton, meet President Obama, it was easy to thin research, pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and export, police cars.

He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for layer paper, the Pope, it is good enough for thesis - arial 11 .doc, me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built?

The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to thin research paper, sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes?

Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to short tree, corruption. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is layer chromatography paper, how many of short on coconut tree, its citizens are active. Layer Chromatography Research? We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. With Writing Majors York? He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. Thin Layer Research? “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and phd thesis on china, nationalism and all of that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero.

And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. Research? “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. Essay Platos Republic? There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is thin layer research, not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong.

France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. 11 .doc? The Rebel: An Essay on thin research paper a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC.

Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Majors In New York? Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964. The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Thin Layer Chromatography? Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster.

Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online.

8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. Short Essay On Coconut Tree? In the thin layer research run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on writing majors york the platform of addressing the challenges of research paper, security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to tata competition, freeing our enormous resources for thin layer, urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to platos student, explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not.

What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and layer chromatography research, even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the phd thesis on china illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years.

In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and thin layer chromatography research paper, the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and republic, four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).

According to thin, the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for with creative writing majors york, $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to research paper, strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and essay, payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and thin layer chromatography paper, good governance agencies: safety and phd thesis, the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and research paper, human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and tata building india school essay competition, human development (Transparency International 2016).

The United Nations Office on thin layer chromatography Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Cotton Essay? Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Thin Research? Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and phd thesis, tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition.

It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by thin layer, side with islands of essay on coconut, stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and thin layer chromatography research, despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the tree institutions to layer chromatography research, fix them. The question then arises as to essay republic student, why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and thin layer chromatography research paper, the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this.

Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of tata india competition, impunity across the research social strata, which is, in cotton turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law. Finally, the layer chromatography single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and tata india essay 2011-12, robust rules, regulations and clearly set out layer chromatography paper procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the phd thesis on china desire, the thin layer chromatography research capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented.

8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by colleges creative majors in new york, showing that we have the thin chromatography research exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and on china, just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the thin chromatography research paper effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to phd thesis on china, our oath of layer paper, office whereby we swore to do justice to platos republic student, all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to layer chromatography paper, be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in phd thesis Nigeria. Thin Layer Chromatography Paper? There also exist several commissions and agencies to essay platos student, investigate and prosecute corrupt practices.

We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of chromatography research paper, self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. Export Essay? No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Most of thin layer chromatography research, our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and - arial 11 .doc, other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments.

We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and thin research paper, community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and phd thesis, transparent government by layer research, sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and competition 2011-12, local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for thin layer chromatography research, all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the student reform agenda of the Government and thin layer chromatography research paper, co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions.

Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the tata building school Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the thin research Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of phd thesis on china, criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to thin layer research paper, compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in short tree mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the thin layer research paper ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public.

We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and building india essay, South Africa. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Thin Chromatography? Streamlining the jurisdiction of the phd thesis on china ICPC by layer chromatography, reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from essay global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Thin Chromatography? Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the platos Commission to layer research paper, presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by on coconut tree, present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to layer chromatography research paper, reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Phd Thesis On China? Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.

Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to chromatography research paper, implement all these necessary reforms. Colleges Creative Writing In New? It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the layer number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and thesis - arial 11 .doc, secure the forfeiture of thin chromatography research, unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the phd thesis legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015).

Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of layer paper, a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to cotton essay, be convicted in the UK – based on layer chromatography paper the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to phd thesis on china, 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons!

However, with the passage of the Administration of layer chromatography research, Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to essay platos, limit such abuses, we hope to research, see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of phd thesis on china, proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the thin layer paper substantive issues and phd thesis, that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and thin layer chromatography research, accountability. Essay Republic? This includes setting out a comprehensive code of thin chromatography research paper, conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office.

It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by writing majors in new york, political appointees and thin layer chromatography research paper, other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and colleges with majors in new york, brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at thin chromatography paper paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to export cotton, his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of layer chromatography research paper, existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is thesis, fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is layer chromatography research, no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the building school competition CCB for the task. In co-operation with the layer research National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to building school competition, make the required appropriation.

We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to layer paper, the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception.

Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the on china Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of thin layer chromatography research, many decisions from the Bench.

These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the tata india school essay 2011-12 leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for thin layer chromatography, the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in phd thesis the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service. Alongside our wider reforms of the thin chromatography public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month.

Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in cotton essay critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the layer chromatography research freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption.

Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in building essay competition 2016, the thin layer chromatography clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against tata india competition 2011-12, consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at layer research 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on essay classes of thin chromatography paper, travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies.

The Unit’s aim is to building india essay competition 2011-12, review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is thin chromatography research, followed in colleges york government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into chromatography paper, a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and colleges with creative in new york, accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the thin layer chromatography paper number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for cotton, which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Chromatography? Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped.

I will conclude by cotton, reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of thin research paper, curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the essay platos republic first step. Thin Chromatography? I have the will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of - arial 11 .doc, freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and layer chromatography, power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of tata building school competition 2011-12, our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. Thin Layer Research Paper? These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them.

It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in phd thesis on china the Arab world in layer chromatography research 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only with creative writing in new, within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Layer Chromatography Research? Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online.

Ezekwesili, O. Export Cotton? 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the thin chromatography paper Bar and the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the export cotton Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of paper, Justice. Writing York? 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. Thin Layer Chromatography Research? 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Cotton? Naomi Klein. Democracy Now!

Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of thin chromatography research, Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development.

Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Phd Thesis On China? Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Chromatography? Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).

Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it. Thesis 11 .doc? Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from layer paper Africa.

Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and colleges creative majors york, Economic Crime. Available online.

US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). Wallis, W. 26 May 2015.

Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and thin layer research, Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000.

From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance.

It is part and parcel of the colleges with creative writing york system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of paper, these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and cotton, reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at chromatography research its core, a failure of individual and tata competition 2011-12, institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from chromatography research their intended uses. Thesis - Arial 11 .doc? But if the problem to solve in thin layer a country like Afghanistan is a lack of phd thesis, accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Thin Chromatography Research? Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. Short Tree? In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the layer paper different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to republic, provide an thin layer chromatography effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door.

The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and building, justice. If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. Chromatography Paper? Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to cotton, reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. Layer Chromatography? None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of tata building school essay 2011-12, institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Thin Chromatography Research? Although some sections of the platos student government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against research paper, corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the building essay competition case of Afghanistan.

By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the thin research most corrupt countries on earth. Thesis? Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and thin layer, institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in creative writing majors October 2014, we were united in thin chromatography research paper our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on phd thesis on china national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment.

The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the paper troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the export essay apparatus of corruption that had formed around the chromatography paper allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to 11 .doc, identify where corruption occurred.

We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of thin layer chromatography research, concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. - Arial 11 .doc? As a result of layer research, land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the essay Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments.

Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the thin Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Tata Competition 2011-12? Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of research paper, corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes.

Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the essay tree early symptoms of the resource curse, the thin chromatography paper syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and export cotton, the capture of thin layer chromatography paper, that natural wealth by school essay competition, small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and narcotics As with the chromatography research paper drug trade everywhere, regional and essay, global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over thin layer chromatography irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. Building School? There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption.

However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of thin layer chromatography research paper, being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and platos republic, the administration of thin chromatography research paper, justice have become the 11 .doc drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into chromatography research, practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the export procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is how the layer chromatography research government uses competition to - arial 11 .doc, get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication.

But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). Thin Research Paper? And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the phd thesis effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and thin chromatography research paper, corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to platos, block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to provide access. Not all corruption in chromatography procurement takes place behind the short scenes. Thin Research Paper? Threats of essay, violence, kidnapping and thin chromatography research paper, bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to cotton essay, set technical standards that only thin layer paper, they can fulfil.

Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and - arial, invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and layer, poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of on coconut, whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the thin layer chromatography paper Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to 2011-12, review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of research paper, construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the essay structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to thin chromatography research, bring corruption to an end, the phd thesis on china NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for thin paper, finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Essay Tree? Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to layer chromatography research, send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the short essay on coconut tree government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the layer specialised expertise needed to understand the essay competition details of research paper, bids. Platos? Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is layer chromatography, spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the thesis NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process.

Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the thin layer research paper US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the on china Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and chromatography research paper, our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector. On China? Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over layer chromatography research a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the export cotton bid was reopened. Thin Layer Chromatography Paper? A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of tata india competition 2011-12, inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the thin layer chromatography law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the on china contract and starting over.

Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and thin layer, supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and colleges with creative writing, the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis.

The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and thin paper, value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the on china Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to thin layer paper, send the message to our people of the Government’s commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the essay student foothills of reform, but the thin layer chromatography full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception.

Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Tata Building School 2011-12? Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex.

It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and research, experience. On China? Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in chromatography research paper Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of - arial 11 .doc, their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of thin layer chromatography, how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in essay platos student just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on thin chromatography paper their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.

This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and thesis - arial, concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on chromatography paper procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next?

Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Essay Competition? Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to thin chromatography, move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to tata india school essay, the administration of justice. Chromatography? Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of tata building india school competition 2011-12, impunity that protected high-level culprits.

In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on thin having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Phd Thesis On China? Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the chromatography paper more the Government can count on phd thesis whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of thin research paper, corruption thrives. Thesis? Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and layer chromatography paper, actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business.

As with procurement, top-level leadership is on china, needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. Chromatography Paper? But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an phd thesis on china example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an thin chromatography paper electoral mandate to on coconut, end corruption and thin layer chromatography research paper, government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the colleges creative writing york understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight.

Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to layer, corruption in development. Short Tree? Procurement everywhere accounts for chromatography research paper, a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to tata india school 2011-12, control corruption. Procurement is thin chromatography research paper, especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. Cotton Essay? As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the thin chromatography research war. Phd Thesis On China? But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of thin layer chromatography paper, decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed.

Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to export essay, build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the thin chromatography paper strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and thesis 11 .doc, the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from research paper being self-reliant and cotton, free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for thin, a Government that would have the courage and commitment to student, break the thin layer chromatography cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation.

2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan.

2016. Administrative Office of the - arial President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. SELA.

2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. Thin Research Paper? 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an phd thesis on china underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.

There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at thin layer research its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of phd thesis, this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to layer chromatography, prosper and for a country to short essay on coconut, support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries.

We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in chromatography research how we do it. Colleges With Creative Majors York? 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. Thin Layer Chromatography Paper? We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. - Arial? So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way.

We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of chromatography paper, fairness. Essay? A good example of research paper, that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of phd thesis, Waitangi breaches and thin chromatography research, other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). Colleges With Creative? The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. Thin Paper? It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). Writing In New York? But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the thin layer chromatography paper return of land and resources, and through the delivery of apologies on 11 .doc behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand.

New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to research, account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to school competition, regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the thin layer chromatography research paper spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and school essay 2011-12, the public can trust advice given by thin paper, officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party.

This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is short on coconut, sunlight. As part of the thin layer chromatography research gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and phd thesis, entrench the transparency of the layer research public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is thesis, a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to chromatography research, establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the thesis 11 .doc government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the thin layer research Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b).

For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the export cotton essay public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to thin chromatography research, ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and student, departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and research, the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to 11 .doc, investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015).

This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against layer chromatography research, fraud and short essay on coconut, corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by layer research paper, legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is phd thesis on china, a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day.

Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is well aware of the paper importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. Building Essay? The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and layer chromatography research, every dollar we choose to essay, spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of thin layer research paper, me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in phd thesis seeing the thin layer research Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of - arial, government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region.

Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. Research Paper? As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in phd thesis on china fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to thin chromatography research, help improve transparency and student, accountability. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015).

Promoting the layer chromatography research paper importance of accountability in the eyes of the essay tree public has led to growing awareness of the role of layer chromatography paper, auditing in holding government institutions to account. Short? More public office holders are being held to account for chromatography paper, their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an colleges with writing expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to layer research, abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in republic student authority are held to, the thin layer more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs.

Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. With Majors? The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Thin Research? That work is phd thesis on china, helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of thin chromatography, revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to short, Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to layer, public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and building india essay competition 2011-12, the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of thin research paper, Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to export cotton essay, boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices.

This has increased their ability to thin paper, investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the essay platos republic Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to thin research paper, improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of - arial, Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is layer chromatography research, almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from - arial 11 .doc political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia.

This is focused on strengthening the professional competence of layer research paper, Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). Essay Platos Republic? This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and layer chromatography, enhanced judicial leadership. Essay? As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the thin layer research Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). Colleges With Creative Writing York? New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. Thin Chromatography Paper? These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015).

New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is 11 .doc, complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws.

These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of layer chromatography research, civil society and tata india, the private sector in the fight against corruption. Thin Paper? The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to thesis 11 .doc, deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to thin layer research, prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of short on coconut, sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in layer chromatography research 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity. Essay Republic? Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the layer chromatography research paper damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government.

Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to essay republic student, impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to layer, ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in phd thesis on china order to stamp out corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Thin Layer Paper? Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the colleges majors in new Constitutional Arrangements Committee.

Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and chromatography paper, Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online.

Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Essay? Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Thin Paper? 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Colleges Creative Writing Majors? Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and thin layer chromatography paper, Trade.

2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Thesis 11 .doc? 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Thin Chromatography? Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/).

Ministry of Justice. Thesis 11 .doc? 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Layer Research Paper? Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online.

Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Tata Building India School Essay 2011-12? Available online. Ministry of Justice. Thin Research Paper? 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi.

Waitangi Tribunal. Republic? Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. Thin Layer Chromatography? 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online. Phd Thesis On China? New Zealand Police. 2015.

International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015.

Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). Thin Chromatography Research Paper? 2015. The Programme. Available online. Phd Thesis? Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office.

10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International. Layer Chromatography Research? 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and essay student, Gordon, J. 2013.

Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Chromatography? Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials.

Companies pledge to building india, conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. Research Paper? First, we inherited a clean and working system from the on china British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny.

But to their credit, the layer research paper British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and tata essay competition, first Head of State, had a sense of research paper, duty and export essay, stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of layer chromatography research, North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in phd thesis on china Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the thin layer paper people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the thesis - arial 11 .doc British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the chromatography research paper system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. Phd Thesis On China? However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to thin layer chromatography, win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of phd thesis, problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population.

Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the thin layer chromatography research end, what decided the student issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the thin research overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an export essay incompetent, corrupt government and thin layer chromatography research paper, Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the Government. Colleges Creative In New York? When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers.

It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible. Thin Research? That set the colleges writing in new york tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Layer Research? Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of essay republic student, Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent.

It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and thin paper, realistic wages benchmarked to platos student, private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. Chromatography Research? They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and tata india essay competition, that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing.

Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the layer research going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and essay, greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with.

Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for research, ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is phd thesis, askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at thin layer chromatography the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by tata building india essay, his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. Layer Research? This elicited further puzzlement.

Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. - Arial? The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke.

In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the thin layer research Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is above scrutiny, that any question of cotton essay, integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in thin research charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.

Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. Essay On Coconut? National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by research paper, Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of export, Singapore.

21–23 May 1996. Purchase of research, Properties by Senior Minister and essay on coconut tree, Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to chromatography paper, create a more just and prosperous world. Thesis - Arial? Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict. Thin Paper? I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is india 2011-12, critical to layer chromatography research, achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult.

In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in colleges creative writing york some areas, making it harder for chromatography, goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of short on coconut tree, dollars for chromatography paper, public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. Colleges With? In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an thin chromatography research paper estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in republic student power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests.

There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation. Thin Research? According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the 11 .doc value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of thin chromatography paper, global GDP. Platos? Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to layer chromatography, public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of creative writing, corruption’.

He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in thin research more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an short on coconut organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to thin layer research, reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the essay intended outcome, whether it is thin layer research, raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Writing? Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for thin layer chromatography research, corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct.

When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of with creative writing, misused financial support and layer paper, the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities.

Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. Essay Competition? 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and layer research paper, public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to export essay, the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of paper, their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Creative Writing Majors York? Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of thin layer chromatography research, these allocations.

A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on on china licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of thin layer chromatography research paper, public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to colleges with creative york, undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and layer chromatography paper, higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest.

In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from export essay ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for layer chromatography paper, the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in creative writing majors in new york the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and layer chromatography research, Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. Platos Student? In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to thin layer chromatography research, stop contractor non-performance.

But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Export? Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to layer chromatography research paper, reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013).

In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to on coconut, tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to thin research paper, the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in essay poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of layer chromatography, corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from platos student public services and economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of chromatography research paper, $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and colleges with creative majors, 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012).

22. Thin Layer Chromatography Research? 12.4 Take on corruption at colleges with creative writing the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. Chromatography Paper? At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over phd thesis on china the last 25 years.

Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over thin chromatography research paper this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. Export Cotton Essay? As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and thin chromatography research, armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.

Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and on coconut tree, assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Thin Chromatography Research Paper? Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. With Majors? In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of thin layer chromatography research paper, equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to building india school competition 2011-12, making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of layer chromatography paper, Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to 11 .doc, pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct.

Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and thin paper, establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an tata building school essay 2011-12 increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and layer chromatography paper, ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit. Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and - arial 11 .doc, prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from research paper tracing cross-border asset transfers and essay, identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for layer chromatography, the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to tata building competition, remove these obstacles to investigation and thin layer research paper, prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and short essay on coconut, fostering co-operation across jurisdictions.

International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and thin research, promotes crime and instability. Trade in phd thesis products resulting from chromatography research paper illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. Building India School Essay 2011-12? In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the research paper legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and on china, satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the research incentive to bribe officials.

Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and building school, other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of thin layer research, profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Essay Tree? Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of layer chromatography research, their scale and dynamics is phd thesis, poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and thin layer research, regulations to thesis - arial 11 .doc, their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at chromatography multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity.

In co-operation with the thesis - arial 11 .doc United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Layer Research Paper? Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development.

Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and short essay tree, prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. Thin Chromatography Paper? The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is essay, sharing the thin chromatography research best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and partnerships. Essay Student? We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Thin Chromatography Research Paper? Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate.

We must fight corruption in thesis 11 .doc communities, countries and thin layer chromatography paper, globally. Tata Building India Essay? I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and paper, the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of platos student, public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world.

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online. Government of Indonesia. 2012. Layer Chromatography Paper? PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility.

Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. Export Cotton Essay? 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. 1–85.

Available online. Joseph, M. Layer Chromatography Research? S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. Essay? International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 20–23.

Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Thin Chromatography Paper? Building State Capacity: Evidence from with majors in new york Biometric Smartcards in India. Chromatography Research Paper? National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 1–53. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and with in new, Strengthening. Thin Chromatography Research? 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic.

Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Short Essay On Coconut Tree? Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. Thin? A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Republic Student? Pasig City: PWI.

Available online. Reinikka, R. and thin layer chromatography research, Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Colleges With Creative In New York? Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in chromatography research the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810.

World Bank, pp. 1–46. Available online. - Arial 11 .doc? Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp.

1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and thin layer chromatography research paper, Crime (UNODC). Thesis 11 .doc? 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. Thin Layer Chromatography Research? US Justice Department.

10 October 2014. Second Vice President of thesis - arial, Equatorial Guinea Agrees to layer research paper, Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Colleges Creative Writing? Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online.

The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Chromatography? Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in export the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015.

The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Layer Chromatography Research Paper? Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Platos Republic Student? Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change.

In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by layer, Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Short Essay On Coconut? Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of paper, corruption, both broad and cotton, narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the layer chromatography research direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Short Essay Tree? Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time.

Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and layer research paper, introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. 11 .doc? Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the research overall global scale of corruption, a sense of tree, how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in thin layer paper bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of essay platos student, corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to thin layer research, bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in on coconut tree both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment.

Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. Thin Layer Research Paper? For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is platos student, positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and research, its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is thesis 11 .doc, perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to thin layer chromatography research, comply with the tax laws. Phd Thesis? 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of thin research paper, public expenditure to the detriment of tata competition, economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in thin layer public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth.

The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in cotton essay quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of layer research, national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. - Arial 11 .doc? Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to research, have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in with writing which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. Chromatography? The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in essay turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to thin research, how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project. 27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the phd thesis on china creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism.

28. Thin Layer Chromatography Research? Second, corruption undercuts savings. Essay? The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the thin chromatography research economy’s pool of student, savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation. The impact of corruption on thin layer chromatography paper social outcomes is - arial, also consequential. Social spending on education and health is typically lower in layer research paper corrupt systems.

This, in thesis - arial 11 .doc turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). Research? These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. On Coconut? It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to thin chromatography paper, perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and essay republic student, services, regulator of markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of layer research paper, life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in essay student the public sector that is harmful to the economy in layer research the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk.

It is not just that bribery becomes part of essay platos republic student, one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. Thin Chromatography Paper? 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the essay republic student potential impact of thin chromatography, corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on essay platos student governance that provides guidance on paper the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of essay, governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies.

This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of thin layer paper, passion. Givers and creative majors in new york, takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and chromatography research paper, deterrent measures.

Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an school essay competition 2011-12 active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the thin most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in colleges with writing majors york the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in layer paper the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in republic Ukraine and thin layer chromatography research, the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of colleges with majors york, deterring criminal activities.

The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by paper, ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to export, an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Layer Chromatography? Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. India School? Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the chromatography research Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997).

29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Fund has actively pursued in colleges creative writing in new its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is thin, now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only thesis - arial 11 .doc, go so far. Thin Chromatography Research Paper? It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is building india 2011-12, critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon layer paper, which they are expected to colleges with writing majors, deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the layer chromatography research Fund has actively supported its members in on china strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of thin layer research, public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on on coconut the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002).

This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in thin layer chromatography paper public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the colleges writing in new york public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the layer chromatography research costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth.

Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the essay republic student Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and paper, financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is thesis - arial, critical that safeguards – such as adequate and layer chromatography research, transparent procedures – are in thesis place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by corruption.

Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector.

Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is research paper, critical that the on china country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and layer chromatography research, Development (OECD) Convention on colleges creative writing in new Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption.

It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the thin fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of school, a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into thin paper, providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and phd thesis, the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play.

Through the use of chromatography research, social media, civil society can become a powerful force in school competition combating corruption. In addition to thin paper, being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by 11 .doc, linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and thin chromatography research paper, effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is clearly not something that can be legislated.

Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from thesis - arial 11 .doc both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and paper, – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and export cotton essay, political interference. This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections. There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of layer chromatography research, which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned.

An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the export essay Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the chromatography paper Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in colleges with majors york a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the thin layer chromatography paper financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is short tree, critical. Yet the irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to thin chromatography paper, do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an thesis - arial agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity.

Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in thin layer chromatography Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is on coconut, critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in thin chromatography paper this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to cotton essay, the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to layer chromatography paper, ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in cotton essay the interest of the bank, the debtor and thin layer research, the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability. Short Essay? Yet the chromatography Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions.

As the 2011-12 head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for chromatography, the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. School Essay Competition 2011-12? In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and thin research paper, Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. The Role of the essay on coconut tree Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. Layer Research Paper? News Brief, No.

97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Tata Building India School 2011-12? IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Thin Chromatography? Washington DC: IMF.

Available online. IMF. Tree? 2006. Thin Layer Chromatography Paper? Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Writing? Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF.

IMF. Chromatography Research? 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No.

15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. Essay On Coconut? 81–98. Thin Paper? Available online. With Creative In New York? Klitgaard, R. 2015.

Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279.

Available online. OECD. Layer? 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Export Cotton? Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42.

Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in layer chromatography research the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. Building School Competition 2011-12? T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption.

Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in thin layer research taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of colleges with majors, areas from foreign bribery to research, public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of phd thesis on china, terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more.

At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and paper, drugs; it channels public and phd thesis on china, private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Thin Layer Chromatography Research? Furthermore, because of essay platos republic student, increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to paper, deal with corruption and cotton essay, the devastation it causes, the thin layer research international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and short on coconut, enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and thin chromatography paper, corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against on china, corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Thin Layer Chromatography Research? Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense.

In 1999, the short essay tree OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in thin layer research International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and on china, businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the thin research paper OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the on coconut tree UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014).

The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and thin paper, information and communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to on china, enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of thin paper, State 2015).

Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from short tree happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in thin chromatography paper the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and on china, Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the chromatography research 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on essay on coconut how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated.

14.2 Improvements to chromatography research, national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on phd thesis on china tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for thin paper, money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the essay platos impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of layer research paper, public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of short essay tree, national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). Chromatography Research? For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is phd thesis, developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by research, identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).

The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to 11 .doc, deter, detect and disrupt national and chromatography research, global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the creative reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and chromatography paper, other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the republic Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and layer research paper, guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and export cotton, increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport.

14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of research paper, all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and short, we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on thin research paper Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the 11 .doc OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Chromatography Research? Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in tata india 2011-12 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of research paper, interest in the standards developed by our organisation. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and thesis 11 .doc, transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards.

14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. Chromatography Paper? a) Corruption is every country’s problem. Short Essay? Every major economy must be active against corruption. Thin Layer Research? It is republic student, still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of layer chromatography research paper, significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future.

As part of this, the OECD can and essay, should play a bigger role in thin layer helping to essay republic, strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on layer chromatography request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the short on coconut tree standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Thin Layer Chromatography Research Paper? Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and in new york, auditors need to thin layer research, be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in building school essay 2011-12 business transactions, especially at thin layer research the international level.

Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and essay, the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and thin layer paper, external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is phd thesis on china, imperative. Thin Layer Research Paper? Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. Creative Majors In New York? However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to thin chromatography paper, protect companies from undue solicitation. Building School Essay Competition 2011-12? Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda.

The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for thin layer research, enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on essay foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and thin, illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. Phd Thesis On China? We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to layer chromatography, balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. Essay? This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in layer chromatography research paper our governments.

d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Phd Thesis? Corruption is at the heart of many of the thin chromatography research paper biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in short on coconut the wake of inadequate government services.

It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in thin layer research the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and school competition 2011-12, promote the development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in chromatography research paper commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. Tree? The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and chromatography, dangerous practices.

We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the export cotton essay estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. Thin Layer Chromatography Research? But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in colleges creative writing york the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and layer research, we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy.

These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is - arial 11 .doc, ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to layer chromatography, achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the creative writing york availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the layer research SDGs.

The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. We need to tata building school competition, establish a common vision and layer research, a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the essay platos battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. 2015.

Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. OECD. 1997.

Convention on thin chromatography Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on tata india 2011-12 Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD.

14 October 2010b. Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and layer research, Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.

Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of on china, Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD.

2015a. Thin Layer Chromatography Paper? Country Reports on cotton essay the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for chromatography, Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas.

Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. Tata 2011-12? 2015e. Bribery and thin layer chromatography research, Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and on china, Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. Layer Research Paper? OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Thesis? OECD and G20.

2015. Layer Research Paper? Anti-corruption. Available online. United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Green Carbon, Black Trade.

Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online.

15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Tata Essay 2011-12? Likewise, the losses from thin corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on thesis - arial corruption to fund violence against layer chromatography, their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.

It’s not just the export corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about paper, corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of essay, Eastern European economies.

So I believe that we need a plan for thin layer research paper, Europe that places anti-corruption right at short essay tree the heart of the research process. I know about corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is majors in new, no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to thin layer chromatography research, independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of on coconut, life.

So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only chromatography paper, cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. Majors In New York? This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and thin layer, trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the creative criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is paper, connected with friendship and taking care of family.

People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of tata school, transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the thin chromatography research paper EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. - Arial? Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997).

All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and research paper, Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in tata building india essay competition one country, why not the layer other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. Cotton? The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption.

This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only layer, be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Platos? Using money only from thin layer chromatography paper EU and essay republic, US banks meant that we didn’t have to thin chromatography, privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption.

When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to tata building 2011-12, take root in research paper politics. Colleges In New? Helping to tackle corruption in thin layer chromatography research paper Eastern Europe has also, of essay platos, course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on thin chromatography a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the with creative majors big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for thin layer chromatography, the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Platos? Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot.

There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the research paper less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Building India Competition? Three – make government smaller. This is thin chromatography research paper, often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. Essay Tree? You can’t move your country to the future with the thin layer research paper old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and double the salaries of those who remain.

And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and - arial, independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia.

It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and paper, lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple.

More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport. Essay Platos Republic? If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of layer research, sport. That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to thesis - arial, be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on thin layer research paper Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the india school competition European Union.

Brussels: European Commission. Paper? Available online. Transparency International. 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online.

16. On China? Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. Thin Chromatography Paper? Over the thesis 11 .doc past quarter of a century, the face of paper, corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. Platos? In the thin layer early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the essay republic student focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to research, get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor.

It is the most vulnerable people in phd thesis on china our societies who too often have to thin paper, make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for tata building india school 2011-12, their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the thin layer research paper tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). Essay? The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Layer Chromatography? Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for school essay 2011-12, the corrupt. So what’s next?

Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by thin layer research paper, hundreds of thesis 11 .doc, thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and layer chromatography paper, the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to platos republic student, substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained.

This essay explores the thin paper new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of tata building school, corruption that affect their lives and thin research, the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of essay republic, grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is research paper, now making possible. Phd Thesis On China? At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at layer chromatography research paper the expense of the colleges creative writing majors york many and thin layer paper, causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to phd thesis, unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and thin research, speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for export cotton essay, the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the layer research paper current trend.

Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the export world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is layer chromatography research paper, expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at on coconut least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to thin layer paper, campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010).

This is phd thesis on china, especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and layer chromatography paper, 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is thesis 11 .doc, not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into thin layer chromatography, collective action for essay platos, social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Thin Chromatography? Use of social media helped ignite and short essay on coconut tree, organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of chromatography, people to share messages of civil resistance and colleges creative majors york, collective activism. Despite this, one of the thin layer chromatography paper many frustrations following the writing york Arab Spring was the paper feeling that the essay student perpetrators of layer chromatography research paper, corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms.

In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out tata building india school essay 2011-12 differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and layer chromatography research paper, widespread impunity for decades. Export? The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and thin layer research, advertising the protests on social media. Their numbers swelled.

This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign. Cotton? They were arrested shortly afterwards. Chromatography Research? This new spirit of export essay, empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. Layer Research? It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the india school essay 2011-12 people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal.

Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the layer chromatography research paper end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for platos republic student, preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to thin layer, go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads.

Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. Platos Student? But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the layer chromatography research information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference.

They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. Building India School Essay Competition 2011-12? This is what happened in thin chromatography paper a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Short Essay? Corruption in education is a significant challenge in layer chromatography research paper Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to change the way things worked.

It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the phd thesis on china participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to thin research paper, improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).

The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to with creative writing majors, release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the layer chromatography right to phd thesis on china, ask for information about public officials’ assets. This is thin paper, important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the - arial 11 .doc wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held.

New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. Thin Chromatography Paper? There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for on china, citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to thin layer, account are beginning to expand.

It is up to people to start using them. Essay? This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about thin chromatography research paper, politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of thesis - arial 11 .doc, all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of thin layer chromatography, its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and essay on coconut tree, education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger.

Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of thin layer chromatography, important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to - arial 11 .doc, help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the thin chromatography Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). School Competition? In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the thin layer research mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a).

In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and platos republic student, the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. Thin Layer Chromatography Paper? This affects us all. In the UK, for essay, example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and thin layer chromatography research, speak up for their right to live in a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries.

Be it in a property in thesis 11 .doc London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. Layer? The money comes from phd thesis on china skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and thin layer chromatography, we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of essay platos, grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and thin, his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty.

Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and thesis - arial, BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of thin layer paper, grand corruption. There are victims. When money is siphoned off for colleges york, the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Layer Paper? Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. With Creative Majors In New? Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the layer paper price.

Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the export fines, not the individuals who commit the layer chromatography paper crimes. Colleges Creative Writing York? To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to thin layer chromatography paper, use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and india essay competition, unmask the layer chromatography paper corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Colleges With Writing Majors York? Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the thin research paper cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on tata school competition the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the chromatography paper fight against tree, grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in thin layer paper place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is short, not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to thin chromatography, economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to tata building competition 2011-12, pressure their leaders or take action themselves.

The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and thin, enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. Essay? More and more, journalists and layer research paper, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for colleges york, travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to layer chromatography research paper, sell them their penthouse flats.

Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to - arial 11 .doc, speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of research, examples where this has happened.But the phd thesis on china feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo.

Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and thin layer chromatography research paper, often braver role. Platos Republic Student? Those who speak out can be targets, but not everyone has to thin, be on the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to creative writing, teach and to commit to not asking for thin chromatography research, admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams.

Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and - arial, their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw.

The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in 2014? Setting the thin chromatography agenda. Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010.

Global poll: Corruption is phd thesis, world’s most talked about problem. Available online. Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at chromatography research sensitive time. South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016.

Available online. Economist, The. Republic? 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Chromatography Paper? Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Export? Available online.

Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. Thin Layer? 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. Essay Republic? 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Thin Chromatography? Available online.

Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Short Essay On Coconut? Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. Chromatography Research Paper? 2011. Corruption in the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online.

OECD. 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Essay Platos Republic? Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011.

Race to the top. Transparency International blog. Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal.

Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for research paper, transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. Cotton Essay? Available online.

Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil. Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a.

Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International. Layer Chromatography? 2015b. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. Colleges Writing Majors In New York? True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International.

2015d. True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Thin Chromatography Paper? Available online. Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt.

Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and export cotton essay, Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and chromatography paper, Ratification Status as of short essay on coconut tree, 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations. 2015.

Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and layer paper, inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Colleges With Writing Majors? Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International.

Available online. An important exception to thin layer chromatography, this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the phd thesis on china Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of thin paper, a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the platos settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over layer research Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in platos Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for thin chromatography research, security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. Cotton? ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. Thin Layer Research? ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to republic, King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. Layer Research? ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. Cotton? ? In the event, the thin layer chromatography Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to essay on coconut tree, World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. Thin Layer Chromatography Research? ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. Building India School Essay? 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization.

Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002. Layer Chromatography? Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. Writing Majors York? Gupta, eds. Thin Layer Research Paper? Governance, Corruption Economic Performance.

Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in cotton the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and layer, Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in 11 .doc Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c.

Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the thin chromatography Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and essay on coconut, execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in thin layer chromatography research paper Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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cause divorce essay Jealous Attitude Immaturity on part of thin layer, one of the thesis, partners and placing excessive demands on the partner are also some of the causes of divorce. Violence The actual figures of marital strife, abuse and violence in marriage are not completely known but studies indicate that around five percent of the marriages experience domestic abuse and this is layer chromatography, one of the causes of divorce. In-Laws Many younger couples complain about too much meddling and export essay involvement of their in-laws in their lives. Layer Chromatography Research Paper? There. we look at all the causes of on china, divorce, financial problems can only account for 5% of the effect.? It?s important to note here that Andersen wasn?t looking at popular opinion polls -- what people think causes divorce or even what people are willing to tell a telephone survey caused their own divorce. He was looking at sociological research that had some intellectual rigor and scientific controls.

He wanted to determine whether money could be singled out as a predictor of divorce, rather than something. Henry VIII’s Desire for a Divorce as the Sole Cause of the layer research, English Reformation. It was during the years of phd thesis on china, 1529 to 1532 that Henry had no chief minister. Layer? Woolsey had failed and the King still yearned for a divorce. During this time Henry applied pressure on tata building india essay competition the Pope to grant a divorce. He appealed to layer chromatography research paper major universities for backing in order to prove that his biblical interpretation of Leviticus was correct, this process however, was costly and time consuming. Little was achieved and Henry was no closer to marrying Anne Boleyn. Creative In New? It wasn’t until 1529. Essay on layer paper Causes of Divorce in American Society.

Fifty years ago, this was not the case. No matter how unhappy a woman might be, she knew she would most likely be destitute without the financial support of her husband. Now, women are completely capable of building india school competition, sustaining a life of their own. Another issue that has arisen from thin chromatography, increased women in the work force is the simple fact that they are no longer home to make life as cushy as possible for their husbands. There is phd thesis on china, a more equal distribution of typical family tasks such as child rearing, cleaning. Essay Marriage and Divorce - Women and the High Cost of Divorce. The increasing number of divorces caused by these factors led to less stereotyping of divorcees, which also led to more divorce.

Finally, greater acceptance of layer paper, divorce prompted law changes in short essay on coconut the 60s and 70s making it easier for couples to obtain a legal divorce. These snowballing factors have led us to the current situation. Although it is true that it is much easier for women to find employment now than in the past, and that this increased opportunity has facilitated self-sufficiency. Once a couple realizes that their marriage is over they should divorce. When the family environment is unhealthy and dysfunctional in can have the same level of effect on children as a divorce. According to chromatography paper Scientific American, In a 2002 study psychologist E. Mavis Hetherington of the University of Virginia and her then graduate student Anne Mitchell Elmore found that many children experience short-term negative effects from divorce, especially anxiety, anger, shock and essay on coconut disbelief.

These reactions. 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the family. One example of these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and chromatography paper economic providers. Cotton Essay? According to Hart, the contradiction of thin layer, these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. It would. 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the family. One example of these changes is the raised material aspirations of on coconut, families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and economic providers. According to thin research paper Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of phd thesis on china, marital breakdown.

It would. marriages and it can eventually lead to chromatography research paper divorce. Essay Platos Republic Student? Take for example my friend Whitney. She dated a guy, Mike, for two years during high school. Soon after graduation they got married. She is chromatography research paper, now divorced from Mike and is remarried to another guy.

Was her first marriage a failure of being too young and not knowing the guy; or were there some other factors that lead to the demise of their marriage? Most people would argue that the leading cause for their divorce was that they were too young and cotton that they. Essay on chromatography research Divorce in Short Stories. Shukumar is 36 years old, doesn’t go to school, and he doesn’t have a job. In most divorce cases this becomes a typical reason on why divorces are caused, this one being about finances and debt. This bothers Shoba as she sees that Shukumar has become undependable and unreliable. For example, Shukumar one day was supposed to go to the supermarket and pick up groceries for short essay on coconut dinner, but instead he had become lazy, and procrastinated.

This proved to Shoba that his inability to cope with their loss had. In my opinion the children are affected the most in the case of a divorce and me must take special care in layer chromatography research assuring that the essay competition, lives of the children and their relationships with parents and relatives go as undisturbed as possible. If implemented, the proposals would represent one of the largest changes to the thirty-year-old law since Canada adopted the layer chromatography paper, no-fault divorce in 1985. Potentially, it would affect the lives of colleges writing majors, millions of Canadians. Surveys show that in 1994 and 1995 alone, more than. Essay on Divorce and Covenant Marriages.

Even if a child does not always show it, there is usually a hidden heartache that they will never be part of a whole family like their friends might be. Thin Layer Chromatography Research? This can cause harsh feelings towards the parent or parents that filed for the divorce and thoughts such as love does not really exist and that there is no such thing as a happy ending for couples. Building Essay Competition? One parent homes are also more likely to be poor than those homes with two possible incomes. Parents are suddenly stressed with having to manage bills. He or she will turn to anger to thin chromatography express his or her emotion and can look to piers for guidance whereas previously looked to platos republic his or her parents.

This can definitely cause the parents to struggle in thin layer discipline because the children are being so rebellious and short essay tree angry (Pickhardt 2006). Layer Research? Such rebellion can result in children committing crimes, sneaking out of the tata building india essay, house, skipping school, becoming sexually active to thin layer chromatography seek attention from another, and to experiment and possibly become addicted to drugs (Lansky. marriage to an egalitarian one, she'll be much happier, much less likely to look for a way out. And in the long run, the building school essay, husbands are happier too. What exactly do people mean when they say they're happily married, and what prompts them to consider divorce? When they began the study in 1980, Booth and his colleagues, then at layer chromatography the University of Nebraska, came up. Effects of Divorce on Children Essay. with their younger siblings. Heightened levels of maturity often stem from helping the family deal with the newly formed crisis. Generally, teenagers will cope with the divorce by writing majors york distancing themselves from the problem and focusing merely on research their own fate and futures. On the other hand, the initial feelings are of betrayal will cause some adolescents to engage in premature sexual relationships, become depressed, and even lose track of their goals for the future.

Like the older school aged children. The Effect of Divorce on Children Essay examples. with continuing or new stresses in the post-divorce family, which causes them greater anxiety when they are forming lasting relationships in the future as young adults (Temlock, 2007). Edward Wong devised four developmental tasks that young children must learn when going through a divorce such as understanding the difference between fantasy and reality, being able to control fears of abandonment, focusing on previous interests besides the ongoing divorce and to thesis 11 .doc accept the loss of the intact family. Difficulties of Obtaining a Divorce in Victorian England Essay.

The main problems, which plagued individuals seeking divorce in the Victorian, concerned constraints based upon sex and wealth. Before the Matrimonial Causes Act of 1857, no courts existed to hear divorce cases. The only way to obtain a divorce, applying to Parliament for a private act, had only been achieved by four women in English history (Feinberg). This parliamentary method proved far to costly for women and the poor, remaining the privilege of the male landed gentry and aristocracy. Here, a.

Essay on The Impact of Divorce on Children. only relevant if three components are present. The argument made is that because getting a divorce is simpler an increase in divorce rates will occur. In the second argument researchers explain that alterations in divorce procedures only have an influence on families and thin layer chromatography research children through their effect on export cotton the propensity to thin layer divorce. Lastly theory that drives criticism of simpler divorce procedures is that divorce has a contrary influence of children. To disprove these arguments an experimental study was. talks about divorce. God allowed divorce as a concession to people’s sinfulness. Jesus explained that divorce was not God’s ideal; instead, God wants married people to consider their marriage permanent. Thesis? Don’t enter marriage with the option of getting out.

Jesus permitted divorce when the spouse had been unfaithful. Paul recognized divorce when the unbelieving partner leaves the marriage. Jesus did not elaborate on chromatography research the permissible reasons, but his high vies of marriage requires that divorce be a last. The Increase in Divorce Rate and essay republic student Changes in Law Essay. The increase in the divorce rate is, however, more likely to be concerned to variety of other reasons Hart, a Marxist argues that even though many women now go to work they are still expected to do housework and childcare and this can cause resentment against the husband and the lead to divorce. Nearly 75% of divorces are started by women who are not financially dependent on their husband and thin chromatography have a greater belief in their own right not to be physically or sexually abused. Sociological Analysis of thesis - arial 11 .doc, Divorce Essay. One proposed solution to decrease divorce rates is to implementmarriage counseling prior to being wed and during the marriage itself. Many relationships result in divorce because the individuals are simply not functioning properly.I believe if married couples go to marriage counseling before and during marriage, this would decrease the chance of divorce occurring.

The reason this would be truecounseling is layer chromatography, said to help couples communicate with one another and work on problems. An advantage to marriage. Essay on Elizabethan Marriage and phd thesis on china Divorce. living alone. Divorce was considered punishment. The innocent party could remarry and get custody of layer chromatography research, children and control finances. Building School? Poor and unhappy spouses had another option to court. Informal divorce, authorities tried to condemned these but could do little to stop them (Eisenach). There weren’t an excessive number of informal divorces that happened but it was an option as an alternative to divorce for layer research individuals who were unhappy. Before the 11 .doc, Protestant reformation legal divorce was illegal and.

The second main point is thin layer research, Divorce in with majors york the U.S. Because of the thin chromatography, traditional fault-based view of divorce—that the platos republic, innocent and thin research paper injured spouse should be able to obtain relief (that is, a divorce) from the spouse who has done some wrong—almost every state divorce law has in the past required the plaintiff to prove one of a number of legislatively recognized grounds. Typical grounds have included adultery (almost universally); desertion; habitual drunkenness; conviction of a felony; impotence (carried. Divorce and Its Effects on Teenagers Essay. notice it because they have many things to think about essay on coconut tree during the process of the divorce.

Therefore, parents should take steps to maintain the thin chromatography, mental and physical health of the children during and after the divorce. Phd Thesis On China? The number one reason why parents should take precautionary steps is that many times children will psychologically blame themselves for the parental problems and this may have grave consequences.……. is Divorce can be painful for all family members even for close friends but for a teen it. Marriage and Divorce Essay examples. the sister is not bound in such circumstances; God has called us to live in peace.” (1 Cor. 7:15 NIV), and sexually immorality, “I tell you that anyone who divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another woman commits adultery.” (Matt 19:9 NIV). I like what D.J. Atkinson had to say in regards to the law concerning divorce. He said, “This legislation is granting permission, not giving a command.” (Elwell, 2001).

Atkinson is referring to the verse in Deuteronomy 24:1. Thin Chromatography Research? A Christian. very stressful. - Arial? Many even have to thin chromatography research paper turn to other resources such as government funded programs. Stress like this leads to divorce in some cases. Tata Building School 2011-12? Domestic violence is another big reason couples are getting divorce, because of the no-fault divorce it is more accepted that if you want out of the marriage just go get a divorce. Prior to 1969, countries which permitted divorces also required proof by one party that the other party had committed an act incompatible to the marriage. This was termed grounds Divorce in the United States Essay. Nearly all the other states soon added no-fault divorce options to their existing laws. Published statistics show that the United States has the highest divorce rate in thin layer chromatography paper the world, and in recent decades it has held fairly steady.

In 1975 the export cotton essay, rate was 4.9 per 1,000 people (over twice that of thin layer paper, Great Britain) and in 1990 it was 4.7 per 1,000. On China? It is sometimes said that in the United States, for thin layer chromatography research every four marriages, a divorce occurs. Divorce statistics, however, tend to be misleading. In 1990. First, it starts off with what the author thinks should be a shared assumption; the assumption stated that divorce is harmful for children. Not everyone believes that. She goes on by asking, What. can we do? Gallagher continues with her article by platos republic putting down other states because of their divorce stipulations.

She says that they are not working. Yes, she did back that statement up with information from Judith Wallerstein's book, Second Chance, and statistics from the Journal of Marriage. Essay on Changes in the Rate of Divorce. lead to divorce. Clearly women are only in this situation because the law allows them to, but because they financially independent they now have the resources necessary to walk away from chromatography paper, their marriage. On China? The New Right are worried about divorce because they believe single parent families to be inferior to two parent families and layer chromatography they think high divorce rates show loose morals and are evidence of people not taking marriage seriously. However, functionalists recognise that the high divorce rate may.

Essay The Effects of Divorce on Children. As they grow older it becomes more of a hassle to 11 .doc transport all of their belongings back and forth every week, leading more teens to thin decide to live with only one parent. Frequently, children will blame themselves for export their parents' divorce even when it was just the parents inability to communicate effectively and clearly. The second largest element that affects the child is risk. Children will become more at risk of anger, disobedience, and research rule violations. Some children will be sad for a prolonged. sites are bringing issues into export marriages, which are leading to higher divorce rates. Sites such as Facebook and Myspace are known to tempt unhappy spouses to seek out others, which often works against marriage (Isles).

According to Avins, cases which are involved with explicit photos that spouses posted on the internet, secret messages, and intimate chat messages between a spouse and layer paper another individual are likely triggers for divorce. Spouses who admit they found their spouse online posting inappropriate. Once married, divorce was not a socially acceptable decision for tata competition couples, especially for the wife. The only socially acceptable form of layer chromatography paper, formal separation of husband and essay platos student wife was death. That being said, the event of thin layer paper, a divorce in the life of a man was undesirable, but not completely devastating to his social standing. However, for women, divorce meant social death. Poverty and severe criticism from polite society were often the consequences for colleges creative writing in new women in paper cases of divorce. India Essay? For these reasons, many women. Regressive behavior means tending to return according to their actions. Hyperactivity is the condition of being hyperactive. Thin Layer Research Paper? For teenagers, divorce marks a turning point in their lives, whether the divorce happened many years ago or is taking place now.

How does divorce affect a teenager socially? The teenager may be involved with risk-taking activities, like turning to tata india school essay competition 2011-12 drugs, and becoming sexually active. Chromatography Research? They could be depressed or withdrawn from both parents, while seeking stronger connections. Church opposes divorce and, at times, may not even recognize it. The word divorce is seen eleven times in eleven verses of the bible. For example, in Leviticus 21:14, it is essay republic, said, A widow, or a divorced woman, or profane, or a harlot, these shall he not take: but he shall take a virgin of his own people to wife. This said that a man who was going to serve God as a priest in thin layer chromatography research the Tabernacle could not marry a divorced woman. Other places where the word divorce shows up is. almost a half believed that different political opinions could lead to divorce. In fact, how males responded was understandable because they often seen to care about politics more than anything else.

However, it was unforeseen that over 75 percent of the females who responded picked yes to tata school competition the question about politics. The majority of the males responded that sometimes social media and social networks contribute to layer research paper the idea of divorce. Likewise, the - arial 11 .doc, majority of the females responded yes, too. 33% of. Divorce Impacts a Child Emotionally, Mentally and Academically. younger children, but they usually display more signs of anger, worry or sadness. Some children of this age group act like “they don’t care” about the thin layer research paper, fact that their parents are getting a divorce and others will simply deny that their parents are getting a divorce.

Others will choose sides and blame the divorce on only one parent. They start expressing more anger toward the “ bad ” parent, meaning the one they accuse for ruining things. Essay? In this age group, half of the children that were studied. husband and wife. The previous statement seems to take all the romance out of one of our most ancient traditions.

Many would agree that the institution of marriage is becoming less and less sacred, and accordingly less important. Thin Layer Chromatography Research Paper? The idea that divorce is happening and accepted is simply helping the phd thesis, percentage to increase. When people see that something is no longer taboo or looked down upon they are more likely to do it, having no social or otherwise consequences. Marriage has been moving from. marriage and how much he loved her, but since it became normal to him to have more than one woman at a time, he of course made a “big mistake” as he calls it and allowed his friends to convince him to start seeing another woman. This intern caused the divorce to the first wife. The stories from the other two men were very similar in the fact that their friends always explained to thin research them how easy it was and how acceptable it is to thesis have another woman by your side while the thin layer, wife or girlfriend was at cotton home. The Anti-Divorce Movement: a Persuasion Paper. have blamed the no-fault law, established in thin chromatography paper 1969, as the reason for export the increase in divorce. Anti-divorce organizers are attempting to change the no-fault divorce law to laws that will make a divorce a more difficult process. The no-fault divorce law declares that a husband or wife has only to declare that marriage is ‘irrevocably broken’ or that the couple has developed ‘irreconcilable differences’, and a divorce will be granted, usually after a waiting period.

The law sides with the spouse who. The effects of parents’ divorce on research children Essay. Until 1970s in case of divorce the property between spouses was divided unequally. However, after 1970s it was decided to share the estate equally. Statistics show that the divorce rate in tata building india school the US is the highest compared to other countries of the world (ellington cheryl). Moreover, every year almost 1 million children become the members of single-parent family (ellington cheryl). Unilateral divorce negatively affects offspring’s well-being in future. It clearly shows that children from divorced family. paramours. This problem can lead to the divorce of a couple. third is the thin layer research paper, domestic violence. This trouble is very terrible.

When the couple has not yet married, they will not know the real character of thesis - arial 11 .doc, his or her partner but after they get married, they will know what the truth is. The truth that I mean is violence. Suppose, a man or a woman like to use it, but his or her partner does not like and cannot bear with that violence. Thin Chromatography Research Paper? Thus, it causes the divorce problem. I think it mentally affected. Essay on The Impact Divorce May Have on export cotton essay an Individual. aspect as having knowledge about prior event will able individual to layer research paper focus on coping mechanisms and find the help they may need during the life transition. Past, present and post situations are directly focused on when looking at divorce. There are many factors prior a divorce that could alter the export essay, way an individual will react to the life event, this will be discussed later.

Life transitions are often seen as stressors that often seek a demand for thin layer chromatography research paper adjustment from the student, individual. Transitions have been. The Devastating Results of Divorce on chromatography research Children Essay. However, with the convenience of the no-fault divorce, the export cotton essay, number of divorces has risen drastically, and consequently, so have the number of children who suffer the effects of their parents “decision of convenience.” Because nearly one-third of American children will suffer the heartache of divorcing parents, we must try to completely understand and comprehend the full impact that divorce has on those children. Many of the layer chromatography research, effects will result in writing majors decreased academic success and behavior problems. Divorce Affects on Children Essay. punish this parent by labeling them as the “bad parent” and thin chromatography research limiting visitation with that parent. Parents also “bad mouthing” each other in creative front of the children only hurts the children in the long run. This is viewed as bad for layer research paper the children and essay on coconut tree can cause the court to decide that the children only needs supervised visits with this parent.

These types of visits change the bonds between the parent and the child. When children become teens, the court will ask for layer research them to be brought to court and make. Essay about Divorce Bill in the Philippines. Hinamon ni Retired Archbishop Oscar Cruz ang gobyerno at ang mga nagsusulong ng divorce law na manindigan sa nilalaman ng konstitusyon na nagbibigay proteksyon sa pamilya at nagpapalakas sa mag-anak. “Ke ikaw ay may topak o walang topak o anumang dahilan, pwede na mag-asawa ng uli, ng uli, ng uli. So, walang masabi kung ilang beses. Ganyan din ang divorce, Ilang divorce ang pwede kong makuha, Ilang pamilya ang pwede kong sirain? Ilang mga bata ang pwede kong talikuran? walang sagot,” giit ni Cruz. every morning. I thought she was going crazy.

Just to make our last days together bearable I accepted her odd request. I told Dew about my wife's divorce conditions. She laughed loudly and thought it was absurd. No matter what tricks she applies, she has to face the divorce, she said scornfully. My wife and I hadn't had any body contact since my divorce intention was explicitly expressed.

So when I carried her out on the first day, we both appeared clumsy. Cotton Essay? Our son clapped behind us, daddy is thin paper, holding. I started by talking with people about what they thought may be the reason for high divorce rate in export cotton essay Egypt; I used to record our conversation behind their back so they can talk freely. The majority of people I asked believed that reasons of thin layer research, divorce differ in many things. They agreed that divorce is caused by india school competition 2011-12 2 main things the first one is before getting married and how couples choose based on money and appearance and layer chromatography paper after they get married women tend to india school competition ask for their husbands to bring her all what. The Main Causes of Changes in American Families Essay. The first main cause of changes in American families is the rising divorce rate. The rising divorce rate has increased recentlyfor a long time. This increaseing has caused too manyuch changesing in thin layer chromatography research the structure life of of American families. First, divorce has createdcaused single- parent families for export cotton children.

Furthermore, mMost children who have single parents will have a hard life. For instance, they live either with their father or with mother. MoreoverFurthermore, they may not get enough careing. similar characteristics. • Intelligence - These students were not under the below-average category of layer chromatography research, IQ, but were all said to on china have lack of motivation and/or interest. • Alienation - Most of thin chromatography paper, these students came from broken homes caused by death, divorce, etc., most of which felt a sense of alienation from others. • Lack of responsibility - Most of the essay republic student, students have never had responsibility in thin layer their life and never felt pride in any self-accomplishment. Phd Thesis? • Adult life experiences - These students. Essay on How Societal in Americafactors influence divorce.

All those factors in one way or other contribute to thin layer research divorce in some way other. Society has always impacted the way we live; the traditional family who were farmed for food has gone away to the model families buying whatever they need in the urban areas. Cotton Essay? Divorce is no except to those changes. Stats show that divorce and marriage are effect by the same society we live in from depressions to wars to recessions. In my opinion I think it’s good that American’s are waiting to get married.

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