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How to Write a Compare/Contrast Essay for The Great Gatsby
Black Boy Summary and Analysis of Part I, Chapters 1-5. Chapter One Summary: Black Boy, the autobiographical account of Richard Wright, begins with his childhood in Natchez, Mississippi. Richard is four years old, living with his younger brother, his parents, and his grandmother who is comparing and contrasting, bed-ridden. In a fit of fate essays mischief and spontaneity, Richard sets fire to some white curtains. The fire escalates, burning down half of the house.
Trying to escape punishment, Richard hides underneath the house. When his father finds him, Richard is comparing and contrasting, beaten almost to death and falls into a delirious sickness. The family moves to Memphis, Tennessee where they live in a tenement. Essay? With his father working as a night porter, Richard and his brother are not allowed to comparing and contrasting, make any noise during the rebecca solnit day. One day when a stray kitten begins to make noise, his father yells to: Kill that damn thing! Richard, wanting to anger his father, kills the kitten by strangling it even though he realizes that his father#39;s words were not meant to be taken literally. But Richard#39;s mother crushes him with the moral horror involved in taking a life. During the evening, she orders him to bury and pray for the cat. Richard, disgusted and afraid, is able to bury the cat but runs away when his mother forces him to ask for the Lord#39;s forgiveness. Hunger haunts Richard and his family, living in poverty and without much to eat.
His father abandons the family, and comparing characters, Richard begins to associate his pangs of solnit hunger with his father#39;s image. His mother takes a job as a cook for white families. One evening, she tells Richard that he must do the essay characters grocery shopping for the household, giving him a list and some money. Critical? When he goes past the corner, a gang of boys grabs him, snatch his basket, and take the money. His mother gives him more money, which is again stolen by the same boys.
When Richard returns, his mother hand him more money and essay comparing and contrasting, a large stick, kicking him out of the house until he learns to rebecca solnit essays, fight back. Essay And Contrasting Characters? Richard blindly beats the gang of boys using the pro lethal stick as a weapon, finally bringing the groceries home. While his mother is at work, Richard gets into mischief with other neglected black children, spying on people in essay comparing characters the public outhouses. To keep her children out of pro lethal essays mischief, Richard#39;s mother sometimes brought the two boys to work. Essay Comparing And Contrasting Characters? Richard wonders why the white people have food and a problem by anton chekhov, he was left hungry. While his mother was at work, he also frequented the comparing characters local saloon, begging for money, peering under the door, and talking to injection essays, drunkards. One day, a man drags him into the saloon and orders Richard to drink a whiskey.
Soon, Richard is drunk, and for a few drinks and some money, provides entertainment to the bar by shouting obscenities that the men tell him to shout. Everyday, Richard returns to the saloon until he craves alcohol. Not being bale to stand it, his mother finally places him in the care of an old black woman to comparing, watch over the boys. When schoolchildren would leave their books on the sidewalk to go and play, Richard taught himself how to read various words. One day, his mother asks him to wait for the coal deliveryman while she and his younger brother were at work. Upon learning that Richard is unable to count, the deliveryman sit him down and teaches Richard to analysis, count to 100. When his mother sees that he can count, she encourages him to read and soon, he is able to read the newspaper.
He learns to ask too many questions, and this way, learns about the relationship between blacks and whites. He does not understand how the distinction is made because his grandmother was very white and never looked ?white#39; to comparing, him. Oscar Romero Movie Essay? When a white man beat the black boy in the neighborhood, Richard becomes bewildered with confusion. Essay Characters? Richard begins school at the Howard Institute and on his first day, is very reluctant to go. Scared and unable to perfect essay, speak from being so nervous, he sits and listens to the other students.
At recess, he hangs around a group of older boys and learns new expletives and profanity. When he returns home for the day, he shows off his newfound vocabulary by writing the words he learned in soap on neighborhood windows. When his mother learns of his activities, she forces him to go outside and wash every single word off with water. Richard#39;s mother becomes very religious, and sometimes drags him to Sunday school. And Contrasting Characters? One Sunday evening, the preacher is invited over to their house for dinner: fried chicken. But before he may eat the chicken, Richard#39;s mother tells him that he must finish his soup. The preacher, already finished with his soup, has finished several pieces of chicken. When Richard finally finishes what seems to be his bottomless bowl of soup, he cries: That preacher#39;s going to eat all the chicken! Hunger again subsumes him when his mother denies him dinner for his bad manners. Hunger is with Richard at all times. His mother tries to sue his father for child support, but the judge rules against her favor.
When there is no longer enough money to pay the rent, Richard and his brother are put in and orphanage run by Miss Simon. Miss Simon disallows visits from their mother, claiming that she spoils them with attention. She also tries to win Richard#39;s confidence by making him her personal helper. But Richard is unable to do the small task she asks of a problem essay him, instead standing still and crying. He then runs away from the and contrasting characters orphanage, and romero movie, is brought back by some white policemen. On his mother#39;s next visit, Richard is given the choice of staying in the orphanage or asking his father for money.
He and his mother confront his father for a second time, outside of court. Comparing Characters? His father has brought another woman with him, who thinks Richard is cute. Richard leaves that day with the feeling of something unclean. He describes a meeting with his father twenty-five years later, at a plantation in Mississippi. Older, Richard pities and forgives his father. He sees his father as a black peasant whose life had been hopelessly snarled in the city, the same city that provides Richard with success and knowledge later in life. Chapter One Analysis: Black Boy is written in retrospect, from the viewpoint of grown and matured Richard Wright. Chekhov Essay? The style of Wright#39;s first-person narratives brings two important factors into the story. The first is that the reader is allowed into the insights of the comparing characters author on his own childhood.
Wright is able to make a very powerful commentary regarding the era in which he documents in Black Boy. Second, we must realize that although the accounts are taken as autobiographical, Wright#39;s narrative allows him the freedom to invent rather than recording only the events and facts of his childhood. Wright does, in fact, generalize his own experiences to draw conclusions about the manner in which society functions. From the accounts of his childhood, we can sense that Richard feels alienated from his family. He is fearful of his mother#39;s intense beatings, careful to avoid his father, and perfect, deathly afraid of his grandmother#39;s white image. This theme of alienation is one that continues, both in relation to Richard#39;s family, the black community, as well as the white community. This sense of isolation comes out in rebellion, evidenced by his burning the comparing and contrasting characters house down and killing the kitten.
Richard kills the kitten out of resentment towards his father and his unwillingness to obey authority. Richard#39;s parents and relatives play a wavering role between subordinators who try to suppress him and authority figures that try to raise with him under strict moral rule. The theme of alienation is well developed later in the novel, when he is introduced into the white world. The role of violence in Black Boy is also important in the novel. At a young age, Richard is pro lethal, still unaware of the and contrasting incredibly violence he is capable of. Essay? When he kills the cat, he does so out of and contrasting anger and fails to realize the moral reprehensibility of his act until looking back in retrospect. Pro Lethal? The cat can be seen as a symbol of the characters repressed: innocent, unknowing, and unaware.
When Richard ties a makeshift noose, he mimics the critical law essay hanging of essay comparing and contrasting black men, an image prevalent during an era dominated by the Klu Klux Klan and Jim Crow segregation laws. Similarly, Richard is able to a problem essay, earn his way to walk on the street when he learns to fight the gang of boys who had previously assaulted him on his way to the grocery store. This violence is comparing and contrasting characters, again repeated in a problem essay the harsh beatings that he receives from his elders. In this way, Wright is able to essay characters, portray violence as a way to oppress, a tool of the control. In juxtaposition to rebecca essays, the violent imagery, Wright is able to comparing and contrasting, portray a kind of innocence in his childhood years. Richard possesses a mischievous spirit and is not sure of movie how the world works.
Asking his mother why did the ?white#39; man whip the essay and contrasting characters ?black#39; boy, Richard is still unaware of the critical law essay social relationship between blacks and and contrasting, whites. To me [whites] were merely people like other people, he says. Similarly, when Richard traipses around the saloon, he has no idea of the analysis law essay grossness of the words he repeats for the entertainment of the adults. Throughout chapter one, as well as the comparing and contrasting characters rest of the novel, Wright places a special emphasis on the theme of hunger. Growing up in poverty, Richard is always hungry, yearning for food and left with a feeling of emptiness. This image of hunger is also used by Wright to display Richard#39;s thirst for knowledge: he is hungry to learn about the world, to devour knowledge. This hunger for knowledge reflects the growth or want of of Richard as an intellectual and artist. Another device that that Wright employs in Black Boy is dualism, specifically between black and white.
There is a constant play of words off the notion of black and white: Richard#39;s white-looking grandmother, the oscar romero white man who beats the black boy, the darkness of night, the comparing white boat he dreams of, the critical analysis black-and-white horses he spots. This dualism in imagery is a reflection of the dualism that Richard experiences in society, between the black community and and contrasting, the white community. Chapter Two Summary: Richard, his brother, and mother leave town to live with his aunt in Elaine Arkansas, and en route, they stop to visit Granny in Jackson, Mississippi. Granny#39;s house is two-stories, with long hallways and white plastered walls. To support the oscar romero movie essay household, Wright#39;s grandmother boarded a black schoolteacher with whom Richard was half afraid and half infatuated with. One day, Richard asks what Ella is comparing characters, reading and she proceeds to tell him the fairly tale of Bluebeard from 1001 Arabian Nights. When Granny walks in on them, she stops Ella, claiming that the story is the essays Devil#39;s work. And Contrasting? Never hearing the end of the tale, Richard is filled with a sense of emptiness and hunger. One day, Granny watches the solnit two boys to and contrasting characters, make sure they wash themselves properly.
When Richard fools around in life essay the bathwater, Granny orders him to bend over comparing and contrasting characters, and begins to scrub his behind. Without thinking, Richard tells her to injection, kiss back there when she is through. Still not realizing the perverseness of his comment, he does not know why he is being punished with severe beatings. Thinking that Ella has taught him foul practices, Granny forces Ella to move out of the house. On the train ride to Elaine, Richard realizes that at essay and contrasting his grandmother#39;s house he has gained a sharp and lasting impression of the relationship between whites and blacks. During his stay with Aunt Maggie and Uncle Hoskins, Richard is always surprised to see so much food on the table; Uncle Hoskins owned a saloon that catered to blacks who worked in the sawmills and experienced a great deal of economic success. Pro Lethal Essays? Still in essay comparing and contrasting characters disbelief, Richard often steals dinner rolls from the table and hides them in his pockets and around the house. One day Uncle Hoskins takes Richard on a buggy ride. Claiming that he is going to drive the buggy into the middle of the essays river so that the horse can drink water, Uncle Hoskins drives the buggy into the river until the water level is very high.
Frightened, Richard attempts to jump out. Essay Comparing And Contrasting? Back on fate essays, land, Richard refuses to listen or speak to him. Uncle Hoskins always left for work in the evenings to tend to the saloon. One morning, he fails to essay characters, return. At dinnertime, the family learns that white men who coveted his successful business have shot Uncle Hoskins. Quickly, the family packs their clothes and dishes into a farmer#39;s wagon and, without a funeral, leave for Granny#39;s house. At Granny#39;s house, Richard sees a line of soldiers as well as a chain gang, mistaking the black men for elephants. After a period of time, his mother moves the family back to West Helena, tired of Granny#39;s strict religious routine.
Back in West Helena, Richard and his brother stay at home while Aunt Maggie and his mother works as cooks during the daytime. The neighborhood children often sang racist songs about the essays Jewish proprietor of the corner grocery store. Wright claims that the essay and contrasting distrust and antagonism towards the Jewish was bred in his cultural heritage. One Saturday afternoon, a young girl mentions to Richard that something is being sold in the flat next door. Curious, Richard stand on a chair and peers through the window, spying on what he does not realize is law essay, prostitution.
He falls of his chair, startling the landlady#39;s customers. When his mother returns, the landlady requests that either his mother beat him for spying or the essay comparing and contrasting characters entire family moves out. Indignant, Richard#39;s mother refuses to beat him and the family moves to another house on life essay, the same street. Meanwhile, Aunt Maggie begins having secret visits at night from a man who is introduced to Richard and his brother as Professor Matthews. The boys are forbidden to essay, tell anybody about Prof. Matthews, who is going to be their new uncle. One night, Aunt Maggie and uncle move out in the middle of the solnit night.
From the characters bits of conversation the Richard is life, able to gather, he realizes that his uncle has killed somebody and must flee. Richard#39;s mother warns him never to mention what he has seen and comparing and contrasting characters, heard; otherwise the white people would kill [him]. With Aunt Maggie gone, the household income was reduced significantly and Richard was always hungry. Fate Essays? Panning to sell his poodle, Betsy, for a dollar, he washes her and takes her around to the houses in a white neighborhood. On woman tells Richard she does not have a dollar, but can give him 97 cents for the dog and pay him three cents later that evening. Getting nervous and wanting his dog back, he refuses to sell Betsy for less than a dollar. A week later, Betsy is run over by a truck.
Richard spends his days engrossed in his own world of fantasy and comparing characters, superstition. Essay? When his mother finally obtains a higher paying job, she sends him to school. Though he is capable of reading and writing, Richard is essay comparing and contrasting, paralyzed by fright and cannot even write his won name. A Problem By Anton Chekhov Essay? One day, class is let out early. Comparing And Contrasting? Whistles and bells pollute the air, and Richard learns the war is a problem essay, over. For the first time, he looks up and comparing, sees a plane, mistaking it for a bird.
Christmas comes, and Richard does not go out and play with the analysis other children; given only one orange, he nurses it all day, and finally savors eating it just before going to bed. Chapter Two Analysis: At the start of the chapter, Wright criticizes the black community for their lack of cultural unity and tradition. Essay And Contrasting Characters? This belief seems to stem from Wright#39;s own experiences of essay alienation from the black community as well as his own family. Wright was always quick to point out essay comparing and contrasting characters that despite the oppressive society created by white men and the Southern tradition, blame was to perfect life essay, be held over the black community for allowing themselves to be subordinated. He claims that black life in America was essentially bleak, and that the emotional strength of the community was simply born out of negative confusions. In chapter two, this portrayal of flight, fear, and confusion is reflected in Richard#39;s own constant moving.
Moving from comparing, orphanage, to his grandmother#39;s, to his Aunt Maggie#39;s and rebecca solnit, back to West Helena. Wright also depicts the image of feeling versus fighting when uncle and Aunt Maggie leave town to characters, avoid the law. This constant need to flee is romero movie essay, manifested in Richard#39;s feelings of alienation with his schoolmates. Before attending school in West Helena, Richard was absorbed in the activities of the other neglected children who roam the street playing pranks. In school, Richard describes himself using the and contrasting characters metaphor as still as stone because his feeling of isolation almost paralyzes him. Among the other black children there is no sense of friendship or unity. Critical Analysis Law Essay? Instead, Richard is mistrusting of the others, hating them as well as himself. It is this mistrust that characterizes a large portion of Richard#39;s childhood. In chapter two, we see this evidenced in his unwillingness to trust Uncle Hoskins after he drives the buggy into the water. In chapter one, the same paralysis that occurs in school seems to occur with Miss Simon, who attempts to win over Richard#39;s confidence. This distrust is also seen in and contrasting characters Richard#39;s aversion to religion.
Unlike his extremely religious grandmother, Richard fails to place his faith in any kind of God. In the previous chapter, we see his annoyance with the preacher who eats all the chicken as well his reluctance to say a prayer for the dead cat. In chapter two, Richard describes his obsession with magic possibilities: his own made-up superstitions. These superstitions can be construed as a kind of backlash against conventional organized religion. Wright explains these superstitions as the result of believing he had no power to make things happen outside of [himself] in pro lethal injection essays the objective world. In other words, Richard#39;s own distrust of society, family, and comparing and contrasting characters, religion causes him to fate essays, internalize everything: his emotions, thoughts, actions, and beliefs.
In this chapter, we see that Richard begins to understand more about the essay comparing and contrasting characters social relations between blacks and whites. But unlike his mother, his hatred for the white community stems much deeper than racial injustice. Part of Richard#39;s internalization of fate essays emotion causes him to place the essay and contrasting characters anger he has built toward his parents and others into his anger towards whites. Perfect Life? He describes how upon hearing rumors about racial beatings and murders he began to imagine men against whom he was powerless, giving meaning to confused defensive feelings that had long been sleeping. White people begin to become symbolic of essay comparing characters he general oppressor, representing every fear and perfect life essay, authority figure that had once intimated Richard despite the fact that he, himself, had never been abused by whites. In chapter two, the theme of dualism is emphasized not only in his discussion of blacks versus whites, but also in Wright#39;s use of the war as a background. World War I seems an appropriate setting for comparing and contrasting, the chapter because the perfect essay war in the background is and contrasting, a macrocosm of the emotional war inside Richard.
It also seems to be an important image because of Wright#39;s later involvement with the Communist Party and their agenda for unity. It is ironic that Wright describes the antagonism displayed by the black community toward Jews as part of their cultural heritage. For the same reasons that the whites persecute the blacks, the black children persecute the Jews with their tawdry songs and chants: ignorance. Fate Essays? There was no reason for their beliefs other than the fact that it was taught to them in home and in Sunday school. Two important symbols that are introduced at essay comparing the end of the chapter are the image of the airplane and the orange Richard is given on fate essays, Christmas Day.
The plane, which Richard is not familiar with, can be taken as a symbol of hope. He sees it during a celebration for the end of the war, perhaps making the plane a representation of essay comparing and contrasting peace. Rebecca? To Richard, who thinks it is a bird, the idea of man flying is comparing, unbelievable. After building a world of possibility and by anton chekhov essay, unbelievable superstitions, it seems to comparing and contrasting, bring hope to Richard that something so incredulous could happen. Pro Lethal Injection Essays? An orange often times symbolize luxury, but for Richard, it seems to mean the comparing characters exact opposite. It is a meager supplement for his hunger and also promotes his isolation. Perfect Essay? He watches and guards over it, staying away from the other children. Essay And Contrasting? The orange appears to symbolize Richard#39;s reality and the fantasy that is a problem by anton chekhov, forbidden to him. Chapter 3 Summary: Richard is now older, associating with a gang of older Black Boys who share what he describes as his learned hostility toward white people and the degrees of values assigned to race. He analyzes a typical afternoon with his gang: their conversation, their attitudes, and their ideologies. According to Wright, the gang#39;s dialogue is how the culture of essay characters one black household was thus transmitted to another black household.
With the gang, Richard also participates in fights against analysis white boys, throwing rocks and essay and contrasting, bottles, sometimes needing medical attention afterwards. One day, Richard and Leon find their mother in a comatose state. After calling the neighbors and a doctor, they find that she has had a stroke and that her entire left side is paralyzed. When his grandmother arrives, they move Ella to a problem by anton chekhov essay, Jackson, Mississippi where all of her relatives have gathered. Meanwhile, Richard has stopped eating and sleepwalks. Comparing And Contrasting? His relatives decide that Richard and his brother will be separated to live with different families. Leon, it has been decided, will move to Detroit with Aunt Maggie to finish his schooling. Richard, however, is perfect life essay, given a choice of which he would like to live with. Although jealous of his brother who is moving to the North, Richard chooses to live Uncle Clark in comparing and contrasting characters Greenwood, the closest location to Jackson.
After moving, Uncle Clark and life, Aunt Jody decide to enroll Richard in school immediately. At school, Richard is accepted by his peers after standing his ground during a fight. On his way home, he finds a ring in the street. Taking out the and contrasting characters stone and critical analysis law essay, leaving the ring#39;s prongs standing up, the ring becomes a makeshift weapon. The next day at school, no one challenges him to fight after seeing his weapon and Richard knows that he has truly been accepted. Mr. Burton, the owner and former occupant of Uncle Clark#39;s house stops by one evening.
He tells Richard about how his own dead son had once lived in Richard#39;s room and slept in Richard#39;s bed. Frightened by the prospect of ghosts, Richard cannot fall asleep in his won bed, but his uncle and aunt disallow him to sleep elsewhere. He suffers from insomnia and nightmares, and essay and contrasting, his studies at school are hurt by rebecca his lack of sleep. One evening, Richard takes the water pail to and contrasting characters, fill outside and drops it in his sleepiness. Wet and a problem by anton essay, tired, he lets out essay and contrasting a string of swear words. Aunt Jody hears his foul language and later that night, Uncle Clark whips Richard.
Afterwards, Richard tells his uncle that her wishes to return to Jackson. He leaves by train the very next Saturday. Richard does not return to school in Jackson. Instead, he stays at home and watches his mother grow increasingly sick. After being taken away for an operation in Clarksdale, Richard knows that his mother has gone out of his life.
He ceases to essays, react to her: My feelings were frozen. Wright explains that these experiences with his mother - and all his suffering - acted as motivation for his interest in intellectual activity, the only thing that made him feel alive. Chapter 3 Analysis: Wright is often praised for his ability to write profound, psychologically intense novels. Here, we see one method he uses effectively portray his characters and their environments: dialogue. The chapter opens with Richard analyzing line-by-line a typical conversation between himself and the gang. This dissection of conversation is important in understanding Richard#39;s mentality growing up because it analyzes his interaction with his peers. In reading their dialogue, we sense that the conversation skims the surface of an issue that runs deeper.
The gang#39;s words and essay comparing, actions revolve around their racial insecurities, confusion, and hatred without really discussing racism. This portrayal of the fate essays gang relates to Wright#39;s own criticism of the black community for allowing themselves to be subservient to whites. In chapter 3, the theme of isolation comes into play. Essay Comparing Characters? Richard as a Black Boy is isolated from the world of the white people, but this isolation is felt within his own race as well. Within he black community, he is never able to find a confidant and does not allow himself to reveal his feelings to anyone.
When he enters into the gang, he seems to find comrades among his fellow gang members, but their relationship is superficial - based on injection, their similar racial prejudices rather than friendship. The racial tension between blacks and whites is the only common factor that Richard seems to essay, share with those he befriends, which come into critical play later on in his autobiographical account. In a way, these tensions consume Richard and his attitude; his seemingly violent nature belies the anger and hatred that he stores emotionally. Essay? Similarly, when Richard must make friends at the new school in Greenwood, he must fight to gain trust and oscar romero movie essay, respect. His feeling of isolation is comparing, not limited to his peers.
His hostility toward Uncle Clark and Aunt Maggie is a problem by anton essay, one that is repeated toward his other relatives in comparing and contrasting characters later chapters. For Richard, Uncle Clark and pro lethal essays, Aunt Maggie provide routine and restraint that he is unused to. From the start, we see that Richard is different because of his strong will and essay and contrasting, insight. In some ways, refusing to sleep in his own bed can be interpreted as a manifestation of his unwillingness to obey authority or to conform. One source for a problem by anton, Richard#39;s isolation is revealed when he claims that after his mother#39;s operation, she becomes dead to him. Constantly sick and in pain, his mother becomes a symbol of the suffering Richard has encountered and characters, will encounter throughout the rest of his life. By disallowing himself any emotional reaction to her pain and pro lethal essays, sickness, he creates a facade for himself. We see that Richard deals with his pain essentially by building an emotional wall around him. Chapter 4 Summary: Now twelve, Richard lives with his grandparents, mother, and Aunt Addie in Jackson. An ardent member of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church, Richard#39;s grandmother forces him into an environment surrounded by and contrasting characters religion and prayer.
Because of her religious beliefs, Granny rarely serves meat of a problem by anton chekhov any kind. Instead, Richard lives off of lard and gravy, again feeling hunger. Granny believes that one sinful person in a household can bring down the entire family, and tries to persuade Richard to confess to her God. Richard is thus enrolled in the religious school, where Aunt Addie is the only teacher. Her first experience teaching, animosity instantly springs between her and Richard.
Wright describes her as determined that every student should know. that [he] was a sinner of whom she did not approve. Richard views his fellow pupils as willess, devoid of emotion. One afternoon, Aunt Addie reproaches Richard for eating in school, pointing at walnut crumbs on the floor under his desk. Essay And Contrasting Characters? Knowing that it was the boy in front of him who had been eating walnuts, Richard denies the accusation. In doing so, he accidentally calls her Aunt Addie instead of Miss Wilson. Richard does not want to tattle, and withstands Aunt Addie#39;s lashings, realizing that her anger storms more from romero movie, her own insecurity rather than his wrongdoing. Essay And Contrasting Characters? At home, Aunt Addie tries to beat Richard again, but he fights back and grabs a kitchen knife to use for defense. Richard continues at the religious school, but stops studying. Spending his time paying with the boys, he finds that the only games they know are brutal ones.
Aunt Addie#39;s orders them to play pop-the-whip, where the boys line up to essays, form a human whip. The only time Richard sees Aunt Addie laugh is when he is popped off the end of the line, his head bruised and bleeding. At home, granny maintain[s] a hard religious regime, forcing Richard to pray and withstand all-night ritualistic prayer meetings. Wright writes that had his personality not already been shaped and formed by the conditions of his life, he may have found God. Instead, he remains unaffected. Richard is growing and he begins to feel his hormones surge. In church, the only thing he can do is lust for essay and contrasting characters, the elder#39;s wife.
He even finds that he is sexually stimulated by the sweet sonorous hymn. When a religious revival is fate essays, announced, Richard feels pressure to be brought to God. One of the neighborhood boys is sent over to befriend Richard. Even Granny tries to comparing and contrasting, convince Richard to see God. During one evening sermon, Richard attempts to analysis law essay, allay his grandmother#39;s pressures by telling her that if he saw an and contrasting characters, angel like Jacob, he would believe in God. But she mishears him and thinking that Richard has actually seen an analysis law essay, angel, proceeds to tell the entire congregation. The incident causes Granny a great embarrassment and, out of guilt, Richard promises to pray for an hour each day. During his daily hour, Richard finds new ways of wasting time. One day, he decides to write a story about an comparing and contrasting characters, Indian girl who commits suicide by drowning herself. After reading the story to a young woman next door, Richard experiences a strange feeling of gratification.
Chapter 4 Analysis: Under his grandmother#39;s religious supervision, Richard once again feels hunger, both physically and intellectually. For Richard, religion is more of a hindrance than a path to salvation. It is his grandmother#39;s religious beliefs that not only prevent him from being adequately fed, but also stunt his intellectual growth. His education at chekhov essay the religious school is and contrasting, almost a joke and any literature other than the Bible is analysis, considered the Devil#39;s work by Granny and comparing and contrasting characters, Aunt Addie. Religion is another obstacle set down by authority to make him conform. Interacting with his peers at the religious school, he comes to movie essay, the conclusion that he does not need religion to be strong. Richard sees that the other boys are willess. When he is beaten for eating in essay and contrasting characters school, he realizes that there is no solidarity among these children, and that the students have no moral or brotherly obligation toward each other. The neighborhood boys sent to convince Richard to join in the revival disgusts Richard because of fate essays his own ignorance. Rather than open his heart toward religion, Richard is probably inclined to become more isolated and essay and contrasting characters, independent.
It is this sense of isolation and independence that, in chekhov the end, drives Richard toward writing. In this chapter, we still see that Richard is young and naive. He does not realize that power that words have (a power he will discover later in life). Instead, his writing brings him satisfaction only because his words confuse others. Essay Comparing And Contrasting Characters? The reaction of the young lady will be echoed later in rebecca essays the novel when others read Richard#39;s writing and question him. Chapter 5 Summary: Granny and Aunt Addie, giving up on Richard as lost, force him to do his own chores. Richard enters Jim Hill public school with only one year of unbroken study. On the first day of school, he is challenged to fight with two of the school bullies. Worried that he will not be accepted, he takes the challenge and is reprimanded by the teacher.
Nevertheless, Richard excels school, and and contrasting characters, is promoted from the oscar essay fifth to the sixth grade in two weeks. Comparing And Contrasting? Most of his schoolmates work mornings, evenings, and Saturdays to earn enough money for clothes, books, and lunch. But Granny does not allow Richard to chekhov essay, work on the Sabbath due to her Seventh Day Adventist beliefs. Unable to work, Richard goes hungry during school while all his schoolmates buy lunch. Hunger plagues Richard, making him weak. In class, another rebellious Black Boy asks Richard why he doesn#39;t buy lunch. Learning that Richard needs a job, the boy tells Richard about a job selling papers.
The papers are published in Chicago and comparing characters, the boy tells Richard the job#39;s benefit: he can make money as well as read the magazine/comic strip that comes with the paper. With Granny#39;s approval, Richard sells the papers in the Negro area for a dime each. reading only the magazine supplement. Injection Essays? One day, a family friend who regularly buys the papers asks Richard if he knows what he is selling. The man sits Richard down, showing him the racist propaganda and the Ku Klux Klan articles in the paper. Disgusted with his own ignorance, Richard throws his paper away and never sells them again. Meanwhile, Richard excels at his studies, burning through volumes of books and outside reading. When summer came, Richard is still not allowed to work during Sabbath. One summer night, Richard tries to interject in one of Granny and Aunt Addie#39;s religious debates. To punish him for opening his mouth, Granny reaches to slap him but Richard ducks in time to avoid her blow.
Instead, Granny#39; momentum sends her down the porch steps, leaving her barely conscious and bed-ridden for six weeks. Essay Comparing And Contrasting Characters? Aunt Addie confronts Richard, saying: you are evil. You bring nothin#39; but trouble! Addie threatens to beat Richard, and for a month, Richard carries a kitchen knife to romero movie essay, bed with him for protection. Towards the end of summer, Richard obtains a job as an assistant to an insurance agent named Brother Mance. He fills out essay forms for illiterate blacks on plantations who wish to buy insurance. On his trips to the plantations, Richard is astonished at the ignorance and naivete of the plantation families he meets.
The money Richard is a problem by anton essay, able to earn disappears quickly and essay comparing characters, Brother Mance dies, leaving Richard jobless once again. Richard begins the seventh grade and feels his old hunger once again. One morning, Richard leans that his grandfather is seriously ill. Grandpa has been wounded in the Civil War and never received his disability pension, something he took with bitterness. For decades, Grandpa would write to the War Department to claim his pension, with no luck. During the days of Grandpa#39;s sickness, the family wrote letters, drew affidavits, and held conferences in an attempt to claim his pension - to no avail.
After coming home from school one day, Richard is told to go upstairs and say good-bye to Grandpa. Richard is sent to critical analysis, tell Uncle Tom the news. When he arrives with the news, Uncle Tom shows nothing but anger and characters, Richard realizes that he always seems to provoke hostility in others. Richard becomes ashamed of his shabby clothing, comparing himself to other boys who begin to wear long-pants suits. Finally desperate to work, he argues with granny until she allows him to critical analysis law essay, work on the Sabbath (with the stipulation that he is going to essay, Hell). Granny and Aunt Addie consider Richard spiritually dead, but his mother approves of his defiance. Chapter 5 Analysis: All his life, Richard has been programmed to react with hostility and violence. At school, he finds that he can only perfect life essay, gain acceptance among his peers if he is able to fight the other boys. At home, he can defend himself against beatings only by showing the comparing and contrasting same brutality toward his authority figures. Oscar Movie? When Uncle Tom is angered by Richard#39;s words, Richard realizes that he does nothing but provoke hostility in others. He has been trained emotionally to essay characters, regard everyone as his opponent.
His violent nature perhaps stems from the lack of compassion shown to him by those who are expected to oscar romero movie essay, nurture him: his mother, his relatives, his teachers, and his elders. Comparing And Contrasting Characters? In this chapter, Richard experiences for the first time the life decision he must make between the value of comparing money versus the value of his moral and rebecca solnit essays, social beliefs. The same papers that allow him to buy lunch, to essay and contrasting, read, and to make money also promote the racist values that Richard is humbled by. Perfect Essay? Later in Richard#39;s experiences, this tradeoff between social subservience and essay characters, making money comes into play. The son of a sharecropper, Richard#39;s job as an assistant to Brother Mance brings him back to his roots on a problem by anton, the Southern plantations. Essay And Contrasting? He feels no ties or kinship to the plantation workers he meets. Their naivete, stupidity, and gullibility strike him as astonishing. His feelings play into his criticisms of the black community. He points out that his race#39;s social subservience stems from their own ignorance. There is no solidarity among blacks, proof given by their willingness to cheat each other just as Brother Mance sells life insurance to plantation workers who are likely never to see a dime of it.
Similarly, he holds the plantation workers accountable for their own lack of education. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/black-boy/study-guide/summary-part-i-chapters-1-5 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Black Boy Black Boy Summary Character List Summary And Analysis Part I, Chapters 1-5 Part I, Chapters 6-10 Part I, Chapters 11-14 Part II, Chapters 15-17 Part II, Chapters 18-20 Related Links Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan Mini-Store Richard Wright Biography. The Question and Answer section for Black Boy is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the pro lethal essays novel. Richard starts the house on fire by accident out of boredom, a four-year-old's foolishness, and curiosity. He wanted to see what the curtains would look like if he lit burning straws beneath them. this curiosity resulted in a blazing fire. Richard chooses to live with Uncle Clark and essay comparing characters, Aunt Jody in Greenwood when his mother falls ill because they are the relatives that live closest to Jackson.
She wanted Richard to stand up for himself. Oscar Romero Movie? She gives Richard a big stick and sends him to the store. Black Boy study guide contains a biography of Richard Wright, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Black Boy literature essays are academic essays for comparing characters, citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Black Boy.
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Lincoln Essay Contests, Lincoln Medals, and the Commercialization of Lincoln. Permissions : This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. Please contact firstname.lastname@example.org to use this work in a way not covered by essay and contrasting characters, the license. For more information, read Michigan Publishing's access and usage policy. Few Lincoln collectibles turn up more often in the online auction market than a medallion of the president that the fate essays, Illinois Watch Company of Springfield awarded, beginning in 1924, to the winner of the comparing, Lincoln Essay Contest in life essay hundreds of high schools across the land. The face of the essay comparing and contrasting, medal featured the image of Abraham Lincoln, while on the back was inscribed the name of the winner and date of the award—but not the name of the company ( Figure 1 ). Although the company's name had been included in the design of the medallion, it was expunged before the die was sunk. Behind this change lay the artist's objection to fate essays the advertising intent of the watch company. Other participants in the project were vexed and comparing and contrasting puzzled by this objection, but they eventually capitulated and movie essay the matter was forgotten. Yet it exemplifies the persistent belief that Lincoln has been over-commercialized.
The officers of the watch company, from its formation in 1870, had cherished their links to Lincoln. The first president was John T. Stuart, Lincoln's first law partner. In 1878, when the company was reorganized and renamed a final time, Jacob Bunn Sr., Lincoln's Page [End Page 36] banker, became the president. When he died in 1897, Jacob Bunn Jr. Comparing Characters! took the helm. The Bunns were not hesitant to injection associate the Illinois Watch Company and its pocket watches with Lincoln. In 1885, for example, the company sponsored Springfield, Ill. and Lincoln Souvenir , a portfolio of views of the town, including the Illinois Watch Company as well as the Lincoln landmarks.  Publications of the company routinely noted its proximity to the Lincoln Tomb. The foot of Monument Avenue, leading to the tomb in Oak Ridge Cemetery, rested on North Grand Avenue between First and Second streets; the company was located just blocks away on the northeast corner of Ninth and North Grand. In 1907 the company introduced the A. Lincoln watch, the only watch it ever offered in three different sizes. Essay Comparing And Contrasting! The Lincoln watch was a great success, the pro lethal essays, company making 102,095 of them by 1928, when the Bunn family sold the comparing and contrasting characters, enterprise to the Hamilton Watch Company. Oscar Essay! The A. Comparing! Lincoln was a quality watch, most versions of which were nearly as expensive as the Bunn Special. The prominence of the Bunn family, at least in fate essays Springfield, gave the comparing and contrasting, company's top line of watches a certain cachet, without impinging upon the reputation of the Lincoln watch.  The Lincoln watches, regardless of size, remain collectible—and confusing.
Because the life, signature A. Lincoln is engraved on the plate supporting the mechanism inside the essay characters, watch, owners of the watch have frequently asked if it was at one time owned by the president. On one such occasion, his son, Robert Todd Lincoln, replied: I can only perfect essay, say to and contrasting you that I know nothing of such a watch as you describe. I think I know that Page [End Page 37] The watch company distributed a medalet and chain, to serve as a watch fob for the Lincoln watch. On the by anton, front was a profile of the president, with his name and essay characters dates on the circumference.
On the back, between an eagle and a Roman fasces—or bundle of fate essays rods—was written in capital letters, Illinois / Watch Company / Springfield / Makers of the / A. Lincoln / Watch . B. L. (Bela Lyon) Pratt, a leading Boston sculptor, designed the essay and contrasting, medalet, which was only about one and by anton chekhov essay a quarter inches in diameter. Essay Comparing And Contrasting Characters! The piece, although too small to movie essay be precisely rendered, was exceedingly popular. Essay And Contrasting Characters! The watch company distributed hundreds of medalets both with and without its A. Lincoln watches. Beginning in 1913 the company also distributed a lithographic portrait of Lincoln on canvas. This print included an embossed, circular stamp in the lower right corner, with the words Illinois Watch Co. Springfield on the circumference and The Lincoln Watch in the Page [End Page 40] middle, all in rebecca solnit essays capital letters. Placed in a gesso- and gilt-covered wood frame (about 11-by-14 inches), the print (about seven-by-ten inches) was produced by a lithographic process that made it appear as if it were an oil painting. The company sent its lithograph of Lincoln to essay and contrasting characters dealers across the land for display next to Illinois watches, a promotional effort that reinforced the fate essays, company's use of Lincoln.  It was but a small step from Lincoln paraphernalia that advertised the A. Lincoln watch to an essay contest that would associate the Lincoln name and image with the company's entire stock. Essay And Contrasting! By implication, each watch was as reliable and as steadfast as the Savior of the Union, each timepiece as honest as Honest Abe.
Moreover, the essay contest was a popular vehicle of civic education in the Progressive era, and no president more fully embodied the American creed than Lincoln. Jacob Bunn, president of the Illinois Watch Company, reflected this perspective in sending the following announcement to the high schools of the nation: In view of this city being the former home and burial place of our martyred president, Abraham Lincoln, and desiring to encourage the study of his life and character, this company without selfish motives have [sic] been considering for some time the rebecca solnit essays, advisability of presenting annually, to a student in the senior class of essay comparing and contrasting each High School in the United States, a very handsome medal of Abraham Lincoln. The idea in mind, Bunn continued, is to present the medal on Lincoln's birthday to the student Page [End Page 41] at each high school who is deemed by a panel of at least three teachers to have written the best short essay on Lincoln ( Figure 2 ). Bunn was already in touch with Walter C. Heath, president of the perfect essay, Whitehead Hoag Company of Newark, New Jersey, which welcomed the opportunity to strike the medal for the essay contest. Comparing And Contrasting! A leading maker of emblems and pins, buttons and badges, and other advertising novelties, Whitehead Hoag had by 1924 manufactured at least seventy-five medals, plaques, tokens, and coins in honor of Lincoln, including the Illinois Watch Company's medalet.
On June 1, 1923, Heath of Whitehead Hoag wrote Douglas Volk the first of many letters relating to Bunn's plans for the essay contest and the medal. An established artist, Volk had recently begun a series of Lincoln portraits that were based in part on the Lincoln life mask made by his father, Leonard Volk. Heath quoted Bunn's praise of a photograph of the Lincoln portrait that Douglas Volk had sold to the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York, in 1922: This picture is my ideal of rebecca solnit a Lincoln portrait. I like it better than any I have ever seen . ( Figure 3 ).  Others who had viewed the portrait on comparing and contrasting characters exhibition were no less enthusiastic. I can suggest no criticism of it at all, wrote Robert Lincoln. Mr. Volk's father made from critical analysis law essay, life the essay characters, bust of my father which is absolutely perfect as a likeness.
Mr. Douglas Volk's portrait shows him later in life and much changed in appearance, but Page [End Page 42] Douglas Volk first ventured into Lincoln portraiture in 1908, and that canvas, reworked in 1917, eventually found its way into the National Gallery of Art. It also achieved a kind of anonymous familiarity between 1954 and 1968, when it was featured on the regular four-cent U.S. postage stamp. During the 1920s, Volk became preoccupied with Lincoln portraits, beginning with the canvas that Bunn chose for the Illinois Watch Company award ( Figure 4 ). To simplify the medal's design, however, Whitehead Hoag could not use Volk's three-quarter-length portrait, which included Lincoln's hands and a background, but only a close-up view of Lincoln's head and shoulders. Furthermore, to reproduce the two-dimensional painting as a three-dimensional medal, Whitehead Hoag required a sculptor capable of making a relief, the mold of which, much reduced, would define the die used in essay striking the medal. Bunn suggested that Charles Keck be approached to make the model from which to cut the die. Keck was a prominent sculptor who had trained under Augustus Saint-Gaudens and had perfected his craft as a Rinehart scholar abroad. Bunn referred to him as a friend, and gave Heath the address of his studio in New York City. Volk, however, was not acquainted with Keck's work in the medal line. Comparing And Contrasting Characters! He referred instead to other sculptors, including Daniel Chester French, Herbert Adams, Robert Aitken, and J. Massey Rhind.
But as an alternative to law essay Keck, Volk clearly preferred Charles Louis Hinton ( Figure 5 ). Volk recommended Hinton as a talanted [sic] young sculptor, although his fifty-three-year-old friend was also a painter and book illustrator. In addition, Hinton, like the others, was an experienced medalist. But the important point was that Hinton might be willing to collaborate with Volk, while the other Page [End Page 45] Hinton and Volk were close friends at the National Academy of Design in New York City. In 1923 Hinton was midway through a forty-seven-year career as an characters academy instructor, while Volk, who also taught there, was the institution's recording secretary. Hinton had named one of his sons Douglas, and later, during the Depression, Volk turned for chekhov essay help to Hinton, president of the Artists Fellowship, Inc.
Hinton's father, like Volk's, had been a stonecutter in upstate New York, and the two academicians seemingly inherited a belief in and contrasting permanent, classical standards, a commitment that they upheld against the wild aberation [sic] of oscar movie essay younger artists into the ugliness and incompetency of the modernistic. Page [End Page 47] In planning the Lincoln medal, Volk and Hinton thought in terms of the essay and contrasting, Beaux Arts style as shaped by American sculptors since the essay, 1880s. By taking advantage of improvements in the technology of the reducing machine and by using the Janvier lathe to essay comparing and contrasting characters engrave a reduced copy of the medal directly into a steel die, the sculptors of the day created a rich legacy of artistic medals. On April 14, 1923, the National Sculpture Society, of which Hinton was the secretary, opened a major exhibition of sculpture and medals that took for critical analysis granted that medallic art, a difficult and worthy art, had become a branch of sculpture. The show included medals and characters sculpture by Adams, Aitken, French, and Hinton. By July 2, 1923, after Whitehead Hoag had interviewed and negotiated with several sculptors, Hinton was commissioned, as Volk wished. Hinton, as he developed the casts for the medallion, was eager to follow Volk's every suggestion. Convinced that the project would yield the finest Lincoln medal ever made, Hinton found the work such a heaven of delight that he gave it ten-hour days and hated night to come along to stop me.
Hinton and Volk corresponded frequently as the project went forward. Fate Essays! For more direct consultations, Volk visited Hinton in Bronxville, New York, and essay and contrasting Hinton traveled to Hewnoaks, Volk's summer retreat near Center Lovell, Maine. Mr. Hinton is here, Volk reported to Heath on July 27, and working like a Trojan with excellent results. Volk paid close attention to the details of Hinton's work, one indication of which is a page with their letters on which Hinton sketched Lincoln's right eye and right ear, and fate essays carefully identified the anatomical parts of essay each. A Problem Essay!  Hinton, an and contrasting characters unassuming gentleman, was wholly deferential to Volk, the master mind of the fate essays, project. What Hinton did not fully gauge, however, was Volk's insistence that Whitehead Hoag, and even the Illinois Watch Company, defer to him on other questions that arose. Comparing And Contrasting! Volk's obstinacy—for such it really was—nearly scuttled the whole project, even after Hinton had delivered the molds Page [End Page 48] to Newark on August 6, and the Whitehead Hoag people had declared themselves very much pleased with the work. Volk was, first of all, a stickler about copyright.
He agreed at the outset to accept $150 as nominal compensation for letting Whitehead Hoag reproduce his portrait of Lincoln as a medallion, but he returned the check for this purpose when the memorandum on the back of critical it seemed to infringe upon his own copyright of the painting. Heath promptly sent Volk a second check, specifying that it gave Whitehead Hoag the right to use the artist's work only on essay characters the medal, but Volk returned that, too, because he took issue with the wording on the design of the medal. The trouble was not the face of the piece, on which was stamped Lincoln in large capital letters, the years of his birth and death in smaller numerals, and, in minuscule size, in large and small caps, the names of the artist who drew the original ( delineavit ) and the sculptor who modeled it ( sculpsit ): Douglas.Volk. / Del . and Chas.L.Hinton. / Sc : (with the copyright symbol preceding Volk's name). What bothered Volk was the back of the medal. The words Lincoln / Essay Medal / Awarded to fate essays (all in capital letters) were followed by spaces (set off by two ribbons) on which the winner's name and essay comparing date of the award were to be inscribed. Fate Essays! To this was added in Whitehead Hoag's design: From the Illinois Watch Co . Such wording was unacceptable to Volk. It created the impression that the medal was a mere advertisement for the company. And Contrasting! It contradicted Bunn's announcement of the contest in which he assured high-school officials that the company's sponsorship was without selfish motives. As Volk saw it, the proposed medal would be robbed of dignity if it bore the name of any firm as donor. Critical Analysis Law Essay! Volk had accepted a nominal payment for use of his painting in light of the company's apparently lofty and patriotic intentions. Had he realized that a mere advertising idea lay behind the medal, no price would tempt me to use the head of Lincoln in essay comparing and contrasting characters this way.
Hinton, ever compliant, wrote Volk that his stand against commercializing Lincoln was the only right one, for it does seem awful to a problem by anton chekhov essay use Lincoln as an comparing ad.  Page [End Page 49] Heath was baffled by Volk's insistence that the analysis law essay, medallion would be corrupted if it carried the sponsor's name. Comparing! No other artist, in his experience, had taken such a stand, objecting in principle to any association of the sainted Lincoln with a mere commercial enterprise. Numerous Whitehead Hoag medals had been executed by sculptors of renown, such as Bela Pratt, who had created the medalet for analysis law essay the A. Lincoln watch, and essay none expressed the least scruple about injection, commercializing Lincoln. Heath thought that Bunn deserved some slight consideration in view of his choice of Volk's Lincoln over comparing and contrasting characters, Lincoln portraits by other artists, the watch company's substantial investment in fate essays the project, and the patriotic and educational value of the essay contest.
Heath also invoked the example of Tiffany's which, in a similar contest sponsored by the New York Times , had readily let the newspaper affix its name to thousands of medals. The watch company had already tentatively ordered eight thousand medals, and expected to increase the quantity to twelve or thirteen thousand when they have heard from all the and contrasting characters, High Schools of the country.  This was no trifling transaction. Hinton was also worried lest the project miscarry. He realized that he could not properly keep his name on the medal if Volk's was not there also, and it hurt him not to injection have our names associated together on essay comparing and contrasting the medal. He hesitated to law essay endorse Volk's alternatives. In place of the essay characters, watch company's name, Volk had suggested that the medal be inscribed From friends in the home town of Lincoln, but this was hardly an adequate identification of the sponsor. A Problem Chekhov! Similarly, Volk had proposed in place of his own name the phrase, From the essay comparing and contrasting, Volk Life Mask, but this reference to the artist's use of his father's cast of Lincoln's face was also vague. Perplexed by a problem chekhov, the situation, Hinton turned to Will H. Essay Comparing And Contrasting Characters! Low, his teacher and close friend whom he settled near in a problem by anton essay Bronxville, New York. Low lightheartedly observed that the medal would be two-sided: It would not discredit Volk to have his image of essay comparing Lincoln on one side and the watch company's name on the other. More tellingly, as Hinton reported, Jacob Bunn himself, when he saw the initial design of the medal, telegraphed right off to make the words of the oscar movie, watch co. even smaller than sketched, to make them as small as possible. 
Volk remained adamant. Essay! After years of work devoted to the development of my picture of perfect life Lincoln I could never justify its use for Page [End Page 50] advertising purposes, no matter how delicately veiled they might be. And so the characters, matter came down to Volk's ultimatum: Either his name or the watch company's had to come off the medal. There was no way for perfect essay Whitehead Hoag to resolve the issue until Jacob Bunn could be consulted, and essay characters he had left in July for an extended tour of Europe. Law Essay! Moving from place to place, he could not be cabled, nor did Heath think that all the nuances of the situation could be reduced to writing. For nearly two months, Whitehead Hoag waited for Bunn's return and the opportunity to discuss the medal with him directly.  Then, suddenly, Volk learned that Bunn was back in the country and had agreed to leave the characters, name of his Company off from [sic] the medal. Volk was of course pleased by the news. Perfect! He thanked Whitehead Hoag for its tempered patience in the situation. He also admitted that, from Bunn's point of view, the change entails something of a sacrifice, adding, however, that Lincoln's life itself stood for sacrifice.  Heath, Whitehead Hoag's president, soon visited Bunn in Springfield, probably to comparing hasten arrangements for oscar romero movie the production of the medal. Writing to Volk, he described the place of Jacob Bunn Sr. in the Lincoln story, adding that Jacob Bunn Jr. Essay Comparing Characters! thus came naturally by his interest in and affection for Mr.
Lincoln. Bunn showed Heath Lincoln's home, causing Heath to ask Volk for signed copies of Volk's portrait of Lincoln both for Bunn and a problem by anton the home. Altogether, as Heath wrote, Bunn was a man of very fine sentiments. Those who knew Bunn closely felt the essay comparing and contrasting characters, same, including, for example, Robert C. Lanphier, who developed the meter department Page [End Page 51] of the watch company into life, Sangamo Electric, a business that survived long after the demise of the and contrasting characters, parent company. Lanphier remembered Bunn, who was president of critical analysis both companies, as patient and understanding, a model of tact and fairness.  In 1923, as plans for the Lincoln essay contest took shape, Bunn demonstrated his integrity in another way.
With his sister and comparing and contrasting two brothers, he initiated a search for essays the beneficiaries of the depositors in characters their father's bank. When the J. Bunn Bank failed in 1878, a casualty of the depression of the previous five years, it was able to pay some fourteen hundred depositors only 71.5 cents on fate essays the dollar. Although legally discharged from any further obligation, the elder Bunn felt a moral obligation to repay the depositors in full, with interest at essay comparing characters, 5 percent per annum. By 1925, the romero movie essay, success of the watch company and other family businesses enabled his surviving children to distribute to the depositors or their heirs the full amount of the unpaid balance plus interest (240 percent). Altogether, nearly five thousand beneficiaries received $800,000. It was a singular gesture that gave the family an almost Lincolnesque reputation for honesty.
The Bunns were such a prominent and and contrasting respected family in fate essays Springfield that the press across the country reported the story as an act of noblesse oblige. Whether or not Douglas Volk ever knew of the largess of the Bunn family, he must have been pleased with the booklet that accompanied the Illinois Watch Company's Lincoln medal. Embossed on the front and back covers were the two sides of the medal. For the frontispiece, the watch company reproduced Volk's full painting, Page [End Page 52] considered by the critics as the finest portrait of Lincoln ever painted. The booklet included brief biographies of Volk and essay comparing and contrasting characters Hinton and a description of the medal's production. The medal, made of the finest solid government bronze, was about pro lethal essays, three inches in diameter (sufficient to qualify as a medallion), and it weighed nearly six ounces. The raised image of Lincoln stood out on the front, and, in lower relief on the back, a wreath of oak leaves encircled the inscription. Together, they made the piece approximately three-eighths of an comparing characters inch thick.
The manufacturer's name— Whitehead-Hoag —appeared on the rim of the medal but not in the booklet. The collaboration of painter, sculptor, and die-maker yielded a medallion at once attractive and distinctive. The lettering of Lincoln's name on the obverse and the descriptive wording on the reverse were simple and harmonious, although local jewelers often inscribed the winner's name and critical date of the contest in an incongruous font. At Volk's suggestion, or at least with his concurrence, Hinton accentuated Lincoln's head, especially his shock of hair. Hinton also modeled the face with sensitivity, becoming unsure of himself only in rendering the president's eyebrows. He silhouetted the essay comparing characters, sharply defined head against both a flat background and the soft, low relief of the shoulders. Unlike most sculptors who contributed to medallic art in America, Hinton based his Lincoln on a painting of the subject. The piece was altogether a worthy addition to the art of the medal in the Beaux Arts tradition. Whitehead Hoag were proud of the watch company medallion. It was singled out for a step-by-step display of medallic production in a process exhibit at the Newark Museum in 1928 ( Figure 6 ). Newark was at that time not only the home of fate essays Whitehead Hoag but also the showcase of John Cotton Dana's expansive redefinition of the essay comparing, public library.
As director of the critical analysis law essay, Newark Museum as well as the Newark Library, Dana manifested a lively interest in machine art. Essay And Contrasting! I would much prefer to show a Whitehead Hoag Exhibit than I would an oil painting, he wrote to Chester R. Hoag, whose company had for years loaned or donated its products to fate essays Dana's museum. The exhibit of comparing 1928 included different patinations of the watch company's medal, partly because Whitehead Page [End Page 53] Hoag had borrowed back the dies to make additional medals for the Lincoln essay contest. The booklet announcing the contest was sent to twenty-three thousand American high schools. The watch company gave participating schools wide latitude in setting up the contest, yet it also offered the assistance of both its Lincoln Essay Bureau and the Lincoln Centennial Association (of which Paul M. Angle was the executive secretary and Jacob Bunn was a director). Principals and teachers could expect to receive information and stories of the life of Lincoln from time to time, and they could send in the name of each winner and a copy of perfect each winning essay, if they wished. But nothing was required, and the efforts of the essay and contrasting characters, essay bureau were probably focused on mailings of the medal. The details of the contest were incidental to the company's hope that it would increase the study of Lincoln, advance the high ideals that Lincoln's life exemplified, and serve as an incentive to better government.
Although the medals first struck for critical the contest were dated on the anniversary of Lincoln's birthday in comparing and contrasting 1924, the life, booklet concluded with a letter of March 4, written by Francis G. Blair, the Illinois Superintendent of Public Instruction, which referred to essay characters unavoidable Page [End Page 54] delays in solnit starting the contest—delays occasioned at least partly by Volk's stand against commercializing Lincoln. When Volk opened the shipping carton containing the finished product, however, he must have been surprised to see that the essay comparing and contrasting, medallion itself rested in a velvet-lined display case, on the lid of which was printed, in capital letters, the words Presented by / Illinois Watch Co. / Springfield ( Figure 7 ). It seems never to have occurred to Volk, when he campaigned against the company's name on the medal, that it would appear on the case instead. Pro Lethal! Of course, case and medal often became separated in 1924 and afterwards. The number of medals now extant far exceeds the number of boxes and booklets. Nevertheless, Volk's victory was a limited one. In the essay comparing and contrasting, end, he appeared rather like an artistic Canute, attempting to turn back the tide of commercialization that has ever engulfed Lincoln. The Illinois Watch Company's essay bureau was apparently the responsibility of its advertising manager, William J. Oscar Movie! Barnes. It was probably Barnes who ordered additional medals from Whitehead Hoag from time to time. The patina of different medals varies substantially, and in essay comparing characters one case, at critical, least, even the year (1925) was stamped on the upper edge of the back of the essay characters, medal. Since the 1920s, thousands of the fate essays, watch company's medals have become keepsakes, but the piece itself and the story behind it, except as reconstituted here, are unknown. Bunn died in 1926, and in 1927 the family sold the company, although the Hamilton Watch Company used the plant to comparing characters make Page [End Page 55] Meanwhile, Charles Burnett, a career army officer with ties to rebecca Springfield, carried the idea of a Lincoln essay contest to Japan. Raised in Carlinville, where he attended Blackburn College, Burnett graduated from West Point in 1901. In 1925, en route to his third tour of essay comparing characters duty as military attache of the U.S. Essay! embassy in Tokyo, Lt.
Col. Burnett visited his brother in Springfield and became aware of the watch company's essay contest. Back in Japan, he arranged for the America-Japan Society (Nichi-Bei Kyokai), of which he was the secretary, to organize a similar competition, inasmuch as Lincoln belonged to the world and not to the United States alone ( Figure 8 ).  Thus began a forgotten chapter in the story of Japan's veneration of Lincoln. After the Japanese earthquake of 1923, the America-Japan Society (safely based in Frank Lloyd Wright's Imperial Hotel, which did not collapse) fostered American relief efforts in Tokyo and otherwise endeavored to cultivate good relations between the two nations. The society promptly endorsed Burnett's proposal that it invite Japanese students to write essays in English about Lincoln.
Writing to comparing characters Springfield, Burnett enclosed a copy of the romero movie, society's circular about the and contrasting characters, contest, portions of which he translated into pro lethal injection essays, English ( Figure 9 ). Essay And Contrasting Characters!  The Lincoln Centennial Association accepted the responsibility Page [End Page 57] for judging the Japanese papers on Lincoln on the understanding that only the obviously superior essays would be forwarded for its decision. Accordingly, Burnett sent fifty-nine essays to Paul M. Angle, who, with three leaders of the association—Henry A. Converse, Logan Hay, and George W. Bunn Jr.—painstakingly chose three winners in each class of rebecca solnit essays participants, including at first not only college and comparing and contrasting characters university students (above the age of fate essays sixteen) but also middle-school pupils (between eleven and sixteen). The judges were amazed at comparing and contrasting characters, the grasp of the factual aspect of the subject exhibited in these essays and were also impressed by the quality of the oscar movie, writing. To illustrate the point, Angle quoted a paragraph about Lincoln's Cooper Institute address in comparing and contrasting the prize-winning essay of a first-year student of Peers' College, Tokyo, and rebecca solnit essays asked, rhetorically, How many American College freshmen could surpass this passage, were they compelled to write in Japanese on the Emperor Meiji?  Page [End Page 58] The following February and on subsequent occasions close to essay comparing Lincoln's birthday, the America-Japan Society met to critical analysis present the prizes and listen to speeches. After each program, the society published the major addresses and selected essays. Prince Iyesato Tokugawa, president of the society, celebrated Lincoln as a gallant and democratic American Samurai, and declared that the spontaneous and unaffected reactions of the young men and women of Japan to and contrasting characters his great personality was proof that there is no barrier nor difference between the souls of the East and of the critical law essay, West.
The American ambassador to Japan reiterated Lincoln's transcendent role in cementing friendly relations between the two nations. The reading of these papers, Angle observed, offered some very interesting glimpses of the and contrasting characters, psychology of life young Japanese. For example, the comparing, essays of many older students manifest a keenness of feeling . at our policy of rebecca solnit Asiatic exclusion. Repeatedly the statement was made that if Lincoln were alive today he would never have permitted the adoption of such a policy. Essay And Contrasting! When Angle published one of the winning essays, even though it made no reference to immigration restriction, a reader sought to have it reprinted in the Seattle Times , so as to diminish the widespread feeling of distrust of the Japanese community on the West Coast. From the chekhov, Lincoln Centennial Association (renamed the Abraham Lincoln Association in 1929), the prize winners received individually inscribed medals. In addition, the America-Japan Society awarded cash prizes: one hundred yen to first-place winners, fifty yen to essay comparing and contrasting the runners-up. Such prizes, Prince Tokugawa opined, are humble ones, but the law essay, study of Lincoln's life was more valuable than any material reward, for it enriched the winners mentally and spiritually. 
The Illinois Watch Company's Lincoln medal was used as the comparing, frontispiece of each set of addresses and essays published by the Page [End Page 60] America-Japan Society. Rebecca Essays! Burnett at one point alluded to the essay program in the United States, established by Mr. Jacob Bunn, whose father had been a life-long friend of Lincoln, but nowhere in the society's annual publications was the watch company itself mentioned. And Contrasting Characters! The omission would have pleased Douglas Volk. Nevertheless, so long as the America-Japan Society awarded watch-company medals to the best essayists, it depended upon corporate support. In the spring of 1928, before announcing the third competition, Burnett inquired about the feasibility of continuing the pro lethal, essay contests even though the Illinois Watch Company is no more. To clarify the situation, he turned to his brother, Samuel T. Burnett, clerk of the U.S. District Court in Springfield, who then explained to a Hamilton Watch Company executive how the Illinois Watch Company supplied the medals. Essay Comparing And Contrasting! That of course has been pure philanthropy, since the Company's name has not appeared in any manner (at least not on the medal itself). Admitting that Hamilton's attention to business may leave little room for perfect ventures such as this, Burnett pointed out the difficulty of continuing the essay, contest without medals of some kind. Although Angle suggested that a biography of Lincoln might be awarded in lieu of the watch-company medal, the America-Japan Society, in cooperation with the Lincoln Centennial Association alone, decided in solnit essays effect to carry on as long as the comparing, supply of medals lasted.
On this basis, Angle handled the judging of Japanese student essays for rebecca solnit two more years. In 1930, however, the America-Japan Society postponed its Lincoln program until March due to a delay in the arrival of the prizes. Of the thousands of medals made by Whitehead Hoag for the Illinois Watch Company, Angle had obtained the last few that the manufacturer had on hand, and the Abraham Lincoln Association lacked the comparing, means to order more. Furthermore, Angle, an Page [End Page 61] accomplished writer himself, had become critical of the essays. The best of the lot was chosen because of its content but the language of the paper was not particularly good. Angle had no doubt become bored with the task of reading awkward prose. Yet, if the contest had not expired for internal reasons, it would surely have collapsed after 1930, as the rise the Japanese militarism strained relations between the United States and Japan. After only four or five years, interest in the Lincoln essay contest both in the United States and in Japan waned. Those who succeeded Bunn and Burnett lacked their commitment to the purposes of each program, and corporate support came to an end. Angle was realistic about the pro lethal, commercialization of Lincoln. When a director of the Abraham Lincoln Association complained about an advertisement for the Lincoln National Life Insurance Company of Fort Wayne, Indiana, Angle replied: It is entirely impossible, I suppose, to prevent 'commercialized' use of the name of Lincoln.
Angle could not see that the comparing and contrasting, insurance company's use of the name, however regrettable, was any different from the use to fate essays which it was put in the Illinois Watch Company's essay contest. Essay And Contrasting! In fact, in 1905 Robert Todd Lincoln himself had given the injection, insurance company permission to use Lincoln's name and essay and contrasting characters image.  Jacob Bunn's aim in creating the watch company's essay contest was no less acceptable. Indeed, it was commendable in its restraint, compared with the crass appropriation of Lincoln that was so widespread by the 1920s. In retrospect, it was not merely the Japanese continuation of Bunn's program that made it distinctive but, more especially, the short, obstinate, and essentially futile effort of fate essays Douglas Volk to stem the commercial exploitation of Lincoln. Page [End Page 62]
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1984 essay test 1984 : History is being rewritten, to conform with modern beliefs. All references to oldthink were being removed or rewritten. Now : History is being rewritten, to conform with modern beliefs. The most obvious example of this - The removal of and contrasting characters racist, Violent, or Sexist material from popular cartoons. Heckle Jeckle cartoons have been permanently shelved, since they are said to portray negros. Tom Jerry cartoons that contained the mamma character have also disappeared. You no. Essay on Mccarthyism in the Crucible/1984. head of states for every decision they make, it could be a fatal mistake because once they have got control of everything; as demonstrated in the 1984, there it is a problem by anton essay nearly impossible to change things to the way it was. Rebellion was shown by Winston even though he knew there was no change he could bring by going against the party. In 1984 Winston tried to stand up for what was right, but it was no use because the party was much stronger than one person, Winston himself.
Unlike Proctor. It has become the most difficult task presented to possible Communist states. In George Orwell's 1984 it is painfully obvious to both Winston and essay and contrasting, the reader that the classes and social aspects of Big Brother have been completely twisted and corrupted to critical law essay the core. Not only can the Inner Party receive more in benefits than the Outer Party or the Proles, but they are also able to break certain laws and rules which leads to an unfair and unjust advantage for all of the and contrasting characters, members of the life, Inner Party. This book was published as a political statement to the world regarding what will happen in 1984 if the national governments continued to migrate towards totalitarian powers. In 1949, the year this book was published, totalitarian powers and dictatorships were becoming more and more prominent in comparing the world. The title of this book suggests, to those in 1949, that the environment described in this book is a real possibility in rebecca solnit essays only thirty-five years. The Totalitarian Empires in the 40’s and 50’s could. is most likely more common than that of truth and understanding. It is much easier for the government to say what they want the people to know, therefore making sure the people don't know anything that the government wouldn't want them to know. In 1984, The Party is a prime example of one large lie.
They change the past, but don't tell anybody. Essay Comparing And Contrasting. Even if somebody did figure it out, it would be impossible to prove: And if all others accepted the lie which the Party imposed – if all records told the. that “received and transmitted simultaneously” and could hear “any sound above the fate essays, level of a very low whisper” (Orwell 6). Telescreens not only hear you but the see everything you do, your facial expressions and even what you are thinking. Essay Characters. (“Why Is 1984 Such a Frightening Novel, And What Tec.”) They can never be turned off unless you are in the Inner Party: “It could only be dimmed, but there was no way of rebecca solnit essays shutting it off completely” (Orwell 6). Symbolism in and contrasting characters 1984 by George Orwell Essay. Another major symbol in fate essays 1984 is dust. Dust is everywhere in Oceania. Comparing. It is in Winston’s apartment, on the streets, and even in perfect life the creases of comparing characters Mrs. Parson’s face. By Anton Chekhov. The dust, and the ruin it represents, symbolizes the level of the decay of the physical world prevalent in Oceania. It gives the impression that the quality of life in Oceania is constantly being made worse be the rules of the government.
This reinforces the theme of “the destruction of the human spirit.” Orwell was trying to impose upon. What are some of the characteristics of the proles that, in Winston's eyes, make them the ultimate means for overthrowing Big Brother? 9. From her first appearance as the dark-haired girl, through to the end of the novel, Julia is a key figure in and contrasting characters 1984. Trace the path of Julia in injection relation to Winston's life; in what ways does she influence him? Did you trust her, initially? Overall, do you feel she had a positive or negative impact upon him? 10.
After his first formal meeting with O'Brien, Winston. Essay. V for Vendetta/ 1984 Comparison Essay. control whilst the exaggeration in the lack of humanity in 1984 made it impossible for Winston to pro lethal successfully rebel and save Oceania. Essay Comparing. The exaggeration in the totalitarian government style is exactly what makes both the film and oscar romero, the novel a satire. The humanity of the essay comparing, proletarian populations in 1984 and V for Vendetta is ridiculed to movie essay such an extent that it affects their potential to rebel against their tyrannical governments. In 1984, the comparing and contrasting, proles are the only ones with any semblance of humanity. Essay The Novel 1984 by George Owells. anything then they erase the past, lie about rebecca solnit, it, make that lie beneficial to them, therefore, making the past impossible to prove. (Orwell 372). 1984 rarely explains the meaning of comparing truth and what it is, it explains that water is wet, and stone is hard, but the novel goes deeper into the meaning of truth in the eyes of the individual and the Party. Early in 1984 the common action of Doublethink, which is fate essays holding two contradictory beliefs in one's mind and accepting them both, is introduced. And Contrasting Characters. (Dwan. Law Essay. Essay about essay characters, 1984 and Fahrenheit 451. By showing this horrific aspect of society, Bradbury sends his warning.
Likewise, in 1984, when O’Brien, a member of the group that controls Oceania, is torturing Winston, he says, “The old civilizations claimed they were founded on love and justice. Ours is a problem by anton chekhov essay founded upon hatred… there will be no love, except the love of Big Brother,” (Orwell 267). The totalitarian government is creating a world where love will be replaced by hatred. The government wishes to rid society of love and compassion. A world.
Essay about History and the Novel 1984. In the novel 1984, Oceania is depicted as a totalitarian state. Oceania can be both similar and different compared to totalitarian states of the twentieth century, one imparticular, Germany's National Socialism. Oceania and National Socialism are similar in several ways. A large part of the novel deals with the relationship between The Party and society. Many of the techniques used by The Party are similar to those used by essay characters, Hitler. One of these ways, or techniques is propaganda. In Orwell's. Essay about 1984 Analysis: Important About Government. the government’s ability to control its world and oscar essay, people. Through language and the use of words and images, they are able to convince people to live in constant fear of their government. The profound concept that is derived through the language of 1984 is the revitilization of language, and changing the way people think and talk.
Through the creation of the new language in essay and contrasting characters the land of Oceania, Newspeak, words and concepts that would create the fate essays, thought of essay and contrasting rebellion and defiance are eliminated and. An Analysis of George Orwell and 1984 Essay. in Southwold, England and began to look for work as a young adult (Quinn). The oppression he felt from his earliest experiences are just one half of the driving force for rebecca solnit his many novels, the most biographically and comparing characters, historically relevant being 1984, published within a year before his death. His experiences in school, although criticized for being exaggerated by fellow classmates, are primarily what sets the tone for his beliefs in adulthood and further sets the tone for essay his final piece of work. know how much better life could be. The society has all of the comparing and contrasting characters, decisions made for them by the government. Another major characteristic of dystopias is that an object or concept is worshiped (Wright).
Big Brother is the leader of the Party in analysis law essay 1984’s society, and in order to remain alive and sane one must respect and comparing and contrasting, love him at all costs. Pro Lethal. O’Brian tells Winston, “The time has come for essay comparing and contrasting you to love Big Brother. It is by anton not enough to obey him; you must love him” (Orwell 282). Everyone is essay comparing characters capable of. Discuss Orwell#x27;s treatment of individualism in 1984 Essays. proletariat (proles). Orwell treats individualism as a form of forbidden fruit in 1984: the Party disallows it in order to maintain their all-consuming power, Winston and Julia desire it but betray each other and lose it forever, and the proles are ignorant to its existence and their own power. It is impossible to give an unbiased account of the existence of a sense of pro lethal injection `self' within the characters and groupings within 1984, as everyone else's individualism is understood only through the medium of Winston's. Essay about 1984 a Novel by George Orwell. terrorism and rebellion against the government. Even though these actions may justify the means at this point in time, what stops these seats of power going further like in 1984?
What stops the comparing characters, governments we rely so heavily on, from becoming so obsessed with control that constant surveillance becomes a fact of life? Not only did 1984 plant the seed of suspicion in my mind about governments, it left me disturbed and shocked about the main character Winston. In the final part of the book Winston and a problem chekhov, his. Comparison: Present to 1984, by George Orwell Essay. Despite all of these spying efforts, the essay and contrasting, government does not yet have the rebecca, authority to place “telescreens” in every family’s home to monitor all activities. Essay Comparing And Contrasting Characters. In 1984, “The telescreen received and transmitted simultaneously. Any sound that Winston made, above the level of a very low whisper, would be picked up by it; moreover, so long as he remained within the field of vision which the metal plaque commanded, he could be seen as well as heard” (Orwell 3).
Even though nearly all Americans have. Solnit Essays. George Orwell#x27;s 1984: Fiction Or Reality? Essay. Ventura, Governor of Minnesota said, #8220;Organized religion is a sham!'; Laws are in place to keep religion out of public schools as well as other government bodies. The next step is for them to ban religion entirely, as #8220;the party'; did in 1984. The three major powers in comparing characters the novel, Oceania, Eurasia and Eastasia parallel the major alliances that exist today. Oceania coincides with the modern day organization, NATO. As we have seen during the Persian Gulf war and essay, the war in comparing and contrasting Kosovo, this. The Political Satire of The Novel 1984 by oscar romero movie essay, George Orwell Essay. storekeeper, and O’brien, a powerful member of the Inner Party . Comparing And Contrasting. The totalitarian government uses its absolute power to repress the citizens’ sexual impulses and control the minds of its citizens.
Practically, every single aspect of the society in 1984 is controlled, especially where sexual desires, compassion, love and affection are forbidden and the phrase I love you, is non-existent as it is prohibited by solnit, “The Party”. The rules of “The Party” state that, The sex instinct creates a world of. desperate, almost insane, about the essay characters, sharp spasmodic yelps to which they now gave utterance (Huxley 20). At a young age, the entire society is critical analysis conditioned to stay away from intense emotion, engage in casual sex, and take their soma. In 1984, written by essay and contrasting, George Orwell, the great party leader is the Big Brother. Big Brother is much more involved in the society than the analysis, leader of the Brave New World, Ford, of Huxley's book, named after the automaker Henry Ford.
The main character Winston. Dystopia#x27;s in the Opening Passages of 1984 and The Handmaid#x27;s Tale They are never left alone which ties into 1984, where Winston Smith is essay characters aloud no solitude. This idea is perhaps heightened in The Handmaid's Tale because of the feminist prose and pro lethal, the lack of essay comparing characters freedom aloud to women. An example of the oppression instantly made known in The Handmaid's Tale occurs on the second page, where the Handmaids are not even allowed to touch hands or talk (but do so anyway) in the night time, when the Aunts watch over them constantly. This is a sign of totalitarianism as.
George Orwell#x27;s Nineteen Eighty-Four 1984 Essay. rather genuine, led the arrest, for he was a member of the unknown thoughtpolice. Julia is essay killed, and Winston is and contrasting characters taken by the thoughtpolice to fate essays the ministry of essay and contrasting love, where he is to be held for his crimes.As is the basis for futuristic novels such as 1984, Orwell foreshadows much of the events that occur, through vague or inanimate objects. The most noticeable device for foreshadowing was Winston’s dream of the Golden place with fields and rays of light, a basic human paradise. Such a place foreshadows. 1984 by a problem chekhov essay, George Orwell a Comparison to essay and contrasting the World Essay. obedient and help the party even more to have power. Chekhov Essay. The themes of obedience and oppression are linked to the current day through the fact that almost everywhere we go there are security cameras watching what we do just like telescreens are used in essay comparing 1984. Even in our school there are cameras in every single corner. Fate Essays. Another way in how this connects to the real world is that the patriot act does not allow us to speak our free words, in fact just like big brother can do to us, we can be arrested and held. Compare and Contrast Essay: Brave New World Versus 1984. and ethics. On the other side in 1984, the perfect totalitarian state is depicted where power is endorsed by force, and control is achieved by the incessant observation of essay comparing characters their citizens, psychological manipulation and the control of history.
In contrast of rebecca solnit essays Huxley’s Brave New World, in characters 1984 the manipulation of the citizens is seen by intimidation and force, rather than by a seemingly happy society that accepts their oppression. Analysis Law Essay. The all- powerful state in and contrasting characters 1984 monitors and controls every aspect. How 1984 Relates to 20th Century European History Essay. The proletarians in 1984 are called proles. The Revolution was led by intellectuals; the peasants did not care about the ideals of the Revolution. They were only concerned with having food on the table, and land on which to live.
Ultimately the Revolution was betrayed, and became a totalitarian state led by Stalin. Did the Communists in 1917, when the intellectuals seized the power for the ultimate good of the solnit, peasants, really have the best interests of the peasants at heart? The main opponent. Characters. Essay on Beer Et Al’s (1984) Harvard Model of Hrm Notes. productivity, and hence, even more profits. Soft HRM stands in contrast with the hard variant. Hard HRM is generally associated with the Michigan School (Forbrun et al., 1984). Its emphasis is on the use of human resource (HR) systems to ‘drive’ the attainment of the strategic objectives of the organizations (Forbrun et al., 1984). While soft HRM emphasizes the human element of HRM, the emphasis of the hard approach is very much on the resource as a means of maximizing shareholder value over the short. Aldous Huxley#x27;s Brave New World and Geroge Orwell#x27;s 1984 Essay. that make them forget what they desired in the first place.
1984 takes all pleasures away from people and then redirects the strong feelings of desire that they have towards ideas that support the government. An example of this point within the books is the societies#8217; attitudes towards sex. In Brave New World, sex is taken for granted. Analysis Law Essay. Everyone is essay characters encouraged to have sex with everyone else and critical, monogamy is viewed as being strange. In 1984, sex is viewed as being necessary only for reproduction and. Essay about Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury and 1984 by George Orwell. dystopia of Fahrenheit 451 is made pleasant intentionally so that the reader can relate it to his own world. All the houses are in good shape, the roads are clean, and and contrasting, everything is orderly. However, in Orwell’s dystopia, conditions are far worse. 1984 is set in Oceania in a city named London. The reason for the ramshackle state of the city is because Orwell draws most of the setting from the. Essay about Compare and Contrast 1984-Brave New World. something normal seem completely hazardous and how reliance on others can be purged as you do not know what to expect from anyone.
Even though people may be unhappy, this demonstrates to be successful as no one goes against the status quo. In contrast to 1984, Brave New World doesn’t need fear since if they want change, they create new. Any sound Winston made “above the injection, level of a very low whisper, would be picked up by it; moreover, so long as he remained within the field of vision which the metal plaque commanded, he could be seen as well as heard. There was of course no way of knowing whether you were being watched at essay comparing, any given moment” (Orwell 3). People have to assume that they are always being watched by the party, because these telescreens are everywhere. Telescreens may seem to act as a way to stop people from harming others. Rebecca Solnit Essays. Comparison Essay Between 1984 and Bnw. which they can do nothing and essay comparing characters, receive (almost, in the case of 1984,) everything. The citizens are forced to do all the romero movie essay, hard work, with the upper castes in both books being an exception, and intelligence is suppressed. This is done through a variety of ways, the most prominent being the use of indoctrination brain-washing and and contrasting characters, prohibition of free thinking. Both novels contain a figure which appears almost God-like to the main character.
In 1984, this is essays played by O'Brien and in Brave New World, the part. Essay Comparing And Contrasting Characters. Rebellion in George Orwell’s 1984 and Ken Kesey’s One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest. In One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest, Nurse Ratched, known as the Big Nurse throughout the psychiatric ward, is the authority figure. Unlike the Thought Police in 1984, the Big Nurse is not allowed to punish patients on by anton chekhov essay whim. She must have strong reasons for essay and contrasting characters punishment. Nurse Ratched is, however, similar to the Party in many ways. Nurse Ratched and her staff are constantly monitoring the solnit essays, mental hospital patients’ behavior. Through glass windows in the patients’ quarters, nurses are capable and. Robbed of their individuality and denied a place within the essay comparing, social hierarchy. (Cor. 1.1.62).
Portrayed like a common herd (1.2.264), plebeians are moved to patience at the behest of Brutus as easily as they are moved to Mischief by the words of rebecca solnit essays Antony (3.2.264, 253).In contrast to the noble Brutus (1.2.308), whose reasoned decision to join the conspirators is detailed in his soliloquies and his conversations with Cassius, the rabblement is shown to be incapable of individual thought. Winston could remember a time when the Party did not rule, when Big Brother had not become all-powerful; but according to essay comparing the Party they had always existed and this lie was repeated enough number of times until it ‘became’ the truth. Winston’s own job was, under the Ministry of by anton Truth, to and contrasting characters alter the documents from the past to make them consistent with what the Party was saying in the present. The concept of ‘Newspeak’ resonates strongly with Rorty’s views and the importance. Winston realizes “The proles had stayed human” (page 172). This contradicts what the Party says; they think that the proles are like animals.
The biggest differences between humans and rebecca, animals are that humans have got feelings, emotions and can think. This is exactly what the proles do have, and the higher classes do not. This makes the proles human-like and the higher classes animal-like, since they are not allowed to feel or think freely. The Party makes anything Winston and his congeners do or. George Orwell 1984 Anaylsis Essay. there would have never been a relationship between the two. Self expression is the second step to intimacy. The first step, also taken by Julia, is the personal freedom of choosing who you would like to comparing and contrasting characters express you feelings toward. In the world of “1984” the overbearing government appropriately titled “Big Brother” forbids self expression of all kinds as a tactic to control the solnit essays, population.
The motive behind this is to have complete control over every aspect of the citizen’s life. The government who. Since they are supposedly in war with Eurasia, they show facts about and contrasting, what is happening like when they mention that how many people have died and stuffs, they use the telescreen to do it. They also use the telescreen to give out speech and to romero movie do two minute hate. Comparing And Contrasting Characters. It’s like they control what you do and they even control what you watch. Fate Essays. Therefore, the government has a great control of people because they have a watch on the people all the essay characters, time. Our lives can have a big difference from a problem chekhov essay history because. But immediately the truth surfaced without much work, and after the initial shock passed people began to rightfully question the government’s story of what happened. Comparing And Contrasting Characters. They told everyone that nineteen hijackers crashing planes into two towers caused the collapse of the pro lethal essays, three sky scrapers.
Americans immediately asked where the U.S air defense was that particular day, and how it’s possible for hijackers to take over planes from well trained pilots. But those questions were acceptable for the moment unanswered. Essay Comparing And Contrasting. This method would make people want to kill this person. The citizens of Oceania are made to pro lethal injection believe they will become unhuman, erased from the surface of the Earth, if they do something wrong. Just the thought of this would make anyone want to be the perfect person.
Any warily person in this situation would never want to do anything wrong. If any one is caught by the insidious Thought Police they are taken to the dreaded Ministry of comparing Love, the treacherous Room 101. These places would make anyone feel. Winston Against Society in 1984 Essay. His thoughts are too radical to go unnoticed and judging by the people along his life who suddenly disappear and do not have nearly as ‘terrible’ of thoughts as him, he lives his life wondering when he too, will be taken. Winston does not know if it began in his sleep or not, but for a very long time he has been envisioning conversations with O’Brien, a member of the Inner Party. He does not actually make any type of essay eye contact with him though until a Two Minutes Hate session in which O’Brien. And Contrasting Characters. Book Report On 1984 By George Essay. Every member of the party worked in one of these ministries. Winston worked in critical the Ministry of Truth where his job was to rewrite history to make it sound good for the party. And Contrasting Characters. On page 11 Winston is looking for razor blades because the party underestimated the amount needed when he walks into oscar romero movie an antique shop and ends up buying a diary.
This was not illegal only because there were no laws, but it could be thought as an act punishable to the Thought Police. Essay Comparing And Contrasting. When Winston got home he decided to write. Marxism: 1984 by George Orwell Essay. Junior Spies creates miniature mind-controlled monsters that obey anything told to them by the Party, even if it means turning on their own families, while the parents of these children are tricked into believing that their children are benefiting from this life-sucking program. Via the use of organizations such as the Ministry of Truth and Junior Spies, the Party has made their citizens believe that propaganda is beneficial to proletariats when it in fact controls every aspect of their lives. 1984, by George Orwell and the USA Patriot Act Essay. front of injection their computers and the only friendships they have are other people on the computer. And they're open to being too trusting and thinking what they read is true (Lefevre). This effect is shockingly similar to the actions of “Big Brother” in 1984. Big Brother is the leader of the Party and the symbol of dictatorship. No one knows if Big Brother is male or female, even his or her existence is unknown.
The Party could have just created this false image just to keep the proles in line and under. Essay on 1984 vs. And Contrasting Characters. Western Democracy: Survielance. Critical Law Essay. surveillance. Characters. In the future who knows to what extent this will be used and how efficient it will be. Injection. Most of this paper has been talking about how modern day surveillance is hard to essay and contrasting characters detect, however this is one western democracy that has almost reached the 1984 level in terms of the citizens knowing that they are constantly under watch. In London, England cameras can be seen almost everywhere you look. The average London citizen is life captured on and contrasting camera more than 300 times a day. Brittan contains 4 million surveillance. The Novel 1984 by George Orwell Essay.
The Ministry of analysis Truth would alter past events for the purpose of exalting Big Brother. The party preyed on the fear of its people from which it derived its power. Because of this fear, it was impossible to rebel against comparing characters, the party “which controlled the citizens of Oceania with systematic disinformation, unremitting surveillance, and the pervasive threat of violence and imprisonment” (Malinowitz). Another tool in the arsenal of Big Brother is its ability to make any laws, unchecked by the people. From. The Novel 1984 by George Orwell Essay. The Party can even make it so that if they faced an economic deficit, with a change of their earlier written predictions they can make it look as if their economy had actually risen past projected outcomes by lowering their predictions substantially below the actual outcome. The Party also monitors most citizens with a telescreen, which is a monitor that can hear and see everything that you do, and also spouts propaganda for the Party.
In the beginning of the book, Winston begins writing in a diary. Dystopia Essay: 1984 and rebecca essays, Harrison Bergeron. If that is granted, all else follows.” This shows that the Party’s manipulation of the ‘facts’ has effectively prevented the freedom to think. Essay Characters. Orwell also uses the Red-armed prole woman represents a symbol of freedom, by her ability to sing passionately, which the party members never do. “Her voice floated upward with the summer sweet air, very tuneful, charge with a sort of happy melancholy”. Winston and Julia see her as “beautiful” through her largeness and pro lethal injection, toughness and her ability to comparing and contrasting give birth. Power and Corruption in pro lethal essays George Orwell?s 1984 Essay. The quote about censorship in essay comparing North Korea shows much similarity to that of Oceana. In both societies, what is allowed to be viewed is widely monitored and all activity of injection citizens in essay comparing and contrasting highly watched, giving access to only that which is provided by those with power. This again, shows the critical law essay, idea of how the people with power control the society. The leaders of a country or society are supposed to be there to help its people, however, in both Oceana and North Korea it seems to do just the opposite. Essay about The Lego Movie 1984 Analysis.
The Party believes that creativity is the source which causes one's mind to think differently and negatively. This leads to the loss of human nature and human creativity. And Contrasting. One can see that Winston, the protagonist of this novel, is severely affected by essay, the party's desires. He says [P]roles are human beings. We are not human(Orwell, 173), We are the and contrasting, dead(Orwell,143) and It's not by making yourself heard but by staying sane that you carry on the human heritage (Orwell,30).
By losing the ability.
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Compare & Contrast Essay Choose two characters from The Crucible
Essay: Does America Have a Human Rights Problem? Over the past several years, the United States has become a major target of criticism by leading human rights organizations. Both Amnesty International and essay and contrasting characters, Human Rights Watch have issued a series of reports which castigate America for its treatment of a problem chekhov, minority groups, women, prisoners, immigrants and asylum seekers, and criminal defendants. Amnesty International has gone so far as to and contrasting characters enlist its millions of members in a worldwide campaign against human rights abuses in the United States; at the 1999 session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, Amnesty International listed the U.S. as a major human rights priority, along with Algeria, Cambodia, Turkey, and the Great Lakes region of Africa, which embraces Rwanda, Burundi, and pro lethal, the Democratic Republic of Congo. What accounts for this upsurge of concern over essay and contrasting characters, the American record? Ordinarily, human rights organizations issue reports in response to clear and verifiable patterns of human rights abuses, such as the imprisonment of democracy advocates in China or the massacre of fate essays, Christians in India. Or they may shine the spotlight on a particular country because of a generalized deterioration in comparing and contrasting a broad range of human rights, as has been the case in Belarus. Or they may discover violations of rights which have been overlooked in the past, such as female genital mutilation in various African countries. By any reasonable criteria, America does not qualify as a human rights problem. Like all societies, the fate essays, United States suffers its share of social ills.
Nevertheless, its record of protecting the rights of essay and contrasting, society’s most vulnerable groups ranks with the best in the world. Layer upon layer of analysis, laws, administrative regulations, and court decrees exist to promote the comparing characters, fair treatment of racial minorities, immigrants, the handicapped, women, children, the elderly, the mentally ill, and religious believers (and non-believers as well). Fate Essays? Although homosexuals are not extended the protection of essay, most federal civil rights laws, the states have increasingly included gays and essay, lesbians in the roster of classes protected by anti-discrimination legislation. Yet to comparing and contrasting characters its critics, the U.S. is not a country where special rights have been adopted for pro lethal those who might conceivably suffer discrimination, but a cheerless place where the individual is at the mercy of a pitiless market economy and a brutal police regime. True enough, while in America all manner of rights are protected, this is also a society where heavy demands are placed on the individual.
Among the rich nations, the United States has one of the least generous social welfare systems. Unemployment benefits are limited, and there is no national health insurance system for ordinary workers as in many European countries. Under new legislation, the able-bodied poor, including single mothers, are being pushed off the essay characters, welfare rolls and into romero movie essay the job market. Furthermore, America has become highly integrated into the global economy, something which has accelerated the comparing and contrasting characters, decline of the older industrial base, disrupted the lives of millions of displaced workers, and led to the decline of once-vibrant cities. It is rebecca solnit, this second, highly distorted, image of America—an America where, critics contend, the rich get richer and essay characters, more powerful at the expense of everyone else—which seems to predominate among the major human rights organizations. The Amnesty International report speaks of the U.S. as a country “beset by social problems, including unemployment, disease, and violent crime,” and pro lethal essays, riddled with “extreme poverty.” That Amnesty International is wrong on every point in comparing characters its assessment of America’s socioeconomic condition is beside the point. If human rights organizations believe that America’s political leaders treat the oscar romero, economic plight of the poor and vulnerable with extreme indifference, then it is only logical that they would expect America to violate the comparing and contrasting characters, constitutional and law essay, human rights of its citizens as well. Two issues in particular have drawn the attention of the human rights community. The first involves the methods America has chosen to wage its war on crime. The second is discrimination against and contrasting characters, non-whites or, to place the matter in a broader and oscar romero, more appropriate context, the country’s efforts to build a successful multinational society.
The American criminal justice system has come under fire from different sources and for different reasons in recent years. America is one of the few developed societies to permit capital punishment, and the use of the death penalty has become rather common in certain states, such as Texas. America has one of the highest rates of incarceration in the world, and in many states, those convicted of violent crimes or drug-related offenses are being handed lengthy sentences with stipulations that most or all of the sentence must be served. Much of the increase in the prison population is due to essay comparing the war on drugs, a controversial subject even within the law enforcement profession. Critics claim that sentencing petty drug dealers to years in pro lethal injection the penitentiary is unjust and even discriminatory, since a high proportion of drug crime defendants are black.
There is also the question of police abuse. Essay Characters? In 1998, Human Rights Watch issued a lengthy study which claimed that police misconduct constituted a major human rights problem and asserted that in critical law essay many American cities police officers guilty of abuse frequently go unpunished. Although human rights organizations have issued dozens of critical reports on various aspects of American criminal justice, they have betrayed no interest in the broad question of crime in the United States. This may be because of their position that the context of a human rights violation is immaterial, and the question of essay and contrasting characters, how best to wage the war against crime is the responsibility of law enforcement professionals. Injection Essays? This is a purist, and ultimately insufficient, argument. If we have learned anything over the past thirty years, it is that high levels of crime, or the public perception that crime is out of essay and contrasting, control, can present an fate essays even greater threat to democracy, the rule of essay and contrasting characters, law, and a problem by anton essay, human rights than the characters, abuse of power by the authorities or draconian sentencing policies. The impact of violent crime on American democracy was an important theme of movie essay, Haynes Johnson’s 1994 book, Divided We Fall. After having spent months touring the country and testing the mood of the people, Johnson concluded: No subject generates more concern than violent crime, none touches. people more deeply and personally, none triggers more emotion.
More than any issue, including jobs and education, the growing. specter of violence leads people to think that something. fundamental has been broken in America…. When people are asked what they think can be done about “it,” the answer that invariably comes back is characters, either “I don’t know” or “Nothing!” Crime is believed to be beyond the oscar romero essay, society’s. capacity to characters eliminate. Johnson and other authors have expressed concern over what they see as a steady erosion of American civil society. They point to a weakening of the broad institutions, such as the public schools, which gave Americans the sense of belonging to a single nation. They express disappointment at the lack of rebecca solnit, racial integration in schools and essay and contrasting characters, neighborhoods. They accuse government of willfully ignoring the plight of the injection essays, inner city poor. They lament the abandonment of urban America by the middle class. The role of violent crime in each of these problems, and many more, is central.
Parents who enroll their children in private schools cite safety as often as they cite quality education. Comparing And Contrasting? They do not find the presence of metal detectors or security guards reassuring; if the public schools find it necessary to take such extreme steps, they would prefer to move to the suburbs and a safer environment or send their children to non-public schools, despite the life, expense. Security has also played a major role in the rise of “gated communities.” Critics who regard America as a society in decline often point to the expansion of apartment complexes or residential developments which feature high-tech security devices and private security guards as clear evidence that the rich are walling themselves off from the rest of society. But while there may be a complex series of motives in the creation of gated communities, logic suggests that fear of criminals and lack of faith in the criminal justice system is the most important consideration. The deterioration of the inner city is, of essay comparing characters, course, directly attributable to crime and especially to drug-related crime. Rebecca? The failure of essay comparing and contrasting, schools, businesses, the abandonment of housing, the flight of entrepreneurs and potential community leaders—all reflect the impact of high crime rates in minority neighborhoods over the past three decades.
And, of course, crime has had a major impact on American politics. Indeed, the widespread sense that liberals were “soft on crime” was a huge factor in the Republican ascendancy of the 1970s and 1980s. With some justification, liberals became identified with such notions as that the “root causes” of crime were more important than controlling crime, that ensuring the rights of fate essays, criminal defendants was a higher priority than getting criminals off the streets, and characters, that to call for a war on crime was to appeal to the racial prejudices of the white electorate. Fate Essays? With liberals unwilling to confront the public’s distress over rising crime rates, the way was paved for the rise of demagogues like George Wallace, whose presidential campaign siphoned off many blue-collar Democratic votes, and essay characters, Frank Rizzo, the tough talking mayor of Philadelphia. The perception that the state was incapable of dealing with the oscar romero movie, upsurge of violent crime also eroded the public’s confidence in the core institutions of democracy. Although the responsibilities of government have grown considerably since the early days of the Republic, most Americans still regard public safety as government’s principal mission.
Americans can hardly be blamed for essay comparing characters believing that something fundamental in the democratic fabric had given way when high law enforcement officials were expressing doubts over winning the war on crime. The logic ran that if government cannot make the fate essays, streets safe, why should citizens believe that it can educate their children, reduce poverty, or spend taxes wisely? It is because of the central nature of the relationship between law enforcement and people’s faith in comparing and contrasting characters the institutions of democracy that recent developments loom so crucial. For in fact, there is mounting evidence that through a combination of public policies and new policing techniques, crime has undergone a substantial decrease in practically every major city of the critical analysis law essay, United States. The most notable decrease has been in the violent crime categories—murders, assaults, rapes. Americans are still concerned about comparing, violent crime, and may continue to express skepticism about government’s ability to bring peace to the streets. Analysis? Yet when asked about their greatest concerns, Americans no longer list crime as issue number one; they are more likely to rank crime below education, Social Security, medical care, and other domestic issues. There are a number of reasons for the decrease in violent crime that has been recorded in each of the essay comparing characters, past seven years. Perhaps the most important is the trend toward lengthy prison sentences, which has ensured that, at any given moment, many potential violent offenders are off the streets and behind bars.
But certainly another factor is the implementation of life, a new law enforcement strategy known generally as “zero tolerance” policing. Zero tolerance policing grew out of the theories of sociologist James Q. Wilson, who wrote some years ago that the failure to prosecute those who commit relatively minor, quality-of-life crimes would inevitably lead to an escalation of essay comparing characters, criminality until a condition is reached where events begin to spin out of control and neighborhood deterioration sets in. The principal laboratory for the implementation of zero tolerance policing has been New York City during the fate essays, administration of Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. A former federal prosecutor, Giuliani ran on essay comparing, a tough-on-crime platform, and has instituted a number of initiatives designed to chekhov essay make New York safer and “more livable.” None has generated more controversy than mass arrests for quality-of life misdemeanors: drinking or smoking marijuana in comparing and contrasting public, urinating in the street, subway fare beating, trespassing, reckless bicycle riding, and the like. Zero tolerance is critical, credited with the characters, revival of several New York neighborhoods which had been plagued by an environment notable for a problem essay drug use, drug sales, public intoxication, and groups of menacing young men—all out in the open with no intervention by the police. Comparing And Contrasting Characters? Zero tolerance produced almost immediate results in several target neighborhoods, including Greenwich Village and parts of Harlem. The result has been neighborhoods which are more hospitable to families and rebecca essays, a spurt in economic development in areas which, a few years previously, had been regarded as beyond revival. There is, of course, a cost to comparing characters zero tolerance and other new urban police techniques, which stems from the rather substantial increase in encounters between the police and critical law essay, the public. In New York, hundreds of comparing and contrasting characters, arrests are made each night for misdemeanors like public drinking and fare beating. The accused are taken to critical analysis law essay the local precinct, booked, and often taken to the central holding area where they may remain overnight, after which they are arraigned before a judge who will ordinarily hand down a small fine, community service, or simply dismiss the case.
Another aspect of zero tolerance is the arrest of comparing characters, petty drug dealers. Unlike the quality-of-life misdemeanors, drug sales of even the small amount can be a serious matter; small-time drug dealers make up a sizeable proportion of the American prison population. Civil libertarians take a dim view of zero tolerance and are actively opposed to the war on drugs, objecting to the jailing of petty dealers and fretting over the preponderance of blacks arrested on drug counts. Here both civil libertarians and minority group spokesmen betray a certain amount of confusion. It was not so long ago that blacks decried the destructive force of narcotics in critical the inner city. Especially during the height of the comparing and contrasting characters, crack cocaine epidemic, blacks blamed drugs for destroying black youth, driving the inner city middle class to the suburbs, and robbing minority neighborhoods of economic viability. True, black leaders were divided on the proper anti-drug strategy. By Anton Chekhov Essay? Some called for comparing characters a massive police drive against drug use, while others, uncomfortable with an arrest-and-punish approach, talked about ways of dealing with the “root causes” of crime. The problem with this latter approach is chekhov, that the root causes—poverty, lack of jobs, and economic development—will resist all efforts at betterment unless crime itself is brought under control. Furthermore, the root causes argument has been weakened somewhat by the recent experience of and contrasting characters, Europe.
Despite its elaborate social welfare protection and social democratic economic policies, Europe has undergone an increase in crime to the point where in countries like France, violent crime rates surpass those in the United States. Much of the increase in criminality is attributed to unemployed, alienated non-white immigrant youths. In response, some European countries have witnessed the rise of ultra-nationalist parties of the perfect, Right and and contrasting characters, demand that severe restrictions be placed on immigration. The United States has been spared this phenomenon. In fact, while the United States has implemented the democratic world’s harshest anti-crime regime, it has maintained a relatively liberal policy towards immigrants. Despite calls by a special commission on law essay, immigration chaired by the late Barbara Jordan for a modest reduction in the number of comparing and contrasting, legal immigrants, America has maintained the same, relatively high immigration level through periods of both boom and recession. Proposals to change the immigration balance, which now overwhelmingly favors Hispanics and Asians, to encourage a higher proportion of European immigrants, have been rejected, as have proposals to adjust immigration criteria to favor the educated and highly skilled. Thus the charge advanced by one well-known human rights organization that the U.S. is undergoing a wave of anti-immigrant sentiment is pro lethal injection, patently false. In 1994, California’s voters adopted a measure which denied certain rights to illegal immigrants. Again, the comparing and contrasting, proposition affected only illegal aliens, and fate essays, the effect of the essay and contrasting characters, measure has been minimized by various court decisions. Congress subsequently passed legislation denying welfare benefits to legal immigrants, a measure adopted in part because statistics indicated that a growing proportion of immigrants were on the welfare rolls.
There is pro lethal essays, a good chance that this restriction will be lifted, since both President Clinton and a number of Republicans have spoken in favor of removing a measure which singled out immigrants for essay and contrasting characters special treatment. If America has not become hostile to essay legal immigrants, it is also true that many people are concerned over comparing, evidence that some of the newer immigrant groups were resisting assimilation into pro lethal injection the broader American culture. Many immigrants seemed to regard American citizenship with indifference, and developed an interest in comparing and contrasting the naturalization process only after the adoption of restrictions on immigrants access to welfare. The notion that some immigrant groups were resistant to essay becoming “American” was fortified by immigrant constituency organizations, which sometimes spoke disparagingly of assimilation and pressed for government policies which would encourage immigrants to essay comparing and contrasting retain their cultural identity. Many Americans became skeptical of bilingual education, a technique for teaching immigrants which was supported with particular vigor by Hispanic organizations. To many, bilingual education was a prime example of a policy of dubious educational merit which was kept in place for political reasons.
Immigrants bring many benefits to a problem chekhov a society like the United States. They have played a critical role in the revival of American cities through their hard work and comparing characters, enterprising spirit. Many have brought with them traditional values of work, family, religious belief, education, and a problem, good citizenship. But high levels of immigration are not cost free, especially when the immigrants are ethnically and culturally different from the majority. Furthermore, our current level of comparing, mass immigration takes place at a time of unprecedented expansion in the rights of minorities, with immigrants themselves quick to identify new and special “rights.” Thus, some have decried the policy of eliminating remedial courses at the City University of rebecca solnit, New York system as a violation of the rights of immigrants. Similarly, some see measures to roll back bilingual education as a violation of the right to an equal education, while others decry the roll-back of characters, affirmative action as the denial of the rights of blacks, Hispanics, and life, even relatively prosperous Asian groups.
Thus, at the core of the debate over the American condition is a conflict between those who believe that society’s strength lies in an elaborate and essay comparing and contrasting characters, constantly expanding series of rights and those who understand that a safe and successful multinational democracy requires hard decisions and trade-offs between individual rights, the protection of minorities, and the requirements of the broader society. Most societies would not support the high levels of culturally diverse immigrants that the United States allows in each year. But even in America, the welcome mat would be withdrawn if high percentages of immigrants were on critical analysis law essay, welfare or if immigrants were a major contributor to comparing and contrasting uncontrolled violent crime. Likewise, the resistance to neighborhood or school integration will remain a substantial problem as long as high rates of rebecca essays, crime prevail in minority neighborhoods. In this sense, the extraordinary crime reduction initiatives which have been undertaken in many cities should be regarded not as threats to civil liberties, but rather as measures which will over the long run strengthen both democracy and civil society. While the U.S. has adopted a stricter attitude towards crime control, this has not come at characters the expense of the constitutional rights of the American people, including criminal defendants. Most of the procedural safeguards set down by the Supreme Court during the fate essays, 1960s remain in place. True, relations between the police and minority communities remain uneasy.
But urban police departments are racially integrated, and a number of cities have appointed black officers as police chief. Although bigoted police officers remain an unfortunate reality, the fact is that most deadly encounters between the comparing and contrasting characters, police and a problem by anton essay, black civilians involve black officers. Most police departments require better educated police officers than in and contrasting characters the past, and new recruits are usually given extensive training in crowd control, community relations, and similar sensitive subjects. Veterans of the criminal justice field overwhelmingly say that police abuse is much less prevalent today than at rebecca solnit essays any time in the past, and police racism is much less a problem than in the pre-civil rights period. It should be noted that America’s record in curbing crime and in accommodating diverse cultures compares quite favorably to current conditions in essay comparing characters other countries. In societies like Russia and Mexico, uncontrolled crime ranks as the essay, greatest threat to democracy, political stability, and prosperity. Violent crime has led a number of Caribbean countries to make use of the death penalty. Characters? In Europe, robberies, assaults, and murders are on the rise in perfect essay a number of countries, fueling demands to limit or cut off the flow of immigrants from Africa and essay characters, the Middle East. European elites often express shock at the rough justice meted out by oscar, American courts, are appalled by America’s use of the death penalty, and continue to regard America as incurably racist 35 years after the abolition of legal segregation. Now, however, it is Europe which is comparing, confronting the challenge of fate essays, cultural diversity, and while the proportion of non-European immigrants in France, Germany, and elsewhere does not compare with American figures, Europe is finding the experience a painful one. In Germany alone, there have been more instances of ethnic violence in essay characters recent years than in the United States.
Finally, no assessment of human rights in the U.S. would be complete without some consideration of the reflexively critical attitude towards America shared by many among our liberal elites. A half-century ago, the U.S. was rightly regarded as having a serious human rights problem in the southern system of legal segregation and in the general denial of equal rights to non-whites. Ironically, America’s racial record was chastised much more severely after it had taken steps to fate essays dismantle segregation and other legal obstacles to equality. Indeed, the essay comparing and contrasting characters, more America changed, the essays, more tenaciously many critics, both here and abroad, held to the view of a society dominated by bigotry and “institutional racism.” During the latter stages of the Cold War, America was also accused of blocking popular revolution in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
Although the major human rights organizations did not join with those who branded America as the nerve center of world imperialism, they did criticize the U.S. for its support of El Salvador and other repressive Third World regimes. At the same time, some advocates of and contrasting, human rights resisted the idea that democracy was a precondition for the full flowering of personal liberty. To accept the democracy argument, they claimed, would be to side with one of the contending sides in the Cold War - the a problem by anton chekhov essay, West - and to automatically adopt a critical stance towards the Communist world, where democracy was unknown. The end of the comparing and contrasting characters, Cold War, with its sudden and totally unexpected collapse of Soviet Communism, caught the critics of America off-guard. Essays? America could no longer be regarded as imperialist, or even as tolerant of human rights abuses, since its so-called client states moved expeditiously towards democracy and national reconciliation, and many formerly Communist countries embraced both democracy and market reforms. It was predictable that the U.S. Essay Comparing And Contrasting? would once again become a target for criticism, particularly since it emerged as the only country which could legitimately claim superpower status. Although America no longer can be accused of supporting “reactionary” regimes in analysis law essay Central America, it can, and is, derided for essay comparing and contrasting characters its failure to sign certain international covenants, such as the International Criminal Court. And since America cannot be criticized seriously for solnit essays supporting repression abroad, it is increasingly attacked for tolerating official persecution of its own citizens at home. No society, and certainly not the U.S., should expect that its failings will be ignored by the international community. At the same time, America should not be judged by a more rigorous standard than is applied elsewhere. During the postwar period America has forged an impressive record in promoting the spread of democracy and the respect for individual rights throughout the world, and in expanding human rights and civil liberties among its own people.
America’s record is all the comparing, more impressive because of its success in building a peaceful and relatively integrated multinational society in an era in which ethnic diversity is more often a source of division than of a problem chekhov essay, strength. An assessment of America’s human rights record which ignores this context does a serious injustice to the United States. More to the point, it ultimately does a disservice to the principles on which the human rights movement has been built. Arch Puddington is vice president for research at Freedom House.