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Essay Writing Exercise 1 Put these sentences in the correct order for

Exercise essay titles

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Module 11 Exercise 4 - ccdmd

A Roadmap for Making Business Strategy Actionable. Businesses need a framework for guiding the mobilization of an organization around its strategic plan. A #8220;roadmap#8221; enables everyone in the business to clearly understand each action and titles what decisions need to be made, who needs to make them and when. European businesses are often faced with the challenge of deploying centrally developed business strategies in a uniform manner, while at for walter mitty, the same time accommodating local customer, market and regulatory differences. It is risky to assume that interpretations and adjustments across diverse European business geographies will simply happen. Exercise Essay! Likewise, it is unwise to believe that a well-defined business strategy will implement itself. No matter how well conceived by senior management, business strategy becomes virtually worthless when others in the organization misinterpret it, block it or simply do not know how to act on it. Business leaders and practitioners need a framework for guiding the mobilization of an organization around its strategic plan. Such a roadmap enables business leaders and members to clearly understand each element for rolling out a strategy. It details what decisions need to be made, who needs to make them and when. This approach is translated into a project plan, specifying the nature of work in each of the associated phases of construction.

As shown in Figure 1, the five phases of the roadmap are: illustrate, translate, indicate, dedicate and operate. This approach to making strategy actionable assumes that a business is expository writing, pursuing a strategy that is appropriate and timely. Methods used to develop a business strategy are broad, complex and well beyond the exercise essay scope of this article. But regardless of the writing course business#8217;s level of exercise maturity or the approach with which it executes its strategy, the roadmap is designed to creative course illustrate the exercise essay titles elements which a business needs to expository writing consider when making strategy actionable. Exercise Titles! It is not necessarily designed to writing be prescriptive in terms of the precise sequence in which these elements are addressed. It does, however, acknowledge the inter-dependencies of the elements and can serve as a framework for developing a plan for executing strategy. As the business evolves in the necessary capabilities and systems, the roadmap can be more thoroughly integrated into the existing planning cycles. How is value really delivered to customers? In almost any business, products and services for customers are produced not by departments, but by processes which tend to cross functional lines.

These are referred to as value delivery or core processes. Core processes have all the elements of the business processes (suppliers, inputs, boundaries, outputs and exercise essay customers), but are far more significant in scope. They tend to be the way the customers identify with the luther research essay company. Their effectiveness is directly tied to the extent they can satisfy customer needs and achieve the objectives of the titles business. Process capabilities and competencies are the key leverage points for hairspray essays achieving business strategies.

It also is important to remember that core business processes allow the various elements of an organization to exercise titles link its activities to the delivery of value to the market. Then, if businesses define themselves in the market based on their core processes, where is it that the daydream for walter rest of the organization can make a difference? The answer lies in support, or enabling processes. These are the critical business activities that are required for an organization to exercise titles operate, sustain and continually improve. Enabling processes provide their service to core processes, or internal customers. In this way, they provide the inputs, information and resources that #8220;enable#8221; the core processes to ap world history essay deliver value to exercise essay titles external customers. Musical! If poorly performed, enabling processes can #8220;disable#8221; the core processes from being successful. Examples of exercise essay titles enabling processes include recruiting, skills development, marketing, performance management and compensation, information technology, and administrative support services. Just as external customers have demands of products and services, enabling processes are expected to meet internal customer critical-to-quality factors (CTQs). They must have measurement systems to evaluate and continuously improve their ability to meet core process requirements.

Defining and agreeing on the strategy of 2009 ap world a business is the responsibility of senior leadership. It is about making choices regarding what processes will be developed to deliver what products and services to what customers. Exercise! Equally important, the top tiers of leadership must translate strategic objectives into operational terms. They must communicate the strategy in a manner that is meaningful to every member of the organization, for these are the people who must execute the strategy. For Walter Mitty! This requires a business to consider its operations in the context of a whole processes that are designed and linked to exercise essay one another. Martin King Research Essay! Going well beyond a continuous improvement plan to eliminate inefficiencies, this deals with the very identity of the business. One key to building accountability for the strategy is to be able to exercise titles define the financial impact of each element of the strategy. In other words, if a business is to attempt a sustained 10 percent increase in martin luther research revenue during the next three years, what is important is that the 10 percent annual growth in sales be translated into a net income figure. The #8220;how#8221; of the increase is what the strategy is all about.

The #8220;by#8221; what means is exercise essay titles, what the strategy translation is all about. It is critical that leadership define the strategy to this level of detail prior to musical attempting to communicate it to the business. The message must be crafted and communicated in a manner that each stakeholder perceives it to be relevant to him or her. Exercise Essay! If this cannot be done, it is a good indication that the strategy has not been sufficiently defined or thought out. It can be beneficial to include trusted members from different areas of the business to help in the translation process. This insures a cogent message delivered in a consistent way.

Also key to translating strategy is to identify and develop the writing course areas of current operations that have the most significant impact on the business#8217;s ability to achieve its strategic objectives. Exercise Essay! Randomly chosen operational improvement efforts may result in increased efficiencies and elimination of daydream mitty cost and non-value-adding activities, but they may have little or no strategic impact. True strategy is the action of differentiating a business through what it does as much as how it does it. Differentiation is achieved by performing value delivery processes in a unique and exercise complementary fashion. Hairspray Essays! Competitive advantage is sustained by maintaining operational excellence across all value delivery processes. Once operations are prioritized according to strategy, a business can assess the current levels of performance relative to the levels desired. This enables companies to identify the critical cause-and-effect relationships between process actions and desired results. Only then can improvement opportunities be selected based on their ability to leverage competitive advantage. One key to building accountability for the strategy is to be able to define the financial impact of each element of the strategy. In order for the strategy to be made actionable, measurement systems and data must be developed to show the link between process performance and the business and customer objectives. The first exercise is to understand the quantification of the strategy.

If the strategy is achieved, what will the business processes be able to deliver? How will they perform relative to what they now deliver, relative to competitors and exercise essay relative to the desired process goals? Most strategic goals are stated in terms of lagging indicators revenue, operating costs as a percentage of 2009 essay revenue, market share, new sales, even share price. But there are an infinite number of ways to effect those measures some that may be in exercise titles direct conflict with the desired direction of the essays business. These lagging indicators are used to define, establish and communicate the strategy of the business. The challenge, however, is to titles direct and coordinate every member of the creative business into activities that have a cause-and-effect relationship with the desired outcomes of the business. Before anything can be made actionable, one must make sure that it can be measured and quantified. Describing how each particular element of the strategy will be manifest is an effective way to force more clarity into the strategic planning process. If the leadership of the business cannot describe what a particular aspect of the strategy will look like when it is achieved, how could that translation be expected of the business? Understanding how the business improves on exercise essay titles the delivery of value to its customers is only the hairspray musical first step of integrating improvement with strategy.

Management must have real-time information on how well the processes are performing relative to essay titles the process performance levels required by the strategy. This can help a company identify what to measure, thus enabling process decisions and adjustments to be based on leading performance indicators. Awareness of the strategy is not sufficient to a custom for walter mitty ensure its achievement. Individual accountability must be established at all levels to ensure sufficient focus, motivation and reward. Essay! This includes operational and organization development performance indicators as well as more traditional financial and customer satisfaction measures. This step in the roadmap is designed to create an organizational culture which fosters alignment with every organization department and member. With Writing In New! Leaders themselves demonstrate the process and data-based decision-making behaviors that serve as models for the rest of the business. Activities in this phase include:

Engage and make accountable the personnel necessary to achieve, sustain and continuously improve process performance Allocate the right process indicators and measures to exercise essay titles the appropriate personnel Design appropriate process performance reporting disciplines and procedures Develop and implement visual management systems Train and engage personnel and process management teams Link process performance to individual performance management systems. Expository Writing! Executive leaders must first recognize that they are not just responsible for the output and costs of their respective functional areas. Each executive must both share accountability for the performance of the exercise essay value delivery processes and ensure proper integration and coordination of the processes across the uea online creative writing course business. Process performance defines the extent that a business will win or lose in the marketplace. In the final phase of the roadmap, process management systems are integrated as a decision-making tool and discipline to essay continually adjust and direct the improvement efforts of the business. Not only does the approach compel organization-wide improvement that is linked to achieving strategic business priorities, but it fosters a high-involvement, high performance culture that can become self-sustaining without reliance on external consultants.

Process management systems can vary greatly in terms of complexity and organizational scope. While the effort and musical essays resources required to develop variously sized systems can be significant, there are some fundamental aspects that are common to all process management system deployments. It is these fundamental components that can best be addressed using a standardized approach, or roadmap, to assure that the right people are involved in essay titles answering the right questions at the right time. It also serves as a framework for martin luther research the project plan that will effectively manage the many contributions by organization leadership and members. Some of the activities associated with the exercise essay titles operate phase of the roadmap include: Conduct process and expository process-based performance management systems per design Evaluate process performance and prioritize improvement opportunities Determine appropriate methodologies for exercise addressing improvement opportunities Train, engage and dedicate appropriate personnel in process improvement efforts Assess changes in business environmental conditions (e.g. Musical! market, technological, regulatory) and reflect in process management system. Conclusion: Answers for the Right Questions. By having a framework for mobilizing an organization around its strategy, European business leadership can better direct resources to answer the right questions about how a strategy can be deployed in a consistent but flexible fashion across diverse market and cultural geographies.

About the Author: Victor Cascella is essay, a Director with Grant Thornton#8217;s Global Public Sector, and is responsible for developing excellence in mission performance for uea online creative course the firm#8217;s Federal Government clients. Exercise Essay Titles! As an expert in strategy and ap world history essay operations consulting, he works with executive-level leadership teams to exercise essay titles translate business strategies into operational goals, and helps them develop measurement systems to improve strategic clarity and accountability for performance. Cascella has worked in a wide range of industries, including government, pharmaceuticals, manufacturing, services and financial. He is based in Washington, D.C., and can be contacted at victor.cascella@us.gt.com. If You Loved This Article, You Might Also Love. Stop this in-your-face notice Reserve your username Follow people you like, learn from. Extend your profile Gain reputation for your contributions No annoying captchas across site. Connect on Twitter. Find us around the web. Copyright iSixSigma 2000-2017. User Agreement.

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Essay Writing Exercise 1 Put these sentences in the correct order for

Nursing Essay Essays and Research Papers. ?This essay will discuss the titles importance of needs assessment in nursing practice. It will also identify and explore the use of . appropriate tools that are required for the service user in creative course, the scenario. From the assessment tools selected, one will be prioritised and applied in relation to the service user's condition. The possible outcomes will then be discussed for future care planning for the service user. Finally, the essay will summarise what has been learnt from using the assessment tool. According. Allergy , Anxiety , Asthma 1947 Words | 8 Pages. Nursing is exercise titles, a profession which has evolved tremendously in the past century. Daydream For Walter! From the dawn of time nursing has existed, in exercise essay titles, one . form or another.

This has contributed to it gaining recognition as a profession. According to. Uea Online Creative Writing Course! profession has been defined as “an occupation that requires extensive education or a calling that requires special knowledge, skill, and exercise preparation”. For Walter Mitty! Since healthcare varies between cultures, nurses have historically taken on many different roles, these include folk. Diploma in Nursing , Health care , Nurse 1409 Words | 4 Pages. Patrice L. Donald (426-41-5435) / Application Essay 429 Hillandale Drive / Jackson, MS 39212 During my childhood years I can vividly . Titles! remember the cold, late nights my mother was called upon to help save lives. Without the time to find a baby sitter and due to my father’s occupation as a truck driver, she was forced to king essay, take me along with her to work. Although I was told to stay in essay titles, the nurse’s lounge and watch television – I found the colleges with in new hospital corridors intriguing. I often would sneak out essay and. Academic degree , Care of residents , Employment 1041 Words | 3 Pages. Nursing Essay : Sample Reflecting on one’s Communication Skills Introduction Nursing students can enhance . their learning through reflection that is, reflecting on a situation that involves nursing care (Parker 2006, p.115).

In line with this thought, I shall reflect on an experience and discuss the communication skills I used or should have used during the patient encounter. Creative Writing! I will use the three what model based on titles, the work of Borton (1970) and Boud (1985) to help structure my reflection. Before. Communication , Health care , Health care provider 2075 Words | 7 Pages. What is nursing ? What exactly does it mean to nurse a patient, and how has this definition changed over the past centuries? What does the . discipline of nursing consist of?

In this essay , I aim to uea online writing course, attempt to exercise titles, answer these questions, along with the history help of a myriad of nursing researchers whose studies have helped to broaden my perspective on what exactly it is that I now do for a living. I will be discussing the titles different types of nursing knowledge that assists us as nurses to care for patients and. Florence Nightingale , Health care , Health care provider 1724 Words | 5 Pages. glance of reading the creative writing course ANA code of ethics it seemed way beyond my “scope” of practice. I took a lot of time to read since it was kind of exercise essay titles, repetitive in a . sense. Creative! I’m a new graduate to essay, nursing field and without experience I don’t have ample nursing philosophy yet. I have worked as a hospice nurse now for 3 weeks, and have a nursing perspective of 3 weeks. It’s hard to imagine the code of uea online writing course, ethics being realistic, 100% of the exercise essay time. As nurses we are humans and not robots. The ANA Code of Ethics for Nurses.

Ethics , Florence Nightingale , Health care 1313 Words | 4 Pages. excellent nursing care (Srivastava, 2007). However, health care provider’s roles and responsibilities in meeting health care needs of the . clients in consideration to cultural perspective and 2009 history essay diversity are getting more challenging and complicated due to essay titles, increased number of people from a group of king essay, multi-ethnic and multi-cultural society, which, in turn requires health care providers to titles, acknowledge and understand variations of cultural healthcare beliefs, values and practices. Transcultural nursing is essential. Competence , Culture , Four stages of competence 2676 Words | 7 Pages. then concern is shown in the story surrounding the patient’s danger of getting harmed and a custom the patient’s wellbeing (Henneman, Gawlinski Guliano 2012). This . essay contains a rationale, a case scenario of a patient who shows respiratory deterioration and exercise essay titles the appropriate nursing actions to be undertaken in such a case. Nurse’s role Nursing assessments and interventions which reduce unpleasant patient outcomes are vital. There are various reasons for worse patient outcomes like improper diagnosis. Blood , Nurse , Nursing 2090 Words | 6 Pages. Career Essay : Nursing Nursing is defined as “the practice or profession of caring for the sick and injured” . Hairspray Musical! (thefreedictionary.com).

Regardless of the simplicity of the definition, nursing is a very complex career that as it might already imply, carries many responsibilities and complications. Nonetheless, nursing is a rewarding career that offers intrapersonal growth and various career advancement opportunities. Within the nursing profession there are many sub-groups depending on the degree. American Nurses Association , Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Health 1581 Words | 5 Pages. others in a time of need. According to U.S. Exercise Essay! Department of course, Labor, nurses have been described to “work to promote health, prevent disease, and essay titles help patients . cope with illness.” Nursing is a profession that blends the essays rich traditions of the past with the ever changing realities of today’s health care industry. The status of exercise, nursing as a profession reflects the martin luther king research essay values that society places on their work and how nurses are to the good of society. I feel that having a caring and exercise titles compassionate heart work together. Florence Nightingale , Hospital , Illness 2605 Words | 6 Pages. about the solution to the problem.

My passion for nursing manifested itself right from the childhood times when I would attend to my injured . Colleges With Creative Writing! classmates and playmates when everyone else took to exercise titles, their heels at the mere sight of expository writing, blood. Titles! As a trained nurse, I have great yet mixed expectations for the career as I believe it is a calling. Unlike other professionals who just work with an intention of making money, or due to lack of something else to do, nursing for me is a passion. My first day in uea online creative writing course, the hospital. Florence Nightingale , Hospital , Mental confusion 1492 Words | 4 Pages.

opportunity for me to realize my dreams. As such, I expect to exercise titles, be the essays very best and titles therefore want to ap world history, receive my education from xxx College, clearly the . leader in my desired field of essay, study. I ask that the majors in new york xxx team accept me into the Bachelor of exercise essay titles, Science in Nursing Program, with my intention to ultimately enter into the Master of Science Program in the specialized field of Nurse Anesthesia. If Clarkson College could only admit one more student, why should it be me? I am confident that my personal character. College , Future , Health 1464 Words | 4 Pages.

and a hug. I learned that helping others made me feel good. It was something I loved. While becoming a woman I only embrace this love even more. Although I . Colleges Creative Writing Majors York! did not comprehend that these small gestures as a child would soon lead me into a path of nursing , I am truly aware that they have opened a place in my heart for a career as a nurse. Over the years I have assimilated the remedy of caring and understanding the exercise essay titles medical needs of various individuals. I now understand that medical needs are not. Need , Nurse , Nursing 1344 Words | 4 Pages. REPORT: associates degree in nursing date: 12/4/2012 Descriptive Abstract This investigative report will go into detail about expository associate’s . Exercise! degree in nursing . Nursing is the largest health care profession in the U.S. Daydream! Over 2.5 million strong, nurses make up the largest workforce within the essay titles clinical healthcare industry.

Nursing careers offer a wide variety of essay, roles and a broad scope of exercise essay, responsibility. This report will also show graphs and musical essays steps to get into a nursing program as well as job titles. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor of Science 927 Words | 4 Pages. nation has been the focus of the exercise National Academies, Institute of Medicine (IOM). It turns out to be that clear from their research that . nursing plays an important role in the conveying health care. Robert Woods Johnson Foundation (RWJF) was appointed by 2009 ap world history IOM the Committee through the interdisciplinary practiced that depend upon the initiative on the Upcoming of Nursing . The aim was to create an achievement in favor of plan for anything that would let nurses to principal alteration in the direction to. Health , Health care , Health economics 1333 Words | 4 Pages. The field of exercise essay, nursing is very broad.

With a degree in nursing , someone could enjoy a range of experiences. With a degree in . Martin King Research Essay! nursing from NCCU State University, there are a number of career paths I could follow such as, becoming a Registered Nurse Case Manager, Nurse Practitioner, or Patient Advocate. Within this research paper, I will explore the nursing job field and also give statistics on the nursing field. Nursing is a profession filled with limitless personal and professional rewards. When. Health care provider , Healthcare occupations , Hospital 1447 Words | 4 Pages. NURSING Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so . they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care, training, and scope of practice. Nurses practice in titles, a wide diversity of uea online creative course, practice areas with a different scope of practice and level of prescriber authority in each. Many nurses provide care within the. Christianity , Florence Nightingale , Health 793 Words | 3 Pages.

centuries, nursing has been constantly redesigned and developed into titles, what we call now as modern nursing . It has been enhanced . every period of time through education and scientific breakthroughs. With Creative Writing! It has evolved into a vocation founded upon specialized educational training, enhanced both by theory and constant research. In this essay , the history and exercise essay development of nursing over the last two hundred years shall be addressed, followed by a discussion on the factors that led to daydream for walter mitty, the development of nursing into. Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Florence Nightingale , Master of Science in Nursing 2217 Words | 7 Pages. 2014 THESIS STATEMENT AND PURPOSE The nursing shortage and high turnover rate in nursing impacts the economic life of every . health care organization in America. The purpose of exercise, this paper is to uea online writing course, define and exercise essay discuss the approaches in leadership and management styles in relation to the nursing shortage and nurse turnover using theories, principles, skills, and hairspray musical roles of the essay leader versus manager and to identify this student’s professional philosophy of nursing and colleges creative in new personal leadership style. INTRODUCTION. Florence Nightingale , Health care , Leadership 1170 Words | 7 Pages.

0916-484-5004 DEGREE: Bachelor of exercise, Science in Nursing Las Pinas College College of Nursing March 29, 2001 Passed the . Integrated Comprehensive Licensure Exam June 10, 2001 Passed the Midwifery Board Exam November 10, 2009 WORK EXPERIENCE: Las Pinas City Medical Center Las Pinas City, Philippines Staff Nurse (OB GYNE, MEDICAL AND SURGICAL WARD) August 22, 2001 – December 21, 2004 Clinical Instructor supervising: Nursing Midwifery Caregiving students in OB GYNE and Pediatric. Chavacano language , Medicine , Nursing 445 Words | 4 Pages. ?Description It is king research, my first day of work after graduating from essay titles, nursing school. I am currently in a remote island of Maldives. It is a small . hospital consisting of 50 beds and almost 20 staffs working in 3 shifts.

I came for morning duty and the nursing in-charge shown me maternal and surgical ward as my first work place. After taking handing over creative course, from the night shift staff I made everything ready for exercise essay, the ward round as the musical essays doctors will be here in no time. Just before the doctors arrival we got a patient. Existential quantification , Hospital , Management 819 Words | 2 Pages. Nursing and Technology In his textbook, Medical Sociology, 12th edition, Dr. William Cockerham (2007), a medical sociologist at titles the . University of Alabama, Birmingham, describes nurses as being ultimately responsible for the nature and quality of all nursing care patients receive during their stay in colleges majors in new, a medical setting. According to Cockerham (2007), they also are responsible for following the instructions of physicians in order to ensure the essay best plan of action is implemented to writing, better serve the. Health care , Health care provider , Medical history 1108 Words | 3 Pages. of the information and knowledge gained, by titles suggesting how these skills will be applied to the student nurses future practice.

Disease management improves . the quality of a custom for walter mitty, a patient’s lifestyle and activities of daily living, through education and nursing intervention on their condition, empowering them to take a more significant role in their own care. It considers all additional factors to the actual medicinal treatment for the disease, providing a holistic approach. It is therefore imperative that. Epidemiology , Health , Health care 986 Words | 3 Pages. projects it turns out to exercise, be a little more complex than that. Growing up my ideas and passions would always seem to 2009 ap world, be changing but when I finally became set . in my ways at least in knowing what I would like to pursue the Nursing Program was up to par.

I chose to do mine on Nursing in the ED (emergency department) because this is a field I would love to go into titles, so I can be of service to those in need of any medical care, to always have a stable job to rely on, and further more to be able to excel in. Academic degree , Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Bachelor's degree 1449 Words | 4 Pages. MEN AND THE PROFFESION OF NURSING The following essay will look into the history of nursing ; it will be looking . at where men fit into nursing history and a custom daydream for walter mitty will draw upon some examples of men in the role of nursing it will then move forward to times where men began to disappear from the nursing role and exercise reasons why. Martin Luther! The effects that Florence Nightingale had to exercise essay titles, the changes of majors in new york, nursing will also be investigated. Exercise Titles! Caring as an colleges creative writing majors in new york art and the science in nursing will also be discussed and essay how men are perceived. Florence Nightingale , Nurse , Nursing 1951 Words | 6 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for debate; there have been mixed results for companies and individuals who have . pursued social responsibility. There is essay, also the question of exercise essay, whether social responsibility should be motivated by a perceived benefit.This type of essay is history essay, based on philosophical theories on the necessity of exercise essay, social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts.

For example, an essay could be about how giving support to 2009 essay, disaster. Essay , Essays , Qualitative research 555 Words | 3 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . Essay! 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages.

probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and uea online writing backs it up with supporting statements. Exercise Titles! It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and hairspray essays a conclusion (summary of statements and support). Essay Titles! English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages.

Nursing is one of the luther king research most respected and rewarding occupations in the healthcare industry. An exemplary nurse exhibits qualities such as . Exercise Titles! empathy, selflessness, and the ability to work well under pressure as a team and also independently. Although the writing nurses job description focuses on patient care, nurses are also the exercise patient’s number one advocate; the doctor may diagnose and order treatments for 2009 ap world, the patient, but the nurse is the one whom the exercise titles patient sees and establishes a connection most. Nurses . Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Diploma in Nursing , Health care 921 Words | 2 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of January 2013 You are required to writing, write an . essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the following question: • You have recently been appointed to essay, your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of daydream mitty, your management role you will be responsible for managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. Legal and Ethical Parameters of Professional Nursing Practice Essay One. Legal and exercise essay ethical parameters of professional nursing practice essay one Professional nurses encounter a variety of legal ethical . and bioethical issues on a daily basis. For this reason, it is essential that all nurses are aware of current state and national legislation, acts and guidelines and the implications of these for nursing practices as well as legal processes, principles of open disclosure and the role of a coroner in the health sector.

In this way, nurses can adhere to the overarching guidelines. Florence Nightingale , Health care , Health care provider 881 Words | 3 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . Martin King! The RMIT College of Business requires you to use a particular style of essay writing which involves both the way the essay is structured and exercise titles the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in daydream mitty, the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages.

their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to give up his humanity, while on the other . hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to exercise, protect his family. With Writing Majors York! Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in titles, your mind. Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to write. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . Expository Writing! be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and exercise cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. 2009 Ap World! Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011).

Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. essential foundation of nursing practise; it is exercise, primarily dependant upon verbal and non-verbal communication. Colleges Creative Writing Majors In New! Encompassing both speech and . behavioural aspects, efficient delivery and receiving of the nurse-patient messages initiates advantageous relationships, or contrarily, generates significant repercussions if applied ineffectively, thus affecting the quality of the essay titles nurse-patient relationship. This essay will discuss how effective verbal and non-verbal communication in nursing practice will facilitate.

Communication , Hearing , Interpersonal relationship 1688 Words | 7 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and you will need to write an essay of 1200-1400 words. With Writing Majors! This is the same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for writing on the Pre-Sessional course. Please select a title from the list here: 1. Exercise Essay Titles! Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of luther research, study in terms of application, use and limitations. 2. Explain the problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages.

FUTURE OF NURSING * SUTHA FERNANDO – DATE: 12-23-2012 GRAND CANYAN UNIVERSITY ABSTRACT The Institute of Medicine has thoroughly . Exercise! analyzed the Future of writing, Nursing and titles submitted report. Colleges With Writing In New York! The Institute of Medicine (IOM) is a nonprofit organization that works independently, provides unbiased and essay authoritative advice to general public as well as government. In this essay we would discuss about the significance of essays, report and exercise titles recommendations of luther essay, IOM. Essay Titles! In 2010 the IOM has advised the Government. Health , Health care , Health economics 1009 Words | 4 Pages. adult. But that would lead us to creative writing, have and be ourselves of what nursing school has done for exercise titles, us other than that we would be sole individuals . showing our individualism of going through nursing of being sleep deprived, altered mental status, ineffective coping through two years of training to absorbed and hairspray musical essays add to our growth “of an immature nursing adult to a mature” to a “MATURE AND NURSING ADULT” .The inimical expectation of the” nursing school farm” (as in exercise titles, a barricade of uea online creative writing course, sheep’s),because we want to. Bachelor of Science in Nursing , Florence Nightingale , Healthcare occupations 1497 Words | 4 Pages.

Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by titles Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by hairspray Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class.

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Currently, I’m working at Stafford Suites Senior. Care of residents , Health care , Healthcare 1647 Words | 9 Pages. Japan Journal of Nursing Science (2008) 5, 71 doi:10.1111/j.1742-7924.2008.00111.x EDITORIAL Nursing theory – . remembering our future Modern nursing theory began with Virginia Henderson in the 1960s. In her grand theory of nursing , she de?ned nursing as “assisting individuals to gain independence in exercise essay titles, the performance of activities contributing to health or its recovery (Henderson, 1966, p. Creative Course! 15). Since the exercise essay 1970s, the literature on nursing theory has focused upon two levels of nursing theories: the. Health economics , Healthcare , Medicine 666 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sample Essay / Essay Construction Other places where you can get assistance: 1. 2009 History! View the YouTube videos in the . “Referencing/Literacy/Assignment Resources” tab in the vUWS site for APNP (401007). 2. Visit an Online Writing Lab. Purdue OWL is a great resource: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/ 3. Make an appointment to see a PCALS officer (remember, they get very busy, so make an appointment well in advance of your assignment due date): NM_Parramatta_Literacy_Tutors@uws.edu.au NM_Cambpelltown_Literacy_Tutors@uws. Awareness , Consciousness , Nurse 831 Words | 3 Pages. Pursuing A Nursing Career Pursuing A Nursing Career Nursing Industry: A world of Opportunity . Nursing Industry: A world of Opportunity ? Flexible schedule – convenient shifts to titles, fit your schedule ? Challenge - everyday a new challenge; no boredom. . Colleges Majors In New! ? Accomplishment – Become an outstanding person ? Pride - Helping people on essay, a day to day basis ? Wisdom/Knowledge – Become familiar with the human anatomy and the medical world. ? Flexible schedule – convenient shifts.

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Arguing on the basis of Gibbs’ theory, Somerville and Keeling (2004:1) propose that Gibbs’ framework is merited for ‘examining personal thoughts and actions’ in. Nurse , Nursing , Writing 1427 Words | 4 Pages. Critical Evaluative Essay Tammy Peacock Kaplan University Critical Evaluative Essay The essay I am writing will . be focusing on critiquing two studies that were conducted by two different research groups. One paper titled: “The Effects of Crossed Leg on Blood Pressure Measurement” is done as a quantitative study with the exercise essay other paper titled: “The Experience of Patients Undergoing Awake Craniotomy” being a qualitative study. For each study I will be critiquing the titles, abstracts, purpose statements. Artery , Blood pressure , Essay 827 Words | 3 Pages. Professional Development of Nursing Professionals. Development of Nursing Professionals The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Institute of martin luther essay, Medicine, (IOM) introduced a two year contract . in exercise, 2008 (IOM, 2010). The basis of the contract is recommendations, which will impact the future of nursing care, and include changes in “public and institutional policies at the national, state, and local levels” (Future, 2010). This essay will provide a basic understanding of the IOM’s contract, including the impact on nursing education, nursing practice in.

Health , Health care , Health care provider 833 Words | 3 Pages. confidentiality as enshrined in The Code ( Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) 2008). Nick, a gentleman, aged 51, was admitted to hospital with . 2009 Ap World History Essay! vomiting and acute abdominal pain. Exercise! Nick’s experience of admission, examination and testing were mainly positive. Creative Course! Nick’s postoperative experiences were extremely negative. Most aspects of The Code (NMC 2008) were observed on admittance nonetheless, it appears that little of The Code was applied postoperatively.

This essay will examine the positive and negative. Health , Health care , Health care provider 1516 Words | 5 Pages. History of Nursing Research Worksheet Essay. Material History of Nursing Research Worksheet There have been many influential publications, agencies, and people in exercise, the field of with majors in new, . nursing research. Write 1–3 sentences in each cell of the table below to describe the importance, goal, or influence of each item.

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It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Writing! Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. Exercise Essay Titles! How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs?

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Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on titles, your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for writing, the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to exercise essay titles, best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to ap world history, go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for.

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Keep it simple. Essay Titles! Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and a custom daydream mitty 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager.

That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of essay, Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. Martin King! If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to essay put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10.

Make Your Contact Info Prominent. A Custom Daydream For Walter! You don’t need to exercise essay include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on expository, each individual resume. Exercise Titles! So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in expository, getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.

This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Essay Titles! As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and expository only include the experience relevant to titles the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into 2009 essay, more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14.

No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on essay, your relevant and colleges creative writing majors in new york transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and essay then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. A Custom For Walter! No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to essay titles get through them.

Check out these tips for essay writing impressive bullet points . Titles! You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is with majors york, readable, relevant, and interesting to all of exercise essay titles, them. Musical Essays! Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. Essay Titles! How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to daydream for walter mitty picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at essay, your bullet points, think about ap world essay, how you can take each statement one step further and add in essay, what the benefit was to your boss or your company.

By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the 2009 essay, direct benefit the employer will receive by exercise titles, hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out essays, these tips for exercise titles turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on expository, a resume often starts to exercise essay sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to 2009 essay get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the exercise essay, same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only martin luther research, put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology.

If every bullet in exercise titles, your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in writing, your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to titles include? Dump the job description into uea online creative course, a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and titles hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to luther describe how awesome you are. 24.

Experience First, Education Second. Titles! Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the 2009, job than where you went to college. Exercise Titles! 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. Ap World! But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates.

The reviewer cares more about exercise essay, whether or not you have the uea online writing course, degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. Exercise Essay Titles! While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the creative course, fact that you were in the honors college at titles, your university. Martin Luther Research Essay! 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to essay titles get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to martin luther king research skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own.

Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and exercise titles detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to martin king essay include an exercise essay titles “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to 2009 ap world essay the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it.

32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Essay! Yes, these experiences show a good amount of colleges with creative writing york, work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause.

Zhang explains here how to weigh the exercise essay, decision of whether to include them or not. Course! Do include awards and exercise accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Daydream Mitty! Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in essay titles, a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the writing, proper ways to essay titles include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at hairspray musical essays, a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from essay, your resume. According to expository The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview.

If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and titles end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of writing course, years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for exercise essay titles leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the history, perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into exercise, your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. Uea Online Creative! See more tips from exercise essay, Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on a custom, your resume.

For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to exercise essay titles take this section of your resume seriously. Uea Online! 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is exercise titles, interested in 2009 ap world history essay, you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the exercise essay titles, obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to writing take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an exercise essay editor on how to perfect your own work ). Expository Writing! If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc.

That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and exercise essay make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is 2009 history, updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself.

And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of exercise essay titles, good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on king, the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Exercise essays

Cisco Wireless Intrusion Prevention System Configuration Guide, Release 7.4. Cisco Wireless Intrusion Prevention System Configuration Guide, Release 7.4. wIPS Policy Alarm Encyclopedia. View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices. Chapter: wIPS Policy Alarm Encyclopedia.

The addition of WLANs to the corporate environment introduces a new class of exercise, threats for network security. RF signals that penetrate walls and extend beyond intended boundaries can expose the network to unauthorized users. Rogue access points installed by employees for their personal use usually do not adhere to the corporate security policy. A rogue access point can put the entire corporate network at risk for outside penetration and attack. Not to understate the threat of the musical essays rogue access point, there are many other wireless security risks and intrusions such as mis-configured and essay titles, unconfigured access points and DoS (Denial of Service) attacks. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS (wIPS) is designed to help manage against security threats by validating proper security configurations and detecting possible intrusions. With the king research comprehensive suite of security monitoring technologies, the wIPS alerts the exercise essay titles user on creative in new york more than 100 different threat conditions in the following categories: User authentication and traffic encryption Rogue and ad-hoc mode devices Configuration vulnerabilities Intrusion detection on exercise essay security penetration Intrusion detection on king research essay DoS attacks. To maximize the power of the exercise titles wIPS, security alarms can be customized to expository writing, best match your security deployment policy. For example, if your WLAN deployment includes access points made by a specific vendor, the product can be customized to generate the rogue access point alarm when an exercise titles, access point made by another vendor is detected by the access point or sensor. Intrusion Detection—Denial of Service Attack.

Wireless DoS (denial of service) attacks aim to hairspray musical essays, disrupt wireless services by taking advantage of various vulnerabilities of WLAN at Layer one and two. DoS attacks may target the physical RF environment, access points, client stations, or the back-end authentication RADIUS servers. For example, an titles, RF jamming attack with a high power directional antenna from a distance can be carried out course from the exercise essay outside of uea online creative writing, your office building. Attack tools used by intruders leverage hacking techniques such as spoofed 802.11 management frames, spoofed 802.1x authentication frames, or simply using the brute force packet flooding method. The nature and protocol standards for wireless are subject to essay titles, some of these attacks. Because of this, Cisco has developed Management Frame Protection, the basis of 802.11i, to proactively prevent many of these attacks. (For more information on MFP, see the Cisco Prime Infrastructure online Help.) The wIPS contributes to this solution by musical essays an early detection system where the attack signatures are matched. The DoS of the wIPS detection focuses on WLAN layer one (physical layer) and exercise, two (data link layer, 802.11, 802.1x).

When strong WLAN authentication and encryption mechanisms are used, higher layer (IP layer and above) DoS attacks are difficult to essays, execute. The wIPS server tightens your WLAN defense by validating strong authentication and encryption policies. Essay. In addition, the intrusion detection of the wIPS on denial of 2009 essay, service attacks and security penetration provides 24 X 7 air-tight monitoring on potential wireless attacks. Denial of service attacks include the following three subcategories: Denial of exercise titles, Service Attack Against Access Points. DoS attacks against essays, access points are typically carried out on the basis of the titles following assumptions:

Access points have limited resources. For example, the a custom per-client association state table. WLAN management frames and authentication protocols 802.11 and 802.1x have no encryption mechanisms. Wireless intruders can exhaust access point resources, most importantly the essay client association table, by emulating large number of wireless clients with spoofed MAC addresses. Each one of these emulated clients attempts association and history essay, authentication with the exercise target access point but leaves the daydream for walter protocol transaction mid-way. When the access points resources and the client association table is filled up with these emulated clients and their incomplete authentication states, legitimate clients can no longer be serviced by the attacked access point. This creates a denial of service attack. The wIPS tracks the essay client authentication process and identifies DoS attack signatures against the access point. Incomplete authentication and association transactions trigger the daydream for walter mitty attack detection and statistical signature matching process. Detected DoS attack results in setting off wIPS alarms, which includes the usual alarm detail description and essay, target device information. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing.

For more information on MFP, see the Prime Infrastructure online Help. DoS attacks against access points include the following types: Alarm Description and king essay, Possible Causes. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack is to exhaust the access point's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the access point with a large number of emulated and spoofed client associations. At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used. Exercise Essay Titles. The other alternative is Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Open authentication allows any client to writing, authenticate and then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can emulate a large number of clients to flood a target access point's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients are not able to get associated thus a denial-of-serve attack is committed. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects spoofed MAC addresses and tracks the follow-up 802.1x actions and data communication after a successful client association to detect this form of DoS attack. After this attack is reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, you may log on to this access point to essay, inspect its association table for the number of client associations.

Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing. For more information on luther research MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or the Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Association Table Overflow. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Wireless intruders can exhaust access point resources, most importantly the client association table, by imitating a large number of wireless clients with spoofed MAC addresses. Each one of titles, these imitated clients attempts association and luther essay, authentication with the target access point.

The 802.11 authentication typically completes because most deployments use 802.11 Open System authentication, which is basically a null authentication process. Association with these imitated clients follows the authentication process. Exercise. These imitated clients do not, however, follow up with higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN, which would leave the protocol transaction half-finished. At this point, the attacked access point maintains a state in the client association table for each imitated client. Once the access point's resources and creative writing course, client association table is filled with these imitated clients and their state information, legitimate clients can no longer be serviced by the attacked access point. Essay. This creates a DoS (denial of service) attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS tracks the client authentication process and identifies a DoS attack signature against an access point. Incomplete authentication and association transaction trigger the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS's attack detection and statistical signature matching process. Denial of Service Attack: Authentication Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status.

Wireless clients and access points implement such a state machine according to the IEEE standard (see illustration below). On the access point, each client station has a state recorded in luther king essay the access point's client table (association table). Essay. This recorded state has a size limit that can either be a hard-coded number or a number based on the physical memory constraint. A form of a custom daydream mitty, DoS (denial-of-service) attack floods the exercise titles access point's client state table (association table) by imitating many client stations (MAC address spoofing) sending authentication requests to creative writing in new, the access point. Upon reception of each individual authentication request, the target access point creates a client entry in State 1 of the titles association table.

If Open System authentication is used for creative writing course the access point, the access point returns an essay titles, authentication success frame and moves the client to State 2. Expository Writing. If Shared-key authentication is used for the access point, the access point sends an authentication challenge to the attacker's imitated client which does not respond. In this case, the access point keeps the client in State 1. Essay. In either case, the access point contains multiple clients hanging in either State 1 or State 2 which fills up the access point association table. When the table reaches its limit, legitimate clients are not able to authenticate and associate with this access point. This results in a DoS attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form a DoS attack by tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is 2009 history identified. The WLAN security analyst can log on to the exercise essay access point to check the current association table status. Denial of Service Attack: EAPOL-Start Attack.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. Expository. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame sent by the client station to begin the authentication transaction. The access point responds to an EAPOL-Start frame with a EAP-Identity-Request and titles, some internal resource allocation. An attacker attempts to bring down an access point by flooding it with EAPOL-Start frames to exhaust the access point internal resources. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of research essay, DoS (denial-of-service) attack by essay tracking the in new 802.1x authentication state transition and particular attack signature. Denial of Service Attack: PS Poll Flood Attack. Alarm Description and exercise essay titles, Possible Causes. Power management is probably one of the most critical features of hairspray musical, wireless LAN devices. Power management helps to conserve power by exercise essay titles enabling stations to remain in power saving state mode for musical essays longer periods of time and to exercise titles, receive data from the access point only at specified intervals.

The wireless client device must inform the access point of the length of time that it will be in colleges creative the sleep mode (power save mode). At the end of the titles time period, the client wakes up and checks for martin essay waiting data frames. After it completes a handshake with the essay access point, it receives the data frames. Hairspray Musical. The beacons from the access point also include the Delivery Traffic Indication Map (DTIM) to inform the client when it needs to wake up to accept multicast traffic. The access point continues to buffer data frames for the sleeping wireless clients. Using the Traffic Indication Map (TIM), the access point notifies the wireless client that it has buffered data buffered. Multicast frames are sent after the beacon that announces the DTIM.

The client requests the delivery of the buffered frames using PS-Poll frames to the access point. For every PS-Poll frame, the access point responds with a data frame. If there are more frames buffered for the wireless client, the access point sets the exercise data bit in the frame response. The client then sends another PS-Poll frame to get the next data frame. This process continues until all the buffered data frames are received. A potential hacker could spoof the MAC address of the wireless client and send out a flood of expository, PS-Poll frames.

The access point then sends out the buffered data frames to titles, the wireless client. With Majors In New. In reality, the client could be in the power safe mode and would miss the data frames. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS can detect this DoS (denial-of-service) attack that can cause the wireless client to exercise essay, lose legitimate data. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing. For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or the Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Probe Request Flood.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial of 2009 ap world history, Service attack allows the attacker to force the essay titles target AP into a constant stream of wireless packets intended to serve nonexistent clients. During a Probe Request Flood, the attacker will generate large quantities of probe requests targeted at a specific AP. Typical wireless design specifies that an AP will respond to a probe request by a custom mitty sending a probe response, which contains information about the corporate network. Due to the volume of titles, probe requests transmitted during a flood attack, the AP will be stuck continuously responding, thus resulting in luther king essay a denial of service for all clients depending on titles that AP.

The wIPS server monitors the levels of probe request frames detected and will trigger a Probe Request Flood alarm when the threshold is exceeded. Even in cases where the requests are valid, the volume of the frames could cause problems with wireless activity. Consequently, the uea online creative course source(s) of the titles offending frames should be located and removed from the enterprise environment. Denial of Service Attack: Re-association Request Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial-of-service attack is to exhaust the AP's resources, particularly the creative client association table, by flooding the AP with a large number of emulated and spoofed client re-associations.

At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used any more. The only other alternative is exercise Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Open authentication allows any client to authenticate and then associate. Essays. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can emulate a large number of essay titles, clients to flood a target AP's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients will not be able to for walter, get associated thus a denial-of-serve attack is titles committed.

The wIPS server monitors the martin levels of re-association requests on the network and triggers this alarm if the threshold is exceeded. Denial of exercise titles, Service Attack: Unauthenticated Association. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of expository, DoS (denial-of-service) attack is to titles, exhaust the luther research access point's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the access point with a large number of imitated and spoofed client associations. At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used. The other alternative is Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on exercise a higher level of authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Open authentication allows any client to authenticate and then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can imitate a large number of expository, clients to flood a target access point's client association table by essay creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients are not able to get associated causing a DoS attack.

Denial of hairspray essays, Service (DoS) attacks are unique in that most ways to contain them will not work. Unauthenticated Association Attack is no different. You have an exercise essay titles, attacker that is luther essay randomly generating hundreds if not thousands of exercise essay, MAC addresses and crafting those as Association frames and sending them as fast as possible to the target Access Point. Wireless containment on this type of attack is clearly not possible. What are your options?

Locating the source of the attack is your best option. Using a wireless analyzer, lock onto the channel where the attack is coming from. Since you will see Association Frames streaming by, take note of signal strength readings from those frames. 2009. Using these signal strength numbers, try to locate the source of the attack by walking around the area where you think the essay attack is being generated from. Denial of Service Attack Against Infrastructure. In addition to attacking access points or client stations, the king research wireless intruder may target the RF spectrum or the back-end authentication RADIUS server for DoS (denial of service) attacks. The RF spectrum can be easily disrupted by exercise injecting RF noise generated by a high power antenna from a distance. Back-end RADIUS servers can be overloaded by a DDoS (distributed denial of service) attack where multiple wireless attackers flood the RADIUS server with authentication requests. This attack does not require a successful authentication to perform the uea online course attack. DoS attacks against infrastructure include the following types:

Denial of exercise titles, Service Attack: Beacon Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial of Service attack allows an martin king research essay, attacker to inhibit wireless activity for the entire enterprise infrastructure by essay titles preventing new associations between valid APs and stations. Typically, an enterprise AP will broadcast beacon frames to all recipients within range to notify users of the network's presence. Upon receipt of this beacon, stations can consult their configurations to verify that this is an appropriate network. Ap World Essay. During a beacon flood attack, stations that are actively seeking a network are bombarded with beacons from essay, networks generated using different MAC addresses and SSIDs. This flood can prevent the uea online creative writing valid client from detecting the beacons sent by the corporate APs, and thus a denial of service attack is initiated. The wIPS server monitors the levels of beacon frames detected and will trigger a Beacon Flood alarm when the threshold is exceeded. Even in cases where the beacons are valid, the volume of the frames could cause problems with wireless activity.

Consequently, the sources of the offending frames should be located and removed from the enterprise environment. Denial of Service Attack: CTS Flood. Attack tool: CTS Jack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. As an optional feature, the titles IEEE 802.11 standard includes the RTS/CTS (Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send) functionality to control the station access to a custom mitty, the RF medium.

The wireless device ready for transmission sends a RTS frame in order to acquire the right to exercise titles, the RF medium for a specified time duration. The receiver grants the musical essays right to the RF medium to the transmitter by sending a CTS frame of the exercise essay same time duration. All wireless devices observing the CTS frame should yield the media to with creative majors in new, the transmitter for transmission without contention. A wireless denial-of-service attacker may take advantage of the privilege granted to the CTS frame to reserve the RF medium for transmission. By transmitting back-to-back CTS frames, an attacker can force other wireless devices sharing the RF medium to hold back their transmission until the attacker stops transmitting the CTS frames. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the abuse of CTS frames for a DoS attack.

Denial of Service Attack: Destruction Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. MDK3 is a suite of hacking tools that allows users to exercise essay titles, utilize a number of different security penetration methods against corporate infrastructures. MDK3-Destruction mode is a specific implementation of the suit that uses an array of the tools to effectively completely shut down a wireless deployment. During an MDK-Destruction attack, the tool simultaneously: Initiates a beacon flood attack, which creates fake APs within the environment, Triggers an authentication flood attack against valid corporate APs, preventing them from servicing clients, and kicks all active connections with valid clients. Additional enhancements allow for the tool to be used to connect the valid clients to the fake APs generated with the beacon flood, causing further confusion in the environment. The wIPS server monitors for the combination of symptoms of an daydream mitty, MDK3-Destruction attack and triggers an titles, alarm when they are detected. Due to the dramatic impact that this attack can have on a wireless deployment, it is strongly recommended that the source of the attack be identified and removed immediately in order to resume normal network operations. Denial of Service Attack: Queensland University of Technology Exploit. Denial of Service Vulnerability in history IEEE 802.11 Wireless Devices: US-CERT VU#106678 Aus-CERT AA-2004.02.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. 802.11 WLAN devices use Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) as the basic access mechanism in which the WLAN device listens to the medium before starting any transmission and backs-off when it detects any existing transmission taking place. Exercise Titles. Collision avoidance combines the physical sensing mechanism and the virtual sense mechanism that includes the Network Allocation Vector (NAV), the time before which the medium is available for for walter transmission. Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) in the DSSS protocol determines whether a WLAN channel is clear so an 802.11b device can transmit on essay it. Mark Looi, Christian Wullems, Kevin Tham and Jason Smith from the Information Security Research Centre, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, have recently discovered a flaw in the 802.11b protocol standard that could potentially make it vulnerable to DoS (denial-of-service) RF jamming attacks. This attack specifically attacks the CCA functionality. According to the AusCERT bulletin, an attack against this vulnerability exploits the CCA function at the physical layer and causes all WLAN nodes within range, both clients and colleges creative majors in new york, access points, to defer transmission of data for the duration of the exercise titles attack. When under attack, the device behaves as if the channel is always busy, preventing the transmission of any data over the wireless network.

This DoS attack affects DSSS WLAN devices including IEEE 802.11, 802.11b, and low-speed (below 20Mbps) 802.11g wireless devices. IEEE 802.11a (using OFDM), high-speed (above 20Mbps using OFDM) 802.11g wireless devices are not affected by this attack. Luther Research Essay. Devices that use FHSS are also not affected. Any attacker using a PDA or a laptop equipped with a WLAN card can launch this attack on SOHO and enterprise WLANs. Switching to the 802.11a protocol is the exercise only solution or known protection against this DoS attack.

For more information on this DoS attack refer to : The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this DoS attack and 2009 ap world essay, sets off the titles alarm. Musical Essays. Locate the responsible device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Denial of Service attack: RF Jamming Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WLAN reliability and efficiency depend on exercise the quality of the RF media. Each RF is king research susceptible to RF noise impact. An attacker leveraging this WLAN vulnerability can perform two types of DoS (denial-of-service) attacks: Disrupt WLAN service Physically damage AP hardware. Disrupt WLAN service —At the 2.4GHz unlicensed spectrum, the attack may be unintentional. A cordless phone, Bluetooth devices, microwave, wireless surveillance video camera, or baby monitor can all emit RF energy to disrupt WLAN service.

Malicious attacks can manipulate the RF power at titles 2.4GHz or 5GHz spectrum with a high gain directional antenna to amplify the attack impact from a distance. With free-space and indoor attenuation, a one kilo-watt jammer 300 feet away from a building can jam 50 to 100 feet into the office area. Expository. The same one kilo-watt jammer located inside a building can jam 180 feet into the office area. During the attack, WLAN devices in the target area are out of wireless service. Physically damage AP hardware— An attacker using a high output transmitter with directional high gain antenna 30 yards away from an access point can pulse enough high energy RF power to damage electronics in the access point resulting in it being permanently out of service. Such HERF (High Energy RF) guns are effective and are inexpensive to build. Like any RF based disturbance, your best way to resolve this would be to physically locate the device that is triggering the RF Jamming alarm and essay, take it offline. Alternatively with Cisco CleanAir and its signature library, you can get a better description of this device. Find out the ap world history essay wIPS Access Point that triggered this alarm.

Using a mobile spectrum analyzer, walk around to locate the source of the exercise essay interference. Martin Luther King Essay. Once the device is located, turn off or move the device to an area that won't affect your WLAN. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. As an optional feature, the essay titles IEEE 802.11 standard includes the RTS/CTS (Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send) functionality to control access to the RF medium by stations. The wireless device ready for transmission sends an creative writing course, RTS frame to acquire the essay right to 2009 ap world, the RF medium for a specified duration. Titles. The receiver grants the right to the RF medium to the transmitter by sending a CTS frame of the same duration. All wireless devices observing the a custom mitty CTS frame should yield the exercise essay RF medium to the transmitter for transmission without contention. A wireless denial of service attacker may take advantage of the essay privilege granted to essay titles, the CTS frame to daydream for walter mitty, reserve the RF medium for exercise transmission.

By transmitting back-to-back RTS frames with a large transmission duration text box, an musical essays, attacker reserves the wireless medium and force other wireless devices sharing the RF medium to hold back their transmissions. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the abuse of RTS frames for denial-of-service attacks. Denial of Service Attack: Virtual Carrier Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The virtual carrier-sense attack is implemented by exercise modifying the 802.11 MAC layer implementation to allow random duration values to be sent periodically. This attack can be carried out on the ACK, data, RTS, and CTS frame types by using large duration values. By doing this the attacker can prevent channel access to legitimate users. Under normal circumstances, the only time a ACK frame carries a large duration value is when the ACK is martin luther research part of a fragmented packet sequence. A data frame legitimately carries a large duration value only when it is a subframe in a fragmented packet exchange.

One approach to deal with this attack is to place a limit on the duration values accepted by essay titles nodes. Any packet containing a larger duration value is truncated to the maximum allowed value. Low cap and high cap values can be used. Ap World History Essay. The low cap has a value equal to the amount of time required to send an ACK frame, plus media access backoffs for that frame. The low cap is used when the only packet that can follow the observed packet is an ACK or CTS.

This includes RTS and all management (association, etc) frames. The high cap is used when it is valid for a data packet to follow the observed frame. The limit in this case needs to titles, include the time required to send the largest data frame, plus the media access backoffs for that frame. The high cap must be used in two places: when observing an ACK (because the ACK my be part of a MAC level fragmented packet) and when observing a CTS. A station that receives an RTS frame also receives the data frame. The IEEE 802.11 standard specifies the 2009 history exact times for exercise essay titles the subsequent CTS and data frames.

The duration value of RTS is respected until the following data frame is received or not received. Either the observed CTS is unsolicited or the observing node is a hidden terminal. Martin Essay. If this CTS is addressed to a valid in-range station, the valid station can nullify this by sending a zero duration null function frame. If this CTS is addressed to an out-of-range station, one method of defense is to introduce authenticated CTS frames containing cryptographically signed copies of the preceding RTS. Exercise. With this method, there is a possibility of overhead and feasibility issues.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this DoS (denial-of-service) attack. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Denial of Service Attacks Against Client Station. DoS attacks against wireless client stations are typically carried out based on the fact that 802.11 management frames and uea online creative writing, 802.1x authentication protocols have no encryption mechanism and thus can be spoofed. For example, wireless intruders can disrupt the exercise service to a client station by martin luther continuously spoofing a 802.11 disassociation or deauthentication frame from the access point to the client station.

Besides the 802.11 authentication and association state attack, there are similar attack scenarios for 802.1x authentication. Exercise. For example, 802.1x EAP-Failure or EAP-logoff messages are not encrypted and can be spoofed to disrupt the 802.1x authenticated state to disrupt wireless service. Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS tracks the client authentication process and writing, identifies DoS attack signatures. Exercise Essay Titles. Incomplete authentication and association transactions trigger the attack detection and statistical signature matching process. Detected DoS attack results in setting off wIPS alarms that include the usual alarm detail description and target device information. DoS attacks against client station include the following types: Denial of Service Attack: Authentication Failure Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status.

Wireless clients and access points implement this client state machine based on the IEEE standard (see illustration below). 2009. A successfully associated client station remains in State 3 in order to exercise essay, continue wireless communication. A client station in colleges with creative State 1 and in State 2 cannot participate in the WLAN data communication process until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. IEEE 802.11 defines two authentication services: Open System Authentication and Shared Key Authentication. Wireless clients go through one of these authentication processes to essay, associate with an access point. A denial-of-service (DoS) attack spoofs invalid authentication request frames (with bad authentication service and status codes) from an mitty, associated client in State 3 to an access point. Upon reception of the invalid authentication requests, the essay titles access point updates the client to State 1, which disconnects its wireless service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of a DoS attack by a custom daydream for walter mitty monitoring for spoofed MAC addresses and authentication failures. This alarm may also indicate an exercise titles, intrusion attempt. When a wireless client fails too many times in authenticating with an access point, the server raises this alarm to indicate a potential intruder's attempt to breach security. This alarm focuses on 802.11 authentication methods, such as Open System and Shared Key.

802.1x and EAP based authentications are monitored by other alarms. Denial of Service Attack: Block ACK Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of essay, Denial of Service attack allows an attacker to prevent an essay titles, 802.11n AP from receiving frames from a specific valid corporate client. With the 2009 ap world history essay introduction of the 802.11n standard, a transaction mechanism was introduced which allows a client to transmit a large block of frames at titles once, rather than dividing them up into segments. In order to initiate this exchange, the client will send an Add Block Acknowledgement (ADDBA) to the AP, which contains sequence numbers to inform the uea online creative AP of the size of the block being transmitted.

The AP will then accept all frames that fall within the specified sequence (consequently dropping any frames that fall outside of the essay range) and transmit a BlockACK message back to creative writing course, the client when the transaction has been completed. In order to exploit this process, an essay titles, attacker can transmit an uea online creative course, invalid ADDBA frame while spoofing the valid client's MAC address. This process will cause the AP to ignore any valid traffic transmitted from the client until the invalid frame range has been reached. The wIPS server monitors Block ACK transactions for signs of spoofed client information. When an essay titles, attacker is detected attempting to initiate a Block ACK attack, an alarm is triggered. It is recommended that users locate the offending device and eliminate it from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Denial of Service Attack: Deauthentication Broadcast. Attack tool: WLAN Jack, Void11, Hunter Killer. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking the station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station remains in State 3 to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send all clients of an access point to hairspray musical, the unassociated or unauthenticated State 1 by exercise essay spoofing de-authentication frames from the access point to the broadcast address.

With today's client adapter implementation, this form of attack is 2009 history very effective and immediate in terms of disrupting wireless services against multiple clients. Typically, client stations re-associate and re-authenticate to regain service until the essay titles attacker sends another de-authentication frame. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by detecting spoofed de-authentication frames and tracking client authentication and association states. Daydream For Walter. When the alarm is exercise triggered, the with access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security analyst can log on to the access point to check the current association table status.

Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against MAC spoofing. For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Deauthentication Flood. Attack tool: WLAN Jack, Void11. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send an access point's client to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 1 by spoofing de-authentication frames from the access point to the client unicast address.

With today's client adapter implementations, this form of attack is very effective and immediate in terms of disrupting wireless services against the client. Typically, client stations re-associate and re-authenticate to regain service until the attacker sends another de-authentication frame. An attacker repeatedly spoofs the de-authentication frames to keep all clients out of service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by detecting spoofed dis-association frames and tracking client authentication and association states. When the exercise essay alarm is hairspray musical essays triggered, the exercise access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security officer can log on to the access point to check the current association table status. Denial of Service Attack: Disassociation Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking the station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard.

A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is course authenticated and associated to State 3. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send an access point's client to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 2 by spoofing dis-association frames from the access point to the broadcast address (all clients). With today's client adapter implementations, this form of attack is effective and immediate in terms of essay, disrupting wireless services against multiple clients. Typically, client stations re-associate to regain service until the attacker sends another dis-association frame. An attacker repeatedly spoofs the dis-association frames to keep all clients out of writing course, service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by detecting spoofed dis-association frames and tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security officer can log on essay to the access point to a custom daydream for walter mitty, check the current association table status.

Denial of exercise essay titles, Service Attack: EAPOL Logoff Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame to begin the ap world authentication transaction. At the end of an exercise, authenticated session when a client station wishes to log off, the client station sends an 802.1x EAPOL-Logoff frame to terminate the session with the martin king essay access point. Since the EAPOL-logoff frame is not authenticated, an attacker can potentially spoof this frame and log the user off the access point, thus committing a DoS (denial-of-service) attack. The client station is unaware that it is logged off from the access point until it attempts communication through the WLAN.

Typically, the client station discovers the exercise essay titles disrupted connection status and re-associates and authenticates automatically to regain the wireless connection. Colleges Majors York. The attacker can continuously transmit the spoofed EAPOL-Logoff frames to be effective on this attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the use of FATA-jack by monitoring on spoofed MAC addresses and authentication failures. This alarm may also indicate an intrusion attempt. When a wireless client fails too many times in authenticating with an access point, the exercise essay Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS raises this alarm to indicate a potential intruder's attempt to breach security. This alarm focuses on writing course 802.11 authentication methods (Open System, Shared Key, etc). EAP and 802.1x based authentications are monitored by other alarms.

Denial of essay, Service Attack: FATA Jack Tool Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. EEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine based on the IEEE standard. 2009. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and in State 2 cannot participate in the WLAN data communication process until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. IEEE 802.11 defines two authentication services: Open System Authentication and Shared Key Authentication. Wireless clients go through one of these authentication processes to associate with an access point.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack spoofs invalid authentication request frames (with bad authentication service and status codes) from an associated client in State 3 to an access point. Upon reception of the invalid authentication requests, the essay titles access point updates the creative in new york client to State 1, which disconnects its wireless service. FATA-jack is one of the commonly used tools to run a similar attack. It is a modified version of WLAN-jack and it sends authentication-failed packets along with the reason code of the previous authentication failure to the wireless station. This occurs after it spoofs the MAC address of the essay titles access point. FATA-jack closes most active connections and at times forces the user to reboot the station to continue normal activities. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by tracking the spoofed pre-mature EAP-Failure frames and the 802.1x authentication states for each client station and 2009 history, access point. Locate the device and exercise essay, take appropriate steps to remove it from the expository writing wireless environment. Denial of Service Attack: Premature EAP Failure Attack.

Alarm Description and exercise essay, Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame to begin the for walter authentication transaction. When the 802.1x authentication packet exchange is complete with the back-end RADIUS server, the access point sends an EAP-Success or EAP-Failure frame to essay titles, the client to 2009 ap world history, indicate authentication success or failure. The IEEE 802.1X specification prohibits a client from displaying its interface when the required mutual authentication is not complete. This enables a well-implemented 802.1x client station to titles, avoid being fooled by a fake access point sending premature EAP-Success packets. An attacker keeps the client interface from displaying (therefore Denial-of-Service) by continuously spoofing pre-mature EAP-Failure frames from the access point to the client to disrupt the authentication state on the client. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by tracking spoofed premature EAP-Success frames and the 802.1x authentication states for course each client station and access point. Essay Titles. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Intrusion Detection—Security Penetration.

A form of wireless intrusion is to breach the with creative majors in new york WLAN authentication mechanism to exercise titles, gain access to a custom for walter mitty, the wired network or the exercise wireless devices. Dictionary attacks on the authentication method is a common attack against an access point. The intruder can also attack the wireless client station during its association process with an access point. For example, a faked access point attack on a unsuspicious wireless client may fool the client into associating with faked access point. This attack allows the intruder to musical, gain network access to the wireless station and potentially hack into exercise essay titles, its file system. The intruder can then use the station to access the wired enterprise network. These security threats can be prevented if mutual authentication and strong encryption techniques are used. The wIPS looks for weak security deployment practices as well as any penetration attack attempts. The wIPS ensures a strong wireless security umbrella by validating the best security policy implementation as well as detecting intrusion attempts. If such vulnerabilities or attack attempts are detected, the wIPS generates alarms to bring these intrusion attempts to the administrator's notice. Security penetration attacks include the in new following types:

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WLAN devices using static WEP key for encryption are vulnerable to the WEP key cracking attack. Cisco Systems introduced LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) to leverage the existing 802.1x framework to avoid such WEP key attacks. Exercise Titles. The Cisco LEAP solution provides mutual authentication, dynamic per session and per user keys, and configurable WEP session key time out. 2009 History. The LEAP solution was considered a stable security solution and titles, is easy to configure. There are hacking tools that compromise wireless LAN networks running LEAP by using off-line dictionary attacks to research, break LEAP passwords After detecting WLAN networks that use LEAP, this tool de-authenticates users which forces them to reconnect and provide their user name and password credentials.

The hacker captures packets of legitimate users trying to re-access the network. The attacker can then analyze the traffic off-line and guess the password by testing values from essay titles, a dictionary. The main features of the ASLEAP tool include: Reading live from 2009 ap world, any wireless interface in RFMON mode with libpcap Monitoring a single channel or performing channel hopping to look for target networks running LEAP. Actively deauthenticating users on LEAP networks, forcing them to reauthenticate. This allows quick LEAP password captures. Only de-authenticating users who have not already been seen rather than users who are not running LEAP.

Reading from essay, stored libpcap files. Using a dynamic database table and index to allow quick lookups on a custom daydream mitty large files. This reduces the worst-case search time to .0015% as opposed to lookups in a flat file. Writing only the LEAP exchange information to a libpcap file. This could be used to capture LEAP credentials with a device short on disk space (like an iPaq); the exercise essay LEAP credentials are then stored in the libpcap file on a system with more storage resources to mount the dictionary attack. The source and Win32 binary distribution for a custom mitty the tool are available at essay http://asleap.sourceforge.net. Cisco Systems has developed the Extensible Authentication Protocol-Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling (EAP-FAST) protocol which stops these dictionary attacks. EAP-FAST helps prevent man-in-the-middle attacks, dictionary attacks, and packet and authentication forgery attacks. In EAP-FAST, a tunnel is created between the client and the server using a PAC (Protected Access Credential) to authenticate each other.

After the tunnel establishment process, the client is then authenticated using the user-name and password credentials. Some advantages of EAP-FAST include: It is not proprietary. It is compliant with the IEEE 802.11i standard. Colleges Writing Majors York. It supports TKIP and WPA. It does not use certificates and avoids complex PKI infrastructures.

It supports multiple Operating Systems on PCs and Pocket PCs. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the de-authentication signature of the ASLEAP tool. Once detected, the server alerts the wireless administrator. The user of the attacked station should reset the password. The best solution to counter the ASLEAP tool is to replace LEAP with EAP-FAST in the corporate WLAN environment. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that proactively reports any access points configured to utilize weak encryption or authentication. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to exercise essay, Cisco WCS online help.

Starting with Apple OSX Lion, Apple has a new feature called AirDrop. This new feature is supported on newer MacBook, MacBook Pro and iMac. What this new feature allows users to do is quickly setup a wireless file transfer system. To achieve this, both of the users that want to share files need to expository, open their finder and click on the AirDrop link. Once both of the systems are in range of each other and the link is setup, the users will see the other user's login icon in the AirDrop window. They can then drag-and-drop files onto the other users icon to begin a file transfer.

This could potentially create a security risk due to unauthorized Peer-to-Peer networks being dynamically created in your WLAN environment. File sharing is also a concern here. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with an AirDrop session. Cisco recommends that you locate users creating AirDrop sessions and inform them of your company policies regarding unauthorized Peer-to-Peer networks. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Airpwn is a framework for essay 802.11 packet injection. Airpwn listens to incoming wireless packets, and creative in new, if the data matches a pattern specified in the config files, custom content is injected (spoofed) from the wireless access point.

Airpwn utilizes the inherent delay when a client sends a request to exercise titles, the internet. Since the Airpwn attacker is daydream for walter mitty closer, it will be able to exercise titles, quickly respond. Musical Essays. As an exercise titles, example, the hacker might replace all images on a website that the visitor is trying to view, showing only what the hacker wants the visitor to see. Airpwn only works on open wireless networks and WEP encrypted networks when the attacker knows the WEP key. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for 2009 history essay potential traffic that is consistent with an Airpwn attack against Open or WEP decrypted Access Points and notifies the WLAN administrator.

It is essay titles recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the colleges with writing Floor Plan screen. The attacking station should be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Alarm Description and exercise, Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the wireless device running the AirSnarf tool. Appropriate action must be taken by for walter the administrator to exercise, remove the AirSnarf tool from the WLAN environment. Alarm Description and creative course, Possible Causes.

Certain frame transmissions from exercise, a valid corporate client to an AP can cause a crash in some AP models due to insufficient or invalid data. A wireless attacker can take advantage of this vulnerability by transmitting the defective frames in order to bring down a corporate AP. By sending EAP-TLS packets with flags set to hairspray, 'c0' and no TLS message length or data, APs from some vendors can be rendered inoperable until they are rebooted. During this reboot process, attackers may have a brief opportunity to gain access to the corporate network, resulting in essay a potential security leak. The wIPS server monitors EAP-TLS transmissions and triggers an alarm if defective or invalid frames are detected.

Although this issue may not always represent a wireless attack, it is an issue that should be remedied in order to maintain the health of the hairspray essays overall wireless deployment. Alarm Description and essay, Possible Causes. 802.11 Fuzzing is the process of with majors in new york, introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into exercise, the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into the air. This can cause unexpected behavior to the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and colleges york, stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames. The system inspects each beacon frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of beacon fuzzing involve expanding the SSID field beyond the limit of 32 bytes and changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the Beacon Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the 802.11 specification. The system monitors the titles wireless network for traffic consistent with Beacon Fuzzing. It is recommended to locate the device and take it offline.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A common practice amongst WLAN Administrators is to uea online creative course, disable broadcasting of the SSID for an Access Point. The idea behind this is that if people scanning for wireless networks can't see you, then you are safe. Basically you would need to know the SSID in order to connect to that wireless network. This protects your wireless network from casual drive by users who don't have the tools to extract the SSID from hidden networks. But hackers are a different story. They have the exercise essay tools, the time and energy to expository writing, extract the SSID from hidden networks. There are many tools to perform this type of snooping. If a hidden SSID is not found through normal methods, hackers can use a brute force method using the tool mdk3. With the essay tool mdk3, they can perform a Dictionary attack or a word list attack on the hidden network to extract the SSID.

Cisco Enterprise monitors the writing wireless network for potential traffic that is consistent with a brute force attack against a hidden SSID and exercise essay titles, notifies the WLAN administrator. It is a custom for walter mitty recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the exercise essay titles Floor Plan screen. The attacking station should be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. This attack takes advantage of an insecure redundancy checking algorithm implemented in the WEP protocol.

By compromising a few known properties, an attacker is able to take an encrypted packet and martin luther research essay, decrypt it while retrieving the keystream used to encrypt the packet. The way the attack works, is the attacker captures a packet and chops one byte off the end of the packet before the ICV. The attacker will then append a guess to the decrypted value of the byte. The packet is fixed by recalculating the ICV then injects this packet to the target AP. If the essay target AP, re-broadcasts this frame back out, the attacker knows he has correctly guessed the value of the essays decrypted byte. The attacker then moves onto the next byte. Exercise Essay. As the guesses become successful, the packet being injected actually gets smaller and smaller. If the packet doesn't get re-broadcasted, then the attacker changes the uea online creative writing guess and essay titles, repeats the process, he or she has 256 possible choices to try and guess. Below is an example of the tool running trying the various possible guesses. Once complete, the attacker will have decrypted the entire WEP packet byte by byte, which can then be XORed with the original encrypted packet to produce the plaintext data.

The ChopChop Attack is targeted at WEP based Access Points to break the martin luther essay WEP key and gain direct access to the wireless network. Since this particular attack can take less than 5 minutes to perform, there is a good chance the exercise essay titles attacker has already gained access to your wireless network. If possible, migrate your WLAN off WEP. 2009 History Essay. WPA2-AES is recommended. Essay. If that's not an option, here are some steps to help troubleshoot the situation. Turn off the radios for the affected AP. This will disconnect all clients that are currently connected.

Change the daydream for walter mitty WEP key Turn the radios back on You will need to change the WEP key on all of the devices that were currently connected to the new WEP key that was just set. Monitor NCS to see if the essay ChopChop alarm happens again. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. DHCP Starvation is an attack where a malicious user broadcasts large amounts of DHCP requests with spoofed MAC addresses. If enough DHCP request frames flood the network, the attacker could use up all of the expository remaining DHCP IP addresses that are available for valid users. This would create a DoS condition on the network.

There are two tools that can do this fairly easily: Gobbler and Yersinia are publicly available tools that can perform this type of attack. This type of essay, attack is especially harmful on guest networks or hotspot networks where the uea online creative writing user is allowed to get an IP address before the authentication happens. Mitigation options for this type of attack can be handled at exercise the switch level. For Cisco IOS switches, enable DHCP Snooping. For Cisco CatOS, enable port security. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with a DHCP Starvation attack. Cisco recommends that you locate the musical user running the attack or implement tighter switch security.

Day-0 Attack by WLAN Security Anomaly. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS has detected a single Security IDS/IPS policy violation on a large number of devices in the wireless network. Essay. Either the number of king essay, devices violating the specific policy in titles the time period specified are observed or there is a sudden percentage increase in the number of devices as specified in the threshold settings for the alarm. Essays. Depending on the Security IDS/IPS violation, it is suggested that the violation be monitored individually to determine the source and destination of this attack. If this is an exercise essay titles, increase in the number of rogue devices, it may indicate an attack against the network. If there is a sudden increase in the number of writing, client devices with encryption disabled, it may be necessary to revisit the Corporate Security Policy and enforce users to use the highest level of encryption and authentication according to the policy rules. Day-0 Attack by Device Security Anomaly. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a device violating a large number of Security IDS/IPS policies. This device has either generated a number of Security IDS/IPS violations in titles the time period specified or there is a sudden percentage increase as specified in the threshold settings for the various alarms. The device should be monitored and located to carry out further analysis to check if this device is compromising the Enterprise Wireless Network in any way (attack or vulnerability).

If this is a rogue device, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find it. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Cross-Site scripting vulnerabilities are well known and consist of publicized attacks that target web applications to gain access to the underlying server or the web application itself. It does this by injecting a client-side script into web pages viewed by the user. This attack is performed using a device to broadcast the client-side code as the expository SSID. Once a WLAN monitoring system picks up the malicious SSID and titles, records it, if the system is web based and there are Cross-Site Scripting vulnerabilities, then that system will be exploited once the device with the malicious SSID is clicked. Cisco Enterprise monitors the uea online creative wireless network for Access Points and Ad-hoc devices broadcasting malicious Cross-site scripting (XSS) traffic. Essay. It is recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the floor plan screen.

The device should then be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Some commonly used scan tools include: NetStumbler (newer versions), MiniStumbler (newer versions), MACStumbler, WaveStumbler, PrismStumbler, dStumbler, iStumbler, Aerosol, Boingo Scans, WiNc, AP Hopper, NetChaser, Microsoft Windows XP scans. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects wireless devices probing the WLAN and attempting association (i.e. association request for an access point with any SSID). Such devices could pose potential security threats in one of the following ways: War-driving, WiLDing (Wireless LAN Discovery), war-chalking, war-walking, war cycling, war-lightrailing, war-busing, and war-flying. Legitimate wireless client attempting risky promiscuous association. War-driving, war-chalking, war-walking, and war-flying activities include: War-driving- A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and hairspray musical essays, publishes information such as MAC address, SSID, and security implemented on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalking- War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols War-flying-War-flying refers to sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used from a low flying private plane with high power antennas.

It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and essay, Internet relay chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your the access points to not broadcast SSIDs. Use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which access points are broadcasting (announcing) their SSID in the beacons. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.1x provides an colleges in new, EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) framework for titles wired or wireless LAN authentication. Writing Majors. An EAP framework allows flexible authentication protocol implementation. Some implementations of 802.1x or WPA use authentication protocols such as LEAP, MD5, OTP (one-time-password), TLS, and TTLS.

Some of these authentication protocols are based upon the user name and password mechanism, where the exercise user name is transmitted clear without encryption and the password is used to answer authentication challenges. Most password-based authentication algorithms are susceptible to dictionary attacks. Hairspray Musical Essays. During a dictionary attack, an titles, attacker gains the user name from the writing unencrypted 802.1x identifier protocol exchange. The attacker then tries to guess a user's password to gain network access by using every word in a dictionary of common passwords or possible combinations of passwords. A dictionary attack relies on the fact that a password is often a common word, name, or combination of both with a minor modification such as a trailing digit or two. A dictionary attack can take place actively online, where an attacker repeatedly tries all the essay possible password combinations. Online dictionary attacks can be prevented using lock-out mechanisms available on the authentication server (RADIUS servers) to lock out the user after a certain number of invalid login attempts. A dictionary attack can also take place off-line, where an ap world, attacker captures a successful authentication challenge protocol exchange and then tries to match the challenge response with all possible password combinations off-line. Essay. Unlike online attacks, off-line attacks are not easily detected.

Using a strong password policy and periodically expiring user passwords significantly reduces an off-line attack tool's success. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects online dictionary attacks by hairspray essays tracking 802.1x authentication protocol exchange and the user identifier usages. Upon detection of a dictionary attack, the alarm message identifies the essay titles user name and hairspray musical, attacking station's MAC address. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS advises switching user name and exercise essay titles, password based authentication methods to encrypted tunnel based authentication methods such as PEAP and martin luther research essay, EAP-FAST, which are supported by many vendors including Cisco. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Fake AP tool is meant to protect your WLAN acting as a decoy to confuse war-drivers using NetStumbler, Wellenreiter, MiniStumbler, Kismet, etc.

The tool generates beacon frames imitating thousands of exercise essay, counterfeit 802.11b access points. War-drivers encountering a large amount of access points are not able to identify the real access points deployed by uea online creative the user. This tool, although very effective in fending off war-drivers, poses other disadvantages such as bandwidth consumption, misleading legitimate client stations, and exercise, interference with the WLAN management tools. Martin King Essay. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS does not recommend running the Fake AP tool in your WLAN. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS recommends that the administrator locate the device running the Fake AP tool and take appropriate steps to remove it from the exercise titles wireless environment.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects such wireless STAs running the DHCP service and providing IP addresses to unaware users. Once the client is identified and reported, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the device. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects such wireless STAs running the DHCP service and providing IP addresses to history, unaware users. Once the client is essay titles identified and ap world essay, reported, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the essay titles device.

Fast WEP Crack (ARP Replay) Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. It is well publicized that WLAN devices using static WEP key for martin king encryption are vulnerable to WEP key cracking attack (Refer to Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4 - I by Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and essay titles, Adi Shamir). The WEP secret key that has been cracked by any intruder results in no encryption protection, thus leading to luther king research essay, compromised data privacy. The WEP key that is in most cases 64-bit or 128-bit (few vendors also offer 152-bit encryption) consists of the titles secret key specified by the user linked with the 24-bit IV (Initialization Vector). The IV that is determined by the transmitting station can be reused frequently or in consecutive frames, thus increasing the possibility of the secret key to be recovered by wireless intruders.

The most important factor in any attack against expository, the WEP key is the key size. Essay. For 64-bit WEP keys, around 150K unique IVs and for 128-bit WEP keys around 500k to a million unique IVs should be enough. With insufficient traffic, hackers have created a unique way of luther essay, generating sufficient traffic to perform such an essay titles, attack. This is called the replay attack based on arp-request packets. Such packets have a fixed length and can be spotted easily. By capturing one legitimate arp-request packet and resending them repeatedly, the other host responds with encrypted replies, providing new and possibly weak IVs. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts on weak WEP implementations and recommends a device firmware upgrade if available from the device vendor to correct the IV usage problem. Ideally, enterprise WLAN networks can protect against WEP vulnerability by using the TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) encryption mechanism, which is now supported by most enterprise level wireless equipment.

TKIP enabled devices are not subject to any such WEP key attacks. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that proactively reports any access points configured to utilize weak encryption or authentication. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to hairspray musical, the Cisco WCS online help. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. It is well publicized that a WLAN device using a static WEP key for encryption is vulnerable to various WEP cracking attacks. Refer to Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4 - I, by Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and essay, Adi Shamir for a custom daydream for walter mitty more information. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts on detecting a potential fragmentation attack in progress, and recommends that WEP not be used in exercise essay the corporate environment and that appropriate measures be taken to avoid any security holes in the network and luther, upgrade the wireless network infrastructure and devices to use the exercise essay more secure IEEE 802.11i standard. HT Intolerant Degradation Services. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

While 802.11n deployments provide the potential for dramatically increased wireless range and musical, speed over legacy implementations, these benefits can be easily lost or offset if a single legacy device is introduced to the network. To help prevent this situation, the wIPS server will trigger an exercise essay, HT-Intolerant Degradation of Service alarm when it detects packets transmitted between n-capable devices at sub-n speeds. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. While 802.11n deployments provide the potential for dramatically increased wireless range and speed over legacy implementations, these benefits can be easily lost or offset if a single legacy device is introduced to expository, the network. Essay. To help prevent this situation, the wIPS server will trigger an HT-Intolerant Degradation of Service alarm when it detects packets transmitted between n-capable devices at sub-n speeds. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The addition of WLANs in the corporate environment introduces a whole new class of threats for network security. RF signals that penetrate walls and expository, extend beyond intended boundaries can expose the network to unauthorized users. A rogue access point can put the exercise essay entire corporate network at risk for outside penetration and attack. Not to understate the threat of the rogue access point, there are many other wireless security risks and intrusions such as mis-configured access points, unconfigured access points, and DoS (denial-of-service) attacks. One of the most effective attacks facing enterprise networks implementing wireless is the use of a honey pot access point.

An intruder uses tools such as NetStumbler, Wellenreiter, and MiniStumbler to musical essays, discover the essay titles SSID of the corporate access point. Then the intruder sets up an access point outside the building premises or, if possible, within the luther premises and broadcasts the discovered corporate SSID. An unsuspecting client then connects to this honey pot access point with a higher signal strength. Once associated, the intruder performs attacks against the client station because traffic is exercise titles diverted through the honey pot access point. Once a honey pot access point is identified and reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on daydream mitty the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the exercise titles rogue device. Hot-Spotter Tool Detected (Potential Wireless Phishing) Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A hotspot is uea online writing any location where Wi-Fi network access available for the general public. Hotspots are often found in airports, hotels, coffee shops, and other places where business people tend to exercise titles, congregate.

It is currently one of the most important network access service for colleges creative business travelers. The customer requires a wireless-enabled laptop or handheld to connect to the legitimate access point and to receive service. Most hotspots do not require the user to have an advanced authentication mechanism to exercise essay, connect to the access point, other than using a web page to log in. The criterion for entry is only dependent on whether or not the subscriber has paid subscription fees. In a wireless hotspot environment, no one should trust anyone else. Due to history, current security concerns, some WLAN hotspot vendors are using 802.1x or higher authentication mechanisms to validate the identity of the user.

The four components of titles, a basic hotspot network are: Hotspot Subscribers-Valid users with a wireless enabled laptop or handheld and valid login for accessing the hotspot network. Writing. WLAN Access Points-SOHO gateways or enterprise level access points depending upon the hotspot implementation. Hotspot Controllers-Deals with user authentication, gathering billing information, tracking usage time, filtering functions, etc. This can be an independent machine or can be incorporated in the access point itself.

Authentication Server-Contains the login credentials for essay the subscribers. In most cases, hotspot controllers verify subscribers' credentials with the authentication server. Hotspotter automates a method of penetration against wireless clients, independent of the encryption mechanism used. Using the Hotspotter tool, the intruder can passively monitors the wireless network for expository writing probe request frames to identify the SSIDs of the networks of the exercise Windows XP clients. After it acquires the preferred network information, the intruder compares the network name (SSID) to uea online, a supplied list of commonly used hotspot network names. Once a match is found, the Hotspotter client acts as an access point. The clients then authenticate and associate unknowingly to this fake access point.

Once the client gets associated, the exercise Hotspotter tool can be configured to run a command such as a script to kick off a DHCP daemon and expository, other scanning against the new victim. Clients are also susceptible to this kind of attack when they are operating in different environments (home and office) while they are still configured to include the hotspot SSID in the Windows XP wireless connection settings. The clients send out probe requests using that SSID and make themselves vulnerable to the tool. Once the rogue access point is identified and reported by exercise essay titles the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to 2009 history essay, find the rogue device. Identical Send and Receive Address. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. In order to inhibit wireless activity in a corporate network, attackers will often modify wireless packets to emulate various different characteristics, including changes to the packets' Source and Destination MAC information. In cases where these fields are identical, the essay titles Identical Send and luther king essay, Receive Address alarm will be triggered in essay titles order to alert IT personnel of a potential attack. In a normal network environment, a packet's Source and Destination will never be identical. As such, the enterprise administrators should take immediate steps to locate the root cause of the modified packets. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

Standard 802.11 deployments allow for uea online writing course certain frames to exercise titles, be transmitted to individual destinations (also known as unicast frames, such as an mitty, ACK) and exercise, other frames to daydream mitty, be 'broadcast' to essay titles, all recipients in the wireless deployment. Colleges With Creative Writing Majors. In general, these two categories should not overlap, e.g., an Association Request frame should not be sent out as a broadcast to all listening devices. In this scenario, the wIPS server will trigger an Improper Broadcast Frames alarm to alert staff of a potential problem. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Karma tool allows a wireless attacker to configure a client as a soft AP that will respond to any probe request detected. This implementation is designed to respond to titles, queries from a custom daydream for walter, stations configured to connect to exercise essay titles, multiple different networks, e.g., SSID Corporate for work and SSID Home for home use. In this example, the soft AP may be configured to respond to the probe for Home when the client is at work. In this manner, the attacker tricks the corporate client to route potentially sensitive network traffic to the false AP. The wIPS server will trigger a Karma Tool alarm if a wireless station is discovered using the tool within the corporate environment. Research Essay. Users should locate the attacking device and eliminate it immediately. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack is one of the most common 802.11 attacks that can lead to confidential corporate and private information being leaked to hackers. Essay. In a MITM attack, the hacker can use a 802.11 wireless analyzer and colleges majors in new, monitor 802.11 frames sent over the WLAN. By capturing the wireless frames during the titles association phase, the hacker gets IP and MAC address information about the wireless client card and access point, association ID for the client, and luther king research essay, the SSID of the titles wireless network. A commonly used method for performing the MITM attack involves the hacker sending spoofed dis-association or de-authentication frames. The hacker station then spoofs the MAC address of the client to continue an association with the access point. At the same time, the hacker sets up a spoofed access point in another channel to keep the creative client associated.

This allows all traffic between the valid client and access point to pass through the essay titles hacker's station. One of the 2009 essay most commonly used MITM attack tools is Monkey-Jack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS recommends the essay use of strong encryption and authentication mechanisms to thwart any MITM attacks by hackers. One way to avoid such an attack is to prevent MAC spoofing by using MAC address exclusion lists and monitoring the RF channel environment. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against MITM attacks. For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide or the WCS online help. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the hairspray WLAN for an anonymous association (such as an association request for an access point with any SSID) using the titles NetStumbler tool. The Device probing for Access Point alarm is generated when hackers use recent versions of the NetStumbler tool. 2009 History. For older versions, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS generates the NetStumbler detected alarm.

NetStumbler is the exercise essay most widely used tool for war-driving and war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and to uea online creative writing course, publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at exercise titles public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above. War-walking is similiar to war-driving, but the hacker is on martin luther research essay foot instead of a car. Exercise Titles. It can run on a machine running Windows 2000, Windows XP, or better. It also supports more cards than Wellenreiter, another commonly used scanning tool. War-walkers like to expository writing, use MiniStumbler and similar products to sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores.

War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used from a low flying private plane with high power antennas. It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up email and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. To prevent your access points from exercise essay, being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which of your access points is broadcasting an SSID in research the beacons. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that reports any access points configured to broadcast their SSIDs. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the WCS online help. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which access point is broadcasting its SSID in the beacons. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (i.e., association request for an access point with any SSID) using the NetStumbler tool. The Device probing for access point alarm is generated when hackers more recent versions of the NetStumbler tool. For older versions, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS generates the NetStumbler detected alarm. NetStumbler is the most widely used tool for war-driving, war-walking, and exercise titles, war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on history the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the exercise titles WLAN configuration at a custom daydream for walter mitty public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above.

War-walking is similar to war-driving, but the hacker conducts the illegal operation on foot instead of by car. The NetStumbler web site (http://www.netstumbler.com/) offers MiniStumbler software for titles use on Pocket PC hardware, saving war-walkers from carrying heavy laptops. It can run on essays a machine running Windows 2000, Windows XP, or later. Exercise Essay. It also supports more cards than Wellenreiter, another commonly used scanning tool. War-walkers typically use MiniStumbler and similar products to sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores. War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used, but from a low-flying private plane with high-power antennas. It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an a custom daydream for walter mitty, altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts the user when it observes that a station running Netstumbler is associated to a corporate access point. Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) Violation. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) is a feature implemented on WLAN access points to block wireless clients from communicating with other wireless clients. With PSPF enabled, client devices cannot communicate with other client devices on the wireless network. For most WLAN environments, wireless clients communicate only with devices such as web servers on the wired network. By enabling PSPF it protects wireless clients from exercise essay titles, being hacked by a wireless intruder. Essay. PSPF is exercise effective in protecting wireless clients especially at wireless public networks (hotspots) such as airports, hotels, coffee shops, and college campuses where authentication is null and anyone can associate with the history essay access points. Essay Titles. The PSPF feature prevents client devices from inadvertently sharing files with other client devices on the wireless network.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects PSPF violations. If a wireless client attempts to communicate with another wireless client, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS raises an alarm for a potential intrusion attack. This alarm does not apply if your WLAN deploys wireless printers or VoWLAN applications because these applications rely on martin king research essay wireless client-to-client communication. Probe Request Fuzzed Frame Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into essay, the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into the air. This can cause unexpected behavior to the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 2009 history essay 802.11 frames. The system inspects each Probe Request frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of Probe Request fuzzing involve expanding the SSID field beyond the exercise essay titles limit of king, 32 bytes and exercise, changing the uea online creative writing course supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the Probe Request Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the exercise titles 802.11 specification. Probe Response Fuzzed Frame Detected. Alarm Description and king research essay, Possible Causes.

802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into exercise essay titles, the air. Uea Online Course. This can cause unexpected behavior to exercise essay, the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for writing fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames. The system inspects each Probe Response frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of Probe Response fuzzing involve expanding the SSID field beyond the limit of 32 bytes and exercise, changing the supported data rates to musical essays, invalid rates. The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the essay Probe Response Fuzzing alarm when the york field values are beyond the titles 802.11 specification. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with Probe Response Fuzzing. It is recommended to locate the device and take it offline. Host AP tools: Cqure AP. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A hotspot is any location where Wi-Fi network access available for the general public.

Hotspots are often found in mitty airports, hotels, coffee shops, and other places where business people tend to exercise essay titles, congregate. It is currently one of the most important network access service for business travelers. The customer requires a wireless-enabled laptop or handheld to for walter mitty, connect to the legitimate access point and to exercise, receive service. Most hotspots do not require the user to have an advanced authentication mechanism to ap world history essay, connect to the access point, other than using a web page to log in. The criterion for entry is only dependent on whether or not the subscriber has paid subscription fees. In a wireless hotspot environment, no one should trust anyone else. Due to titles, current security concerns, some WLAN hotspot vendors are using 802.1x or higher authentication mechanisms to validate the identity of the user. Basic components of a WLAN Hotspot network. The four components of a basic hotspot network are as follows: Hotspot Subscribers—Valid users with a wireless enabled laptop or handheld and valid log in for accessing the hotspot network.

WLAN Access Points—SOHO gateways or enterprise level access points depending upon a custom daydream for walter mitty the hotspot implementation. Hotspot Controllers—Deals with user authentication, gathering billing information, tracking usage time, filtering functions. This can be an essay titles, independent machine or can be incorporated in martin luther the access point itself. Authentication Server—Contains the log in credentials for the subscribers. In most cases, hotspot controllers verify subscribers' credentials with the authentication server.

Hotspotter automates a method of penetration against wireless clients, independent of the encryption mechanism used. Using the Hotspotter tool, the intruder can passively monitor the exercise essay titles wireless network for luther research essay probe request frames to identify the SSIDs of the networks of the Windows XP clients. After it acquires the preferred network information, the intruder compares the exercise essay titles network name (SSID) to a supplied list of commonly used hotspot network names. When a match is found, the martin king research essay Hotspotter client acts as an access point. The clients then authenticate and associate unknowingly to exercise essay, this fake access point. When the course client gets associated, the Hotspotter tool can be configured to run a command such as a script to kick off a DHCP daemon and exercise titles, other scanning against with majors, the new victim. Clients are also susceptible to exercise titles, this kind of in new york, attack when they are operating in exercise different environments (home and office) while they are still configured to include the hotspot SSID in ap world essay the Windows XP wireless connection settings. The clients send out probe requests using that SSID and make themselves vulnerable to the tool.

Soft APs or Software Access points should be treated as a Rogue device. The following steps should help eliminate this threat. Use integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities to exercise, locate the Rogue device Wireless Containment to prevent any devices from connecting to the Soft AP Trace the with device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switch port tracing to find the rogue device. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Spoofed mac address detected is a type of attack where a hacker will change their factory assigned wireless mac address to either gain access to a restricted wireless network by impersonating a valid connected user or to hide their presence on titles the wireless network. There are two types of Spoofed MAC address attacks, Client based and AP based. For client based Spoofed MAC address attacks, the ap world history essay client could be trying to impersonate a valid user. An example of this would be a wireless hacker trying to get onto titles an access controlled hotspot by spoofing their wireless mac address of a client that is already connected, in effect piggybacking on the connection. Another popular example would be in a hotel environment where a hacker bypasses the essays payment process to essay, get on colleges creative writing majors in new the wireless network by spoofing their wireless mac address of a paid user.

Another type of Spoofed MAC address attack is AP based. In this case, the hacker is trying to hide their presence on the wireless network by spoofing the exercise essay mac address of uea online writing, a corporate access point. This is a typical rogue scenario. Suspicious After Hours Traffic Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. One way to detect a wireless security penetration attempt is to match wireless usage against exercise, the time when there is not supposed to creative course, be any wireless traffic. The wIPS server monitors traffic patterns against the office-hours configured for essay this alarm to 2009 ap world history essay, generate alerts when an abnormality is found. Specific suspicious wireless usage sought after by the wIPS server during after-office hours include the following: Client station initiating authentication or association requests to the office WLAN that may indicate security breach attempts. Wireless data traffic that may indicate suspicious download or upload over the wireless network. For global wIPS deployment, the configurable office-hour range is defined in local time.

The access point or sensor can be configured with a time zone to facilitate management. For the essay office and manufacturing floor mixed WLAN, one can define one set of office hours for the office WLAN SSID and another (for example, 6am to 9pm) for the manufacturing floor WLAN SSID. If this alarm is triggered, the administrator should look for daydream for walter devices responsible for the suspicious traffic and take appropriate steps to locate it and remove it from the wireless environment. Unauthorized Association By Vendor List. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS enables network administrators to include vendor information in a policy profile to allow the system to exercise titles, effectively detect stations on creative the WLAN that are not made by approved vendors. Titles. Once such a policy profile is created, the system generates an alarm whenever an access point is associating with a station by martin luther king an unapproved vendor. See the diagram below. As the diagram shows, the access points in ACL-1 should only associate with stations made by Cisco and essay titles, the access points in ACL-2 can only associate with stations manufactured by Intel. This information is entered in the wIPS system's policy profile.

Any association between the access points and non-Cisco or non-Intel stations is unauthorized and triggers an alarm. In the enterprise WLAN environment, rogue stations cause security concerns and undermine network performance. They take up air space and compete for network bandwidth. Since an access point can only hairspray essays accommodate a limited number of exercise titles, stations, it rejects association requests from stations once its capacity is reached. An access point laden with rogue stations denies legitimate stations the access to the network. Common problems caused by rogue stations include connectivity problems and writing, degraded performance. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS automatically alerts network administrators to essay titles, any unauthorized access point-station association involving non-conforming stations using this alarm.

Once the alarm has been triggered, the unauthorized station must be identified and actions must be taken to resolve the issue. One way is to block it using the rogue containment. Unauthorized Association Detected. Alarm Description and hairspray, Possible Causes. In an enterprise network environment, rogue access points installed by employees do not usually follow the network's standard deployment practice and therefore compromise the integrity of the network. They are loopholes in exercise essay network security and writing in new, make it easy for intruders to hack into the enterprise wired network.

One of the exercise titles major concerns that most wireless network administrators face is unauthorized associations between stations in an ACL and mitty, a rogue access point. Since data to and from the stations flows through the rogue access point, it leaves the door open for hackers to obtain sensitive information. Rogue stations cause security concerns and undermine network performance. They take up air space and compete for essay titles bandwidths on the network. Since an access point can only serve a certain number of stations, it rejects association requests from uea online creative course, stations once its capacity is reached. An access point laden with rogue stations denies legitimate stations access to the network. Common problems caused by exercise titles rogue stations include disrupted connections and degraded performance. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS can automatically alert network administrators to any unauthorized access point-station association it has detected on the network through this alarm. The WLC new feature MAC Address Learning will prevent this violation from happening, it is recommended to daydream for walter, enable this feature.

Alarm Description and exercise essay titles, Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for writing an anonymous association (i.e. association request for an access point with any SSID) using the Wellenreiter tool. Wellenreiter is essay titles a commonly used tool for war-driving and war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and to publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the musical access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above. War-walking is similar to war-driving, but the exercise essay hacker is on foot instead of a car. War-walkers like to use Wellenreiter and hairspray, similar products to sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores.

War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is titles used, but from a low flying private plane with high power antennas. Mitty. It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on exercise titles a war-flying trip. The tool supports Prism2, Lucent, and expository writing, Cisco based cards. Exercise Essay. The tool can discover infrastructure and ad-hoc networks that are broadcasting SSIDs, their WEP capabilities, and can provide vendor information automatically. It also creates an expository writing, ethereal/tcpdump-compatible dumpfile and an Application savefile.

It also has GPS support. Users can download the tool from Wellenreiter website. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the exercise essay titles Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to in new york, see which of your access points is broadcasting an SSID in the beacons. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that reports any access points configured to broadcast their SSIDs.

For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the WCS online help. WiFi Protected Setup Pin Brute Force. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WiFi Protected Setup is a feature on most consumer grade Access Points that allows for easy device setup without the need for complex passwords. The feature allows the user to either use the push button method or enter in the pin found on the bottom of the Access Point to connect. A vulnerability was announced in December 2011 by Stefan Viehböck and essay titles, independently discovered by Craig Heffner. The vulnerability is with the uea online creative course external registrar that only requires the devices pin. This mode is susceptible to brute force attacks against the pin. There are currently 2 active tools in exercise the wild exploiting this. The basic idea behind the attack is when a pin authentication fails, the access point sends back an EAP-NACK message to the client.

With this EAP-NACK message, the a custom mitty attacker is exercise able to determine if the first half of the pin is correct. Writing Course. The last digit of the pin is known since it is a checksum for titles the pin. This reduces the attempts to brute force the luther pin down to 11,000. It is recommended to disable the external registrar feature of WiFi Protected Setup on your Access Point. Exercise Titles. Most manufacturers have this feature on with creative in new york by default. The system monitors the exercise essay wireless network for traffic consistent with WiFi Protected Setup Pin brute force. It is expository writing recommended to locate the device and take it offline.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The WiFiTap tool allows a wireless attacker to configure a client to communicate directly with another client, without connecting to a corporate AP. This implementation allows the intruder to target an attack against the individual client, bypassing any security measures configured on exercise titles the corporate network. 2009 History Essay. The attacker then has access to all files and information stored on the victim client station. The wIPS server monitors for use of the WiFiTap tool and triggers an alarm if it is exercise essay detected.

Users should attempt to locate the attacking device and remove it from the wireless environment.