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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. With the 2016 AP English Language and Composition exam approaching on admission essay Wednesday, May 11, it’s time to make sure that you’re familiar with all aspects of the exam. In this article, I’ll give a brief overview of the spelman college, test, do a deeper dive on each of the sections, discuss how the exam is scored, offer some strategies for studying, and finally wrap up with some essential exam day tips. The AP Language and Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. Essentially, how do authors construct effective arguments in their writing? What tools do they use? How can you use those tools to craft effective writing yourself? That is the essence of rhetorical analysis. The exam has two parts: the first section is an hour-long, 52-55 question multiple-choice section that asks you questions on the rhetorical construction and techniques of a series of nonfiction passages. Admission Nursing! The second section is free response. It starts with a 15-minute reading period, and persuasive then you’ll have 120 minutes to write three analytical essays: one synthesizing several provided texts to create an argument, one analyzing a nonfiction passage for its rhetorical construction, and one creating an original argument in response to a prompt.
You will have about 40 minutes to program, write each essay, but no one will prompt you to move from essay to essay—you can structure the 120 minutes as you wish. Persuasive Essay! In the next sections I’ll go over each section of the exam more closely—first multiple choice, and then free response. The AP English Language and Composition Multiple-Choice. The multiple-choice section is primarily focused on how well you can read and understand nonfiction passages for their use of rhetorical devices and tools. Admission! You will be presented with 4-5 passages, about which you will receive a small amount of orienting information, e.g. “This passage is excerpted from a collection of essays on boating” or “This passage is excerpted from an essay written in 19th-century Haiti.” You will be asked somewhere from paper, 10-15 questions per passage. There are, in general, eight question types you can expect to encounter on the multiple-choice section of the exam. Admission Essay Nursing Program! I’ve taken my examples from the sample questions in the “Course and spelman college Exam Description.” Magic eight-ball says there are eight types of multiple-choice questions! These questions are focused on essay nursing program verifying that you understood what a certain part of the passage was saying on a concrete, literal level. You can identify these questions from phrases like “according to” “refers,” etc. The best way to succeed on these questions is to writing about, go back and re-read the essay program, part of the of happiness essay, passage referred to very carefully.
These questions take reading comprehension one step further—they are primarily focused on what the author is nursing program implying without directly coming out and saying it. These questions will have a correct answer, though, based on evidence from the passage. Which interpretation offered in the answers does the passage most support? You can identify questions like these from words like “best supported,” ‘“implies,” “suggests,” “inferred,” and so on. Type 3: Overall Passage and to buy a research paper Author Questions. These questions ask about overall elements of the passage or the author, such as the author’s attitude on the issue discussed, the essay, purpose of the passage, the passage’s overarching style, the audience for need a research the passage, and essay nursing so on. History Exam! You can identify these because they won’t refer back to a specific moment in the text. Essay! For these questions, you’ll need to think of the passage from a “bird’s-eye view” and of happiness belonging consider what all of the small details together are combining to say. Type 4: Relationships Between Parts of the Text.
Some questions will ask you to nursing, describe the relationship between two parts of the text, whether they are paragraphs or specific lines. You can identify these because they will usually explicitly ask about the relationship between two identified parts of the text, although sometimes they will instead ask about persuasive essay euthanasia, a relationship implicitly, by saying something like “compared to the rest of the passage.” Type 5: Interpretation of Imagery/Figurative Language. These questions will ask you about the deeper meaning or implication of figurative language or imagery that is used in the text. Essentially, why did the author choose to use this simile or this metaphor? What is s/he trying to admission essay, accomplish? You can generally identify questions like this because the question will specifically reference a moment of figurative language in the text. Persuasive Essay! However, it might not be immediately apparent that the phrase being referenced is admission nursing figurative, so you may need to go back and look at it in the passage to be sure of what kind of question you are facing. Type 6: Purpose of Part of the Text. Still other questions will ask you to identify what purpose a particular part of the text serves in the author’s larger argument. What is the author trying to accomplish with the particular moment in the text identified in the question? You can identify these questions because they will generally explicitly ask what purpose a certain part of the text serves.
You may also see words or phrases like “serves to” or “function.” These questions will ask you to identify a rhetorical strategy used by the author. They will often specifically use the phrase “rhetorical strategy,” although sometimes you will be able to identify them instead through the answer choices, which offer different rhetorical strategies as possibilities. Some questions will ask you about stylistic moments in the text and autumn essays the effect created by the those stylistic choices. What is the author evoking through their stylistic choices? You can identify these questions because they will generally mention “effect.” Some very important stylish effects going on here. The AP English Language and nursing Composition Free Response.
The free response section has a 15-minute reading period. Essays! After that time, you will have 120 minutes to write three essays that address three distinct tasks. Nursing! Because the first essay involves reading sources, it is suggested that you use the entire 15-minute reading period to read the sources and plan the exam, first essay. However, you may want to glance at the other questions during the reading period so that ideas can percolate in the back of your mind as you work on the first essay. Essay One: Synthesis. For this essay, you will be briefly oriented on an issue and then given anywhere from six-eight sources that provide various perspectives and information on the issue. Admission Essay Nursing Program! You will then need to write an argumentative essay with support from the documents.
If this sounds a lot like a DBQ, as on the history AP exams, that’s because it is! However, this essay is much more argumentative in nature—your goal is to persuade, not merely interpret the documents. College Application! In the second essay, you’ll be presented with an excerpt from admission nursing, a nonfiction piece that advances an argument and asked to write an persuasive essay, essay analyzing the rhetorical strategies used to construct the passage’s argument. You will also be given some orienting information—where the passage was excerpted from, who wrote it, its approximate date, where it was published (if at all), and to whom it was directed. In the third essay, you will be presented with an issue and asked to write a persuasive essay taking a position on the issue. Essay Nursing! You will need to support your position with evidence from your “reading, experience, and observations.” This doesn't look like a very well-constructed argument.
How The AP Language and Composition Exam Is Scored. The multiple-choice section of the exam is worth 45% of writing, your score, and the free-response section is worth the admission essay, other 55%. Writing Essays! So each of the three free-response essays is worth about 18% of your score. As on other APs, your raw score will be converted to a scaled score of 1-5. This exam has a relatively low 5 rate. Only 9.9% of test takers received a 5 last year, although 55% of admission nursing, students received a score of 3 or higher. Apus Exam Essays! In terms of admission essay nursing, how the raw score is obtained, the pursuit of happiness belonging essay, multiple-choice section is similar to other AP multiple-choice sections: you receive a point for every question you answer correctly, and there is no penalty for admission essay nursing guessing. For each free-response question, you will be given a score from 0-9, based on a rubric. The rubrics all assess, in general, 3 major things: How well you responded to pursuit of happiness essay, the prompt: Did you completely and admission program fully address all of the tasks presented in the prompt, without misunderstanding any of them? How convincing and of happiness essay well-supported your argument was: Do you take a clear position that is not overly basic, simplistic, or obvious? Can you comprehensively support your position with evidence?
Is your evidence well-chosen and well-explained? Do you tie everything back to your main argument? Have you thought through the program, implications of your stated position? How strong your writing was: Does your writing clearly communicate your ideas? Are your sentences not just grammatically correct, but sophisticated? Do you have a consistent style and a strong vocabulary? Is your paper well-organized and logically arranged? Each rubric broadly assesses these three factors. However, each task is also different in autumn essays nature, so the rubrics do have some differences. I’ll go over each rubric—and what it really means—for you here. Admission Nursing! Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for the score of 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in exam their argument, thorough in development, or impressive in their control of language.
You did everything an 8 essay did, but either your argument is particularly compelling or well-supported, or your writing is particularly effective/sophisticated. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by effectively synthesizing at admission essay program least three of the sources. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and autumn essays convincing. Essay! The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to writing essays film, control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless.
You thoroughly responded to the prompt, successfully using (and citing) at admission nursing least three of the sources to support your argument. You supported your argument in a persuasive way. Apus History Essays! Your writing is competent, although there may be some minor errors. Essays earning a score of 7 meet the criteria for the score of 6 but provide more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. Your essay did everything a 6 essay does but is either better explained, better argued, or better-written; however, it’s not quite up to essay nursing, an 8 level. Essays earning a score of 6 adequately address the spelman application, task in essay program the prompt.
They develop their argument by adequately synthesizing at least three of the sources. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and sufficient. The language may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is clear. You responded to the prompt in persuasive a reasonable way. You used and cited at least 3 of the sources in creating your argument. You supported your argument in a reasonably persuasive way, although not as compellingly as an admission essay program, 8 essay. Your writing is writing generally understandable. Essays earning a score of 5 address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by synthesizing at admission nursing least three sources, but how they use and apus history essays explain sources is somewhat uneven, inconsistent, or limited.
The writer’s argument is generally clear, and the sources generally develop the writer’s position, but the admission nursing program, links between the sources and the argument may be strained. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the writing essays about film, student’s ideas. You did respond to the prompt. Essay Nursing! You used and cited at least 3 of the sources in creating your argument, but you did not use all of them particularly effectively. The connection between the documents and autumn essays your argument is underdeveloped. Your writing is mostly understandable but may have errors.
Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by synthesizing at least two sources, but the evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. Admission Nursing Program! The sources may dominate the essay’s attempts at spelman essays development, the link between the argument and the sources may be weak, or the student may misunderstand, misrepresent, or oversimplify the sources. The prose generally conveys the student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in admission controlling the elements of effective writing. Autumn Essays! You did not adequately respond to the prompt. You used and admission nursing program cited at least two sources, but you did not effectively link them to your argument. Your essay may summarize sources instead of truly taking a position, or you may have misread the sources. Your writing is not consistently clear. Essays earning a score of 3 meet the belonging essay, criteria for admission the score of essays film, 4 but demonstrate less success in admission program addressing the task. They are less perceptive in their understanding of the sources, or their explanation or examples may be particularly limited or simplistic. The essays may show less maturity in their control of writing.
Your essay did not adequately respond to the prompt. Your interpretation of the sources is incorrect or your argument is overly simplistic. Euthanasia! Your writing is overly basic or unclear. Admission! Essays earning a score of demonstrate little success in addressing the task in the prompt. Spelman! They may merely allude to knowledge gained from admission essay, reading the sources rather than cite the apus essays, sources themselves.
These essays may misread the admission essay program, sources, fail to develop a position, or substitute a simpler task by merely summarizing or categorizing the autumn essays, sources or by merely responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. Essays that score 2 often demonstrate consistent weaknesses in writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of control. You barely addressed the essay nursing, prompt. You may not cite any sources directly, misunderstand the sources, never take a position, or write things that are not relevant to essays, the prompt. Writing is very weak, including grammatical issues. Essays earning a score of 1 meet the criteria for the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in nursing program their explanation, weak in their control of writing, or do not allude to or cite even one source. Your writing barely addressed the essays, prompt.
Explanations are extremely simple, writing is incredibly weak, or sources are not used or cited at all. Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in a language other than English. You made no attempt to respond to the prompt. Indicates an entirely blank response. You didn’t write anything! Time to admission, synthesize this dough into some cookies. Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for autumn essays the score of 8 and, in admission addition, are especially sophisticated in pursuit of happiness their argument, thorough in their development, or impressive in their control of language. You achieved everything an 8 essay did, but the quality of essay nursing program, either your argument or your writing is exceptional. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively analyze the rhetorical strategies used by essays about film, the author to admission essay nursing program, develop his/her argument.
They develop their analysis with evidence and autumn essays explanations that are appropriate and convincing, referring to admission essay nursing program, the passage explicitly or implicitly. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. Belonging! You successfully and nursing program persuasively analyzed the rhetoric of the excerpt in euthanasia a way that is strongly supported by specific examples in the text. Your writing is versatile and strong. Essays earning a score of 7 meet the nursing, criteria for the score of 6 but provide more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. You achieved everything a 6 essay did, but your argument was either better explained or supported or your writing was of a higher caliber. Essays earning a score of need to buy a research paper, 6 adequately analyze the admission program, rhetorical strategies used by the author to develop his/her argument. They develop their analysis with evidence and explanations that are appropriate and sufficient, referring to the passage explicitly or implicitly.
The essay may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is clear. You successfully analyzed the rhetoric of the excerpt, using appropriate references to the text. Persuasive Euthanasia! Your writing was generally understandable. Essays earning a score of 5 analyze the rhetorical strategies used to develop the author’s argument. The evidence or explanations used may be uneven, inconsistent, or limited. Admission Essay Nursing Program! The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas.
You analyzed the rhetoric of the excerpt, although evidence from the passage may have been poorly used or deployed. Your writing is mostly understandable but may have errors. Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately analyze the rhetorical strategies used by the author to develop his/her argument. These essays may misunderstand the passage, misrepresent the strategies the author uses, or may analyze these strategies insufficiently. The evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. The prose generally conveys the student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in need to buy a research controlling the elements of effective writing. You did not analyze the rhetoric in the passage in a reasonable way. You may have misread the passage or misidentified the author’s rhetorical strategies, or you may simply not have supported your argument enough. Textual evidence may not be appropriate to the task at hand. Your writing is not consistently clear.
Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for the score of admission essay nursing, 4 but demonstrate less success in apus exam essays analyzing the rhetorical strategies the author uses to develop his/her argument. They are less perceptive in their understanding of the passage or the author’s strategies, or the explanations or examples may be particularly limited or simplistic. The essays may show less maturity in control of writing. A 3 essay has similar weaknesses to admission, a 4 essay, but displays less understanding of the to buy paper, passage or the admission essay, author’s intent. The writing may also be even more inconsistent or basic. Essays earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in analyzing the rhetorical strategies used by the author to develop his/her argument. These essays may misunderstand the prompt, misread the passage, fail to analyze the strategies used, or substitute a simpler task by responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. The essays often demonstrate consistent weaknesses in writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of control.
You barely analyzed the passage. You may have misunderstood the assigned task, seriously misread the passage or the author’s intent, or responded to something other than the prompt. Writing is autumn essays consistently weak. Essays earning a score of 1 meet the criteria for the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in their explanation, or weak in admission essay nursing their control of language. A 1 essay is has similar weaknesses to a 2 essay, but is even more poorly supported or poorly written.
Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in a language other than English. You made no attempt to essays, respond to the prompt. Indicates an entirely blank response. You didn’t write anything! Examine your texts closely! Argumentative Essay Rubric. Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for the score of essay program, 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument, thorough in their development, or particularly impressive in their control of language. You meet the criteria for an 8, plus you have either a particularly strong argument, strong support, or strong writing. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively develop a position on the issue presented. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and convincing, and the argument is especially coherent and well developed.
The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to control a wide range of the essay euthanasia, elements of admission nursing program, effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. You persuasively address the prompt, using strong evidence to support your argument. Your writing is strong but not necessarily perfect. Essays earning a score of 7 meet the autumn essays, criteria for the score of 6 but provide a more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. A 7 essay meets the criteria for a 6 essay but is either better-argued, better-supported, or more well-written. Essays earning a score of 6 adequately develop a position on admission essay nursing program the issue presented. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and sufficient, and the argument is coherent and adequately developed. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is clear. You reasonably address the prompt, using reasonable evidence to support your argument.
Your writing is generally good but may have some mistakes. Essays earning a score of 5 develop a position on the issue presented. The evidence or explanations used may be uneven, inconsistent, or limited. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the student’s ideas. You do address the prompt, although the autumn essays, support for your argument may be sparse or not wholly convincing. Your writing is usually clear, but not always. Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately develop a position on the issue presented. Essay Nursing! The evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. Writing Essays! The argument may have lapses in admission essay program coherence or be inadequately developed.
The prose generally conveys the student’s ideas but may be inconsistent in autumn essays controlling the elements of effective writing. You do not adequately address the prompt or form a strong argument. Your evidence may be sparse or unconvincing, or your argument may be too weak. Your writing is not consistently clear. Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for the score of 4 but demonstrate less success in developing a position on admission program the issue. The essays may show less maturity in of happiness belonging control of writing. 3 essays meet the criteria for a 4 but have either weaker arguments or less clear writing. Essays earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in essay nursing program developing a position on the issue. Autumn Essays! These essays may misunderstand the prompt, or substitute a simpler task by responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation.
The prose often demonstrates consistent weaknesses in admission writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of coherence and control. You barely addressed the assigned task. Your essay may misunderstand the prompt. Your evidence may be irrelevant or inaccurate. Your writing is weak on multiple levels.
Essays earning a score of 1 meet the criteria for the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in their explanation and need to buy a research paper argument, weak in their control of language, or especially lacking in coherence. Essay Nursing Program! A 1 essay meets the need a research, criteria for a 2 but the argument is even less developed or coherent. Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in a language other than English. You made no attempt to respond to the prompt. Indicates an entirely blank response. You didn’t write anything! As you can see, the synthesis rubric is admission essay program focused on how you used sources, the analysis rubric is focused on how well you analyzed the text, and the argument rubric is focused on the strength of your argumentative writing without outside sources.
Achieving a high score on an AP Lang and writing essays about Comp essay is essay nursing program no easy feat. The average scores on essays last year were all under 5, with the Synthesis essay at about a 4.7 and the other two at just over 4. Autumn Essays! So even getting a 7 out of 9 is very impressive! You may feel that these rubrics are a little bit vague and admission essay frustratingly subjective. Of Happiness Essay! And, indeed, what separates a 6 from admission essay, a 7, a 7 from an 8, an persuasive, 8 from nursing, a 9 may not be entirely clear in every case, no matter the pains taken by apus history essays, the College Board to standardize AP essay grading. Admission Nursing Program! That said, the general principles behind the rubrics— respond to the prompt, build a strong argument, and write well —hold up. If you can write strong essays in the time allotted, you’ll be well on your way to a score of autumn essays, 5 even if your essays got 7s instead of 8s. So what can you do to prepare yourself for the frenzy of AP English Lit activity? The best kind of frenzy is a puppy frenzy!
Unlike its cousin, the AP English Literature and Composition exam, the AP Language and Composition exam (and course) have very little to admission essay program, do with fiction or poetry. So some students used to more traditional English classes may be somewhat at a loss as to what to do to spelman, prepare. Luckily for you, I have a whole slate of preparation tips for admission program you! A major thing you can do to prepare for writing about film the AP Lang and Comp exam is to read nonfiction— particularly nonfiction that argues a position , whether explicitly (like an essay program, op-ed) or implicitly (like many memoirs and personal essays). Read a variety of non-fiction genres and topics, and pay attention to autumn essays, the following: What is the author’s argument? What evidence do they use to support their position?
What rhetorical techniques and strategies do they use to build their argument? Are they persuasive? What counterarguments can you identify? Do they address them? Thinking about these questions with all the reading you do will help you hone your rhetorical analysis skills. Learn Rhetorical Terms and Strategies. Of course, if you’re going to nursing, be analyzing the nonfiction works you read for their rhetorical techniques and exam strategies, you need to know what those are! You should learn a robust stable of rhetorical terms from your teacher, but here’s my guide to essay nursing program, the most important AP Language and Composition terms (coming soon). If you want to review, there are many resources you could consult: Wikibooks offers a list of “Basic Rhetorical Strategies,” which explains some of the most fundamental rhetoric-related terms.
MiraCosta college has another good list of some of the most important rhetorical strategies and devices. A heroic individual from Riverside schools in of happiness essay Ohio uploaded this aggressively comprehensive list of rhetorical terms with examples. It’s 27 pages long, and admission you definitely shouldn’t expect to know all of these for the exam, but it’s a useful resource for learning some new terms. To Buy A Research! Another great resource for learning about rhetorical analysis and admission nursing program how rhetorical devices are actually used is the YouTube Channel Teach Argument, which has videos rhetorically analyzing everything from Taylor Swift music videos to writing about, Super Bowl commercials. It’s a fun way to think about rhetorical devices and get familiar with argumentative structures. Finally, a great book—which you might already use in your class—is “They Say, I Say.” This book provides an admission essay nursing, overview of rhetoric specifically for academic purposes, which will serve you well for AP preparation and of happiness belonging beyond. You also need to practice argumentative and persuasive writing. In particular, you should practice the writing styles that will be tested on admission essay program the exam: synthesizing your own argument based on multiple outside sources, rhetorically analyzing another piece of writing in-depth, and creating a completely original argument based on your own evidence and experience. You should be doing lots of writing assignments in persuasive essay your AP class to program, prepare, but thoughtful, additional writing will help. You don’t necessarily need to turn all of the euthanasia, practice writing you do into polished pieces, either—just writing for yourself, while trying to address some of these tasks, will give you a low-pressure way to admission essay nursing, try out different rhetorical structures and argumentative moves, as well as practicing things like organization and developing your own writing style. Not the most auspicious start to an argumentative essay.
Finally, you’ll need to practice specifically for the exam format. There are sample multiple-choice questions in the “AP Course and Exam Description,” and old free-response questions on the College Board website. Unfortunately, the College Board hasn’t officially released any complete exams from previous years for the AP English Language and Composition exam, but you might be able to find some that teachers have uploaded to essays, school websites and so on by Googling “AP Language complete released exams.” I also have a guide to AP Language and Composition practice tests (coming soon). Once you’re prepped and ready to go, how can you do your best on the test? AP Language and Composition Test Day Tips. Here are four key tips for test-day success. You are one hundred percent success! When you are reading passages, both on the multiple-choice section and for the first two free-response questions, interact with the text! Mark it up for things that seem important, devices you notice, the author’s argument, and nursing anything else that seems important to the rhetorical construction of the text. This will help you engage with the text and make it easier to answer questions or write an essay about the passage.
Think About Every Text’s Overarching Purpose and Argument. Similarly, with every passage you read, consider the author’s overarching purpose and argument. If you can confidently figure out what the apus exam, author’s primary assertion is, it will be easier to trace how all of the other aspects of the text play into the author’s main point. The single most important thing you can do for essay nursing program yourself on the free-response section of the AP English Language exam is to spend a few minutes planning and outlining your essays before you start to write them. Unlike on some other exams, where the content is the most important aspect of the writing essays about film, essay, on the AP Language Exam, organization, a well-developed argument, and strong evidence are all critical to strong essay scores. An outline will help you with all of these things. You’ll be able to make sure each part of your argument is essay program logical, has sufficient evidence, and that your paragraphs are arranged in a way that is clear and pursuit of happiness belonging flows well. Admission Nursing Program! Anticipate and paper Address Counterarguments. Another thing you can do to nursing, give your free responses an extra boost is to identify counterarguments to your position and address them within your essay.
This not only helps shore up your own position, but it's also a fairly sophisticated move in essays about film a timed essay that will win you kudos with AP graders. Address counterarguments properly or they might get returned to admission essay nursing, sender! The AP Language and Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. The exam has two sections. The first section is an hour-long, 52-55 question multiple-choice test based on essays the rhetorical techniques and admission strategies deployed in pursuit of happiness nonfiction passages. The second section is a two-hour free-response section (with a 15-minute initial reading period) with three essay questions: one where you must synthesize given sources to make an original argument, one where you must rhetorically analyze a given passage, and one where you must create a wholly original argument about an issue with no outside sources given. Essay! You’ll receive one point for writing essays every correct answer on the multiple-choice section of the exam, which is essay nursing worth 45% of your score. The free-response section is essays worth 55% of your score. For each free-response question, you’ll get a score based on a rubric from essay program, 1-9. Your total raw score will be converted to pursuit of happiness belonging essay, a scaled score from 1-5. Here are some test prep strategies for AP Lang: Read nonfiction with an eye for rhetoric Learn rhetorical strategies and techniques Practice writing to deploy rhetorical skills Practice for the exam!
Here are some test-day success tips: Interact with each passage you encounter! Consider every text’s overarching purpose and admission argument. Keep track of time Plan your essays Identify and euthanasia address counterarguments in your essays. Admission Essay Nursing Program! With all of this knowledge, you’re ready to slay the AP English Language and Composition beast! Noble knight, prepare to slay the apus exam, AP dragon! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?
We've written a guide for program each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of need, life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. Essay! You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Essays! Follow us on all 3 of nursing, our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?
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Quantum mechanics and materialism. For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, declares the Lord. As the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways and my thoughts than your thoughts. -Isaiah 55:8-9. Great is the Lord and most worthy of praise; his greatness no one can fathom. - Psalm 145:3. I think it's safe to say that no one understands quantum mechanics. -Richard Feynman. The purpose of essay nursing, this essay is to set forth some of the philosophical implications of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics replaced classical mechanics as the reigning theory of physical phenomena in the early 20th century. Today, after decades of testing, thousands of experiments have confirmed the predictions of quantum theory so that it is widely accepted by the scientific community. Yet in my opinion, there is no theory that so fundamentally challenges our intuitive views of reality. College Essays. The physicists who developed quantum theory in the early 20th century were astonished, shocked, and admission essay, bewildered by its philosophical implications, to the extent that many of history, them including Einstein were convinced that it must somehow be wrong (this disagreement is the origin of Einstein's famous comment: 'God doesn't play dice with the universe'). Why this progression from cataclysmic shock to lukewarm complacence?
I'm not sure. Certainly, all of the modern textbooks that I have seen have resolutely avoided any discussion of the meaning of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, most of the physicists, non-physicists, atheists and Christians that I've talked to are mostly unaware of the startling issues raised by quantum mechanics. My hope is that this essay will help people understand the significance that quantum theory has for various worldviews, especially materialism. First, we should note that when it comes to science, and admission program, especially when it comes to quantum mechanics, it is important to spelman college distinguish between what is fact and admission nursing, what is autumn essays, interpretation. To some extent, it will also be difficult to convey the admission essay program technical reasons why certain interpretations are unlikely, while others are more widely accepted. I will try to be very scrupulous in stating which aspects of quantum theory are virtually unchallenged and which are controversial. Since I am a Christian, people may also wonder whether I am somehow biased. No doubt I am! But I will try to be as objective as possible and be very clear when an assertion is pursuit of happiness belonging essay, my opinion rather than a well-established fact.
To begin, let's consider a few assertions of the traditional materialistic worldview. Of course, materialists who are aware of quantum mechanics may have slightly different views, but I suspect that these assertions will resonate with many modern materialists: 1. Program. The laws of physics state that miracles are impossible. For instance, Jesus could not have turned water into wine because that would have violated numerous physical laws (conservation of energy, conservation of mass, the writing essays about 2nd law of thermodynamics, etc. ) 2. Even if God exists, He could not be a God who intervenes in the natural world because he would have to violate the nursing physical laws that he supposedly created. 3. Consciousness or subjective mental experiences are a collective property of brains (just as wetness is writing essays about film, a collective property of water molecules). There is no such thing as a mind or consciousness separate from physical constituents. 4. The universe does not contain hidden or unknowable realities that are fundamentally inaccessible to science and reason. There are of course other major components of a materialist worldview, but I think that most materialists would generally agree with these four statements. By the end of this essay I hope to show you that, if you believe quantum mechanics, assertions 1 and 2 and 4 are simply false. Statement 3 can still be retained, but only at an extremely high cost.
Based on admission nursing these statements, I think it is clear what motivated Danish physicist and father of quantum mechanics Niels Bohr to remark Anyone who is not shocked by quantum mechanics has not understood it. Quantum mechanics and physical laws. In the days of classical (or Newtonian) mechanics, it was fairly easy for physicists to define what they meant by a physical law. Exam. A physical law is an equation which describes the behavior of a physical system. Specifically, in nursing program classical mechanics, the motion of pursuit essay, particles is nursing program, described by Newton's equations of writing essays film, motion (F = m * A).
Newton's equations of motion are deterministic, meaning that if I know the initial positions and velocities of every particle in my system at some initial time, then I can tell you the precise position and velocity of every particle at admission, any instant in the future with one hundred percent certainty. Each particle in the system takes a single path that can be followed over time. Philosophers in autumn essays the 18th and 19th centuries quickly decided that such a conception of natural laws had several important consequences. First, if we truly believe that the physical laws are inviolable, then miracles are impossible. For instance, the cells in a dead body begin inevitably to degrade and decompose. For Jesus to admission nursing program have risen from the dead would mean that those cells somehow reversed their decomposition, violating numerous physical laws. Ergo, miracles like the spelman college essays resurrection are impossible. Admission. Second, if physical laws are inviolable, then any kind of intervention by God in the natural world is impossible. God cannot answer prayer, because to do so would violate the deterministic evolution of the universe. Thus, we are left with at most a deist view of paper, God as a clockmaker who sets the world ticking, but then is powerless or unwilling to change its course.
Finally, if God did choose to intervene in the world, He could only do so by clumsily breaking or setting aside the natural laws that He himself created. Though I disagree with all of these conclusions, I admit that they do fit fairly naturally into admission nursing program a classical mechanical framework. The reasoning is not perfect, but it is fairly compelling. A classical universe certainly seems to fit into a deist conception of God as a distant artisan more than a biblical conception of God as an intimate, personal creator and sustainer. The real problem with these arguments is not their internal consistency, but their dependence on a classical conception of the need paper universe, which has since been overturned. According to quantum mechanics, the motion of particles is governed by the Schrodinger equation rather than Newton's equations (technically, we should use the Dirac equation, but I'll stick to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, since that is my area of expertise). In quantum mechanics, the state of essay, a system is determined not by specifying the apus essays positions and velocities of every particle in the system, but by the system's wavefunction. In one sense, the Schrodinger equation is nursing program, also deterministic, because if we know the college initial wavefunction of a given system, we can predict the essay program system's wavefunction at any future instant of about film, time. However, under the Schrodinger equation, the evolution of a system's wavefunction has a very shocking property. A particle described by quantum mechanics takes all possible paths.
What do I mean by all possible paths? Let me give you an illustration. Nursing. Let's say I put (technically localize) a particle on one side of a barrier. The barrier is film, so high that the particle doesn't have nearly enough energy to climb over admission nursing the barrier. A classical particle will never cross that barrier, no matter how long I wait. On the other hand, the quantum particle will tunnel through the barrier and belonging, end up on the other side. This process is well known and is the basis for the tunneling electron microscope.
However, what are the implications of this fact? Let's say I take a rock and put it on my desk. Admission Nursing. What is the probability that the apus exam essays rock will disappear and reappear in my kitchen? If you believe in classical mechanics, you can quite truthfully say exactly zero. But if you believe in quantum mechanics, you can only say it's extraordinarily improbable. Again, let's go a bit further. According to the Feynman path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, if I localize a particle in some region of space at admission essay, one instant, it has a finite, non-zero probability of ending up anywhere else in the universe (technically, within its light cone) at the next instant of writing about, time. So why don't we see rocks teleporting through apartments? Well, like I said, the probability is extraordinarily low. Admission Essay. But there is a world of difference philosophically speaking between improbable and spelman essays, impossible.
If a miracle like the resurrection is truly impossible, I might be persuaded to not bother about the evidence. But if it is merely improbable, examining the evidence is the admission essay program only real way to know whether it happened. So where does quantum mechanics leave us with regard to need to buy paper physical laws? Certainly with a feeling of vague discomfort. A physicist who is being honest with you will have to admit that the most iron-clad laws of physics now no longer deal with certainties, but only probabilities. We have to conclude that miracles are not impossible.
Furthermore, when and if God chooses to admission nursing intervene in autumn essays the natural world, he can do so without in any way violating the admission essay nursing program laws of nature as we currently understand them. History Exam Essays. Lest you think I am exaggerating, let me close this section with a quote from physicist Alvaro de Rujula of Cern who was in charge of writing a safety report for the recently constructed Large Hadron Collider. When asked whether there was a possibility that the collider could produce a world-ending black hole, he answered that calculations showed that this was incredibly unlikely, but that it was impossible to be certain: the random nature of quantum physics means that there is always a minuscule, but nonzero, chance of anything occurring, including that the new collider could spit out program man-eating dragons.' (Dennis Overbye, Gauging a Collider's Odds of application essays, Creating a Black Hole, NYTimes, 4/15/08) Quantum mechanics, causality, and objective reality. A second casualty of admission essay program, quantum theory is causality (careful with those spellings). Persuasive Euthanasia. Causality is the idea that all events have specific, identifiable causes. Because classical mechanics is deterministic, there is always an answer to the question Why did I observe particle A at position X at time T?. Essentially, the answer is that given the initial conditions of particle A, it HAD to admission essay nursing reach position X at time T. Of course, I may not know the initial conditions with certainty.
In that case, I may only be able to estimate the probability of finding the particle at position X. But this uncertainty is extrinsic; it is due entirely to my lack of knowledge about the initial conditions. If I did know the initial conditions exactly, there would be no uncertainty at all in my prediction of the essays particle's future position. Furthermore, Newton's laws would specify a clear chain of causality between the particle's initial and final positions. In contrast, causality in admission nursing quantum mechanics is much harder to define, since quantum measurement is inherently probabilistic. Apus. The wavefunction of a particle does not specify the exact position and essay program, momentum of a particle, but only a distribution of possible positions and momenta that would be observed if the of happiness particle were measured. As a result, the answer to the question Why did I observe particle A at position X at admission, time T? changes dramatically. There is no answer to that question given by quantum mechanics. Radioactive decay is another example where this acausality is even more evident. Let's say that I place a Geiger counter next to a research paper a single radioactive atom with a half-life of admission essay nursing, ten seconds.
After 8.2 seconds the Geiger counter clicks, indicating that the particle has decayed. The question is, why did the particle decay at 8.2 seconds and not 11.4 seconds or 14.1 seconds? What caused this event? Again, quantum mechanics gives no answer. Autumn Essays. The lack of an admission essay nursing answer is not due to a lack of knowledge about the initial state of the system, but to spelman college application essays the inherent randomness of quantum mechanics.
Even if I know absolutely everything there is to program know about a particular quantum mechanical system, there will still be an inherent randomness in its measured properties. This indeterminateness of autumn essays, quantum mechanics goes even deeper than causality. Essay Program. One of the common assumptions that we make about the essays about universe as scientists is objective realism. Objective realism is the idea that objects in the universe possess properties independent of measurement. In other words, the chair in my office is there whether or not I happen to be looking at it. The property called position can be thought of, in admission essay nursing program classical mechanics, as a little tag affixed to the chair. The tag exists and displays a given value whether or not I am looking at it. In contrast, in quantum mechanics, properties like position or momentum are operators, not labels. Position can therefore be thought of as a large box with a readout screen. I put my chair into that box, and persuasive essay, the readout screen gives me a value which I call position. Position is not affixed to the object; rather it is program, a value that I obtain through performing a specified action on an object.
Einstein himself was so disturbed by the indeterminateness of history, quantum mechanics that he never fully accepted the theory. Admission Essay. In fact, to show that quantum mechanics was incorrect, incomplete, or both he proposed a thought experiment known as the EPR experiment designed to show the of happiness essay logical inconsistencies of quantum mechanics. The paper postulated the existence of hidden variables that concealed each particle's true properties, but were hidden from experimental observation. At the time, although the paper generated much discussion, most adherents of quantum theory did not accept its logic. Furthermore, since the paper made no testable predictions, it was impossible to adjudicate between quantum mechanics and Einstein's proposed hidden variable model. However, many years later physicist John Bell realized that there was an experimental test that could be used to determine whether any type of local hidden variable theory was possible. In the last several decades numerous experiments have all shown the admission nursing same answer: quantum mechanics wins. Physicists must jettison the concept of either realism (the idea that objects have properties independent of persuasive essay, measurement) or locality (the idea that effects cannot propagate faster than the speed of light). Although some physicists who adopt a neorealist interpretation of quantum mechanics (see below) retain realism at the expense of locality, most modern physicists retain locality at the expense of admission nursing, realism. If we follow most physicists in writing about film rejecting realism, the nursing program immediate consequence is that it is strictly meaningless to to buy a research paper speak of objects as having properties independent of measurement. The statement the admission essay program chair is in my office has no meaning.
Instead, you can only persuasive say things like I measured the essay position of the chair and observed that it was in of happiness belonging essay my office. Admission Essay Program. Lest you think I am exaggerating, let me recount a story that is told about Einstein by his biographer and fellow physicist Albert Pais. Pais recounts that once while they were out walking, Einstein turned to him and asked him whether [he] really believed that the writing about film moon exists only when [he] look[s] at it. The rest of the walk was devoted to discussing what a physicist means when he says that something exists. What are the admission program philosophical implications of the indeterminacy of essays about, quantum mechanics? I believe the main implication is that reality is, in some ways, beyond the reach of admission nursing program, human observers. To Buy. Experimental systems in quantum mechanics are specified completely by their wavefunctions. Unfortunately, measurement yields only nursing partial, intrinsically random information about essay, wavefunctions. Unlike a classical universe in which every object carries with it a set of neatly ordered labels specifying its properties, quantum mechanics describes a universe in which objects present to us the merest glimpse of their nature while keeping their true reality hidden from admission, view. Quantum mechanics and consciousness. Another common, but by no means ubiquitous, assumption of a materialist worldview is that human consciousness or subjective human experience is an artifact of belonging, physical constituents.
In other words, in opposition to admission essay a dualistic view which sees mind as separate from matter, materialists usually argue that mind is merely a byproduct of matter which does not have an independent existence or a special, distinct role in application essays the universe. Again, such a conception fits fairly well into a classical view of physics. After all, where does the mind reside? Is it some disembodied substance that floats inside the brain? If it has a separate existence apart from matter, how do the two interact? Shouldn't the interaction show up somewhere in admission essay our formulation of writing about, physics? Because classical physics required no appeal to some conception of admission nursing program, consciousness, it was possible to jettison the idea of mind altogether. Again, quantum mechanics turned these ideas on their heads. Consider the to buy paper following statement by Wigner (a Nobel laureate and one of the admission essay founders of quantum mechanics): 'it follows that the being with a consciousness must have a different role in quantum mechanics than the inanimate object' or von Neumann (another Nobel laureate and founder of quantum mechanics): 'we must always divide the world into two parts, the one being the observed system, the other the observer' or Hugh Everett (who constructed the many-worlds interpretation of belonging, quantum mechanics), 'we are forced to admit that systems which contain observers are not subject to the same kind of quantum mechanical description as we admit for all other physical systems.' (Barrett, 1999). What on earth were these people talking about? In quantum mechanics, particles can exist in states known as 'superpositions'.
When a particle is in essay program a 'superposition' state, it exists in multiple states at the same time. For instance, a classical coin is either in the state heads or tails. A quantum coin, on the other hand, can be put in the state heads AND tails simultaneously. College Application Essays. Let's imagine that we put a quantum coin in such a heads-and-tails state and then measure the coin. Admission Essay. We find that our measurement will always come out to buy paper heads OR tails with a 50-50 probability. Furthermore, subsequent measurements of the admission nursing program same coin will find that it remains in whichever state we observed, either heads or tails. Need To Buy. Somehow, our measurement of the coin has altered the state of the coin. Nursing. Before the measurement, it was heads-and-tail, but afterwards it collapsed into either the state heads or the state tails.
Well, that seems strange, but it hardly seems to have any implications for consciousness. Until we start thinking carefully. When exactly did the coin go from being heads-and-tails to heads or tails? Well, perhaps that occurred when a photon from the lamp in my room first struck the coin. But actually, if we make careful measurements of the photon and of happiness essay, the coin, we find that the photon doesn't cause the wavefunction to collapse (because we can reverse the essay action of the photon and essays, the coin will go back to heads-and-tails). Well, maybe the first photon interacted with an essay atom in my retina, and that caused the wavefunction to collapse. Apus Exam. But actually, if we make careful measurements of the photon and the coin and an atom, we find that the photon and the atom don't cause the wavefunction to collapse. Nursing. We can keep going and going, pushing back the moment of spelman, collapse further and further, until we eventually hit a wall. That wall is the consciousness of the observer.
All we know experimentally is that once I see the coin as either heads or tails it's going to stay that way. Can we test whether my mind actually causes the collapse? Unfortunately not (unless we can figure out how to nursing program literally stick my head into the measuring device). So evidence seems to history essays indicate that wavefunction collapse occurs somewhere between the coin and my mind, but all of the admission nursing program intermediate steps that we can test seem to indicate that collapse doesn't happen at any lower level. Is this an to buy ironclad proof that mind is somehow distinct from matter in admission the universe? That depends on your interpretation.
There are three major schools of the interpretation of quantum mechanics. The first is called neo-realism, and was supported by Einstein. Neorealism states that the coin never really was in the heads-and-tails state at all. Instead, it secretly was always in a single heads or tails state. Film. However, the true state of the coin was hidden from us, fooling us into thinking that it was in a heads-and-tail state. This model avoids the problem of wavefunction collapse and consciousness, but it runs into serious difficulties and must invoke undetectable, faster-than-light pilot waves in order to admission program explain modern experiments. History Exam Essays. Needless to say, few modern physicists support this view. The second interpretation is called the admission nursing Copenhagen interpretation, and is generally viewed as the orthodox interpretation which is autumn essays, taught (vaguely) in admission essay most textbooks. The most consistent form of pursuit belonging, this interpretation (in my opinion) is that mind (maybe human, maybe otherwise) is indeed distinct from matter. When a mind interacts with a particle it causes the irreversible wavefunction collapse that we observe. Admission. Again, the role of consciousness is generally glossed over in most textbooks, but a consistent description of this position cannot really avoid it.
Because most physicists are uncomfortable with such an explicitly dualistic view of reality, many now subscribe to apus history essays the final major interpretation, the many-worlds hypothesis. The many-worlds hypothesis has the advantages that it is mathematically simple and that it treats everything uniformly (there is no distinction between mind and matter). In fact, I think it is the view which fits most logically into a modern materialistic worldview. The many-worlds interpretation (which could more correctly be called the many-minds interpretation) states that whenever a measurement is made by a conscious observer, the universe splits. For instance, when I measure the nursing heads-and-tails coin, the belonging atoms in my brain enter the admission essay nursing state seeing-heads-and-tails. In one universe my brain tells me that the coin is heads and in the other universe, the brain tells me that the coin is tails. The beauty of the many worlds interpretation is about, that it avoids any wavefunction collapse or problem with consciousness.
However, there are still a few major problems with this view, both scientific and philosophical. Scientifically, if many worlds is true, why have I never seen a heads-and-tails coin? If the atoms in my brain are really in a superposition state of seeing both heads and tails, why do I only admission essay see one or the other? I haven't really avoided the problem of giving a special role to the conscious mind. The mind somehow can only see the one particular universe in spelman college application essays which it exists, even though reality consists of nursing, a superposition of all these universes. Philosophically, there are even bigger problems. If there really is this kind of apus history exam essays, multiverse, isn't science doomed? We'll never, ever be able to know anything about the real universe, only admission program about one infinitesimal piece of it. Measurement doesn't actually tell us anything; it merely generates more and more universes. Even more significant is realizing what happens when you combine many worlds theory with our previous statements about quantum particles taking all paths. If you are leaning towards many-worlds theory to find support for materialism, be warned.
Quantum mechanics states emphatically that anything CAN happen. Many-worlds theory goes one step further and writing essays, says that everything DOES happen. At least quantum mechanics allows you to say that although miracles are possible, they are incredibly, incredibly unlikely. But many worlds theory says that no matter how remote the possibility, there is a universe in essay program which any given event does happen. In fact, there are an infinite number of universes in which any given event happened. Of Happiness Belonging. There is a universe in which I am the king of Elvisland. There is a universe in admission program which I am forty-feet tall with machine guns for apus history essays, arms.
These are real universes that really exist somewhere in the multiverse. Admission. Then how on earth do you know that you are not living in the universe in which Jesus walked on water? Before leaning too hard on the many worlds interpretation, make sure you realize its implications. Again, it should be stressed that these three major interpretations, neorealist, Copenhagen, and many worlds, are interpretations not separate theories. All three are totally consistent with current observation and none of them as yet makes experimentally testable or falsifiable predictions which differ from the others. Application Essays. They are all attempts to discern from the mathematics of quantum mechanics what the universe is really like. It may turn out that all of nursing program, them are incorrect or even that quantum mechanics itself is incorrect.
However, I think that regardless which interpretation we lean towards, it is clear that quantum mechanics presents a view of reality very different from the one that we expect. So where do we stand? If quantum mechanics has turned our view of autumn essays, reality (even our definition of the word reality) upside down, should we conclude that science is useless? That the universe is incomprehensible? I don't think so. But I think that quantum mechanics does show the danger of essay nursing, founding our core beliefs on our current understanding of apus history exam, modern science. Essay Nursing. Sometimes our understanding is correct, but sometimes it is not. History Essays. I think it would have been quite a tragedy for admission essay nursing, some Christian in exam the 19th century to have abandoned the Biblical view of a sovereign God in admission essay program favor of persuasive essay, a distant clockmaker because he was persuaded by the overwhelming evidence of classical mechanics. If only he had lived a few more decades!
For that matter, what will all my arguments mean if in ten years we discover that quantum mechanics is, after all, not the ultimate theory of reality? Think how foolish the program science and writing about, philosophy of the ancient Greeks and the medieval alchemists look in the light of the 21st century. And have we now arrived at the summit of human knowledge? So if you are a materialist, comfort yourself in the knowledge that quantum mechanics, after all, may someday be proven wrong. If nothing else, quantum mechanics teaches us humility with regard to our own knowledge. Our understanding will always be partial, mostly incomplete, and often faulty.
Certainly, the Bible does not discuss quantum mechanics and the nature of measurement; if we want to learn about the laws of nature, science is the best tool that we have. But science, at its best, will lead us to ask questions that are beyond its reach. Is there a greater Law behind or above the natural laws that we observe? Is there a greater Reality behind the realities described by admission, physics? In looking for answers to these questions, science cannot help us.
If we want truths that go beyond the natural, we need to belonging look to for a source beyond the natural. The Bible presents us with a God who is both transcendent and immanent, a God who is both infinitely beyond the created order and essay, intimately involved with it, whose ways are not our ways and whose thoughts are beyond our understanding. If we want to understand the universe, the spelman application wisest thing we can do is essay, first to apus history exam seek the one who created it.
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Focusing on Details in Your Nursing School Admission Essay
resume suggestions I know this is the last thing you want to do, but we’ll make it easy. Raise your hand if updating your resume is high on admission essay nursing your to-do list. Now raise your hand if you would rather have that hand eaten off by a hippopotamus (what is need to buy with their violence?!) so that you have an excuse to work on essay program your resume another day. Yea. I get that. Essays About Film. Literally no one likes doing this. That’s because it feels overwhelming. But it shouldn’t be. Nursing Program. We consulted the help of application essays, a woman who does this for a living.
Her name is Rose Keating, and admission nursing, together, we’re going to get you through this. According to Keating, most hiring managers prefer one or two pages. However, “page length isn’t the most critical thing,” Keating told me. “What’s important is how clearly and quickly they can see how you can help them with the job they’re hiring for.” A general rule of about, thumb: If you have less than five years of essay nursing, experience, your resume should be one page. If you have over five years of experience, you can go to two. However, consulting and investment banking require one page resumes for everyone — even if you have 20 years of experience. The goal is to show what you’ve been doing most recently. Need To Buy A Research. If you are within a year of having graduated or you’re still in school, put your education at admission essay nursing program, the top of autumn essays, your resume. (It shouldn’t take up a ton of page real estate.) Once you’ve been out of school for two or more years, put your eductation on admission essay program the bottom. If you are getting your MBA in need, addition to working at your current job, put that at admission, the top. College Application Essays. Your resume should read in reverse chronological order, from most recent title to least. Don’t put it on your resume.
Your resume should present you in the best light possible. Industries that care the most about GPAs are consulting and investment banking. Some communication agencies will use GPA as a filter because they have so many candidates, but that’s only admission, relevant if you’ve just recently graduated. Most people drop their GPAs off their resumes after three years unless they have an exceptionally high one. What if I pulled a Bill Gates and didn’t graduate? You can still write the year that you plan to pursuit essay, graduate if you plan on finishing your degree at some point in essay, the future.
For example, if you are planning to finish your degree in 2018, dropped out in autumn essays, 2015 and decided to start Banana (the new Apple!), but needed to apply for side hustles, I’d write: “[Wherever You Went] University, Expected Graduation 2018.” If you completed 3 years of college but have no intention of admission essay program, finishing your degree, write your university name plus however many years you completed of said degree. For example: “[Wherever You Went] University, X years of a bachelor degree in writing about, journalism.” Another angle is to list the number of courses. Essay. For example: Completed six business courses at [Wherever You Went] University. Autumn Essays. Only do this if it’s been a year or less since finishing these courses. Are cover letters antiquated?
According to Keating, some hiring managers care if you have one, some don’t. She knows how frustrating that sounds. She also knows that some hiring managers won’t bother looking at admission essay, your resume at all if they don’t like your cover letter, so to essay euthanasia, play it safe, she advises her clients to write a cover letter every time unless the essay job description specifies not to include one. …How the hell do I write a cover letter? Keating says that the best thing you can do is get good examples (ask friends, look online) and follow their structure. Here’s the basic structure: Four paragraphs: intro, conclusion, two middle paragraphs. The first middle paragraph should answer: Why you?
Why are you right for history this job? The second middle paragraph should answer: Why them? Why do you want to work for that company specifically? I am supposed to write one of these every single time I apply for a job. Yes. But think quality over quantity. Rose Keating much prefers that her clients apply to two jobs a week with really well-crafted, highly-tailored documents rather than sending out a blast of cover letters that communicate nothing. Should I be adding color to make my resume stand out? If you’re in a creative industry, Keating says that you have more freedom to use color. Google “Visual resume” for ideas. (Here are some that are really out of that damn cliche box!) If you’re not a graphic designer, there are websites where you input your information and the site helps create cool visuals, like timelines and admission essay, pie charts. (She recommends checking out Smashfreakz.com) If you’re applying to more analytical roles, keep it traditional.
Don’t: tell white lies, even though “everyone does it.” It’s never necessary. Euthanasia. Don’t misrepresent yourself. Do: present yourself and your experiences in the best light possible. Keating says to think about nursing program, a resume like a first date: No one needs to essay euthanasia, know that your last relationship went up in flames. Show off your qualities and the best parts of your personality. Admission Essay Nursing Program. If you increased the social media following from 50 to 100, that’s a 100% increase in need to buy, followers — so say that. Don’t: use pronouns or write in first person. Your resume should never say “I” or “me.” Instead of, “I worked for three months on x project,” you would write, “Worked three months on x project.” Don’t: focus on tasks and essay nursing, responsibilities. – Instead, focus on results and achievements that convey the impact of the tasks that you did and the responsibilities you had. “Tell me how well you did it,” Keating says.
– Your resume shouldn’t look like lists from your job description — the person looking to writing about, hire can’t learn anything from that. Instead, write the essay impact or the result of writing film, those actions. For example: “Increased office efficiency by nursing program, providing accurate and timely file management. Enabled upper level to make strategic decisions by providing accurate weekly status reports.” – Empty adjectives do nothing. Anyone can list “leader” or “hard worker.” Write something that demonstrates how you can multitask. What would not have been possible had you been unable to juggle five things at once? If you meet about 70% of the qualifications listed, go for writing essays film it.
They’ve written their job description for admission their ideal candidate — they aren’t expecting everyone to have every single item checked off, so you’ll probably get a call. Besides, you can’t get a job you didn’t apply for. If you have less than 70% of the to buy a research paper required qualifications, don’t waste your time applying online, but do network your way into nursing program the company if you are passionate about what they do. 20% of your energy should go into film online applications. Admission Essay Nursing Program. The rest of your energy should go into talking and meeting one on one and autumn essays, doing informational interviews.
Find informal interviews through alumni networks, friends, family connections and LinkedIn. Tell them you want to hear about their career-path. It’s one of the essay program most important tools in your job search. Alright guys — good luck! Check out need to buy, Rose Keating’s blog here for admission nursing program more tips and apus history exam, tricks to getting the job you want (among other things, like how to ask for a raise) Elizabeth wearing NARS “Dragon Girl” Velvet Matte Lip Pencil; Photographed by Krista Anna Lewis; gifs by Emily Zirimis.
I was going to quickly scroll past this post and suppress all dreaded ugly resume feelings but then I remembered that I JUST had a conversation telling someone to do things that make them uncomfortable so I was like UGH I GUESS I SHOULD TAKE THE MEDICINE I PRESCRIBE TO OTHERS. WE CAN DO THIS TOGETHER! I am getting a salary of 6800 dollars each week. Over a year ago I was in a horrible condition , jobless and no bank credit ..tu Thanks to one of my friends who showed me a way where I was able to gather myself and admission nursing, making average of 58 d/h. So it can change your life as it has changed mine. Apus History Exam. Why not try this. When I looked at the draft of 6785 dollars, I have faith that brother of nursing program, my friend was like really generating cash in his free time with his PC..yi His aunt’s neighbor has done this for only 11 months and by paper, now repaid the loan on their home and bought a new Car.
Check out Rose Keating’s blog here for more tips and tricks to getting the job you want (among other things, like how to ask for a raise) Oh I’m saving this post ASAP!! You read my mind! I need help for a resume sooner than later! =) This is SO GOOD, thank you guys. Ridiculously perfect timing, you mind-reading goddesses.
Just got out of admission nursing, career counseling, felt overwhelmed, went online to distract myself, then saw this. Almost didn’t click bc anxiety, but this article makes it actually seem doable! MR comes through again. Of Happiness. thanks guys, perfect timing! I am a 36 yr old in admission essay nursing, the apparel industry, with 13 years experience in trend forecasting and graphic design. Autumn Essays. After being laid off this time last year I have applied for over 150 jobs, mostly in NYC.
Unfortunately, right now I live in Missouri; that’s where my previous job was located. I swear my resume is excellent, my cover letters are thoughtful, and my online portfolio is program SMASHING. Yet, of 150 jobs I’ve had less than 10 calls, 3 in autumn essays, person interviews, and just 1 narrow miss for admission program landing an apus history actual job. Is it like this for anyone else. I know I’m qualified and talented – previous managers and coworkers rave about me. Sometimes I feel like there is an invisible penis drawing or something on nursing my resume that only persuasive essay, recruiters and hiring managers can see.
WHAT AM I DOING WRONG. I’m sorry to admission nursing program, hear your struggle – I went through something similiar for 1.5 years, in NYC. Hundreds of persuasive essay, cover letters, some calls, a handful of awkward in person interviews. My anxiety about finding a long term job increased as each month went by. This is not encouraging, but it’s probably because you’re in essay nursing, Missouri. Persuasive Essay Euthanasia. The last two companies I’ve worked for only looked at admission program, resumes from people in the tri-state area in need to buy paper, order to interview and hire someone within two weeks. Thank you so much for the response! You are definitely not alone in the struggle!! The online application system isn’t working well for many people these days, which is why I recommend getting out from behind your computer and scheduling a visit to New York so you can do some in admission essay nursing, person meetings, aka: informational interviews.
By getting to know people at your target companies and presenting yourself in person, they get to know and of happiness belonging essay, be impressed by the whole you, not just you on a piece of paper. If you can find a friend to program, stay with in NY for two weeks that would be ideal as well, it’s much easier to land a job in a new city if you can stay there while looking! Thanks for the great advice! One of the best pieces of advice I have gotten on persuasive essay euthanasia building your professional network – even if you don’t live in admission essay program, the same city as someone – is essays about film reaching out to people for nursing informational interviews. I have done them several times and they’re always worth it. Who do you reach out to?
Go on LinkedIn and see who went to autumn essays, your Alma Mater that works in your industry and reach out the them. When the interview is coming to nursing, a close, ask who they recommend you talk to need, next. Lots of great articles are written on doing informational interviews – I’ve included two of my favorites below. Good luck!! These are great tips! If you can’t use color, my professional portfolio professor told us to really use font to your advantage.
Go with something sans serif for admission nursing program the header and sub heads, but use serif fonts for your bullets. Autumn Essays. It really helps break things up without being too obvious! Also is this image the work of admission, Emily I love it I really do I can’t describe it it reminds me stuff but yet it doesn’t, like Me Early and the Dying Girl but very quintessentially MR. Thanks for the tips! Thanks a lot! It’s really useful #128578; I’m definitely saving it. Good tips. Persuasive Essay Euthanasia. I have 10 years’ experience in HR and employee benefits, and am actually wanting to make a jump to a more creative field. Nice to admission nursing program, see that some creativity is allowed in these things in, you know, creative fields.
One tip I’d add: make sure the apus grammar, spelling, proper names, job details, etc. Admission Essay Nursing Program. are all correct in resumes/CVs and spelman college application, cover letters: recruiters LOOK for this stuff. If you’ve got the admission program wrong job title and/or company name referenced in your cover letter, that doesn’t bode well. This is so so helpful. Essay. I am going to essay program, apply for an internship during summer holidays and I hope this tips will help me to of happiness belonging, get my first prio x. Even though it is probably less money than I currently make and admission essay nursing program, is only offered part-time, I remembered reading this article this week and applied for essays a job that is actually relevant to my desired field! ALSO, in admission essay program, further career developments, I got in to grad school this month. this is a GREAT post! love the history essays practical tips! Next article – what to wear to a job interview! This is super helpful and does make the idea of updating my resume (finally, this weekend…I SWEAR) seem less daunting. Although, I’m still on the hunt for essay someone to write mine for essay me…ha.
But error: “One pages..” should be “One page or two?” Great tips, I am 100000% bookmarking this post! Really interesting post! I’ve been applying for different jobs for almost three years now and I remember that it took me months and admission essay nursing program, several people giving me advice until I was able to “present myself in pursuit, the best light” and NOT mention the exams I failed… Before that I felt like a resume or cover letter was something like an nursing official document where you just have to autumn essays, state the facts in a plain and simple way. Cool. Share some other tips on resume design with you. Hope it’s useful to all of us. https://www.amolink.com/blog/resume-design.html. Very informative and interesting article, Amelia! As a resume writer, I can attest that these tips are the real deal. Length, where to put your education, customization, and being truthful are all very important.
Visit the ResumeSpice website for more tips on crafting an effective, customized resume: https://resumespice.com/ This is what really helps when writing a resume: http://www.cvhacks.com. I think the main point in cover letter writing is essay program that this document should tell your story. You can’t describe it as a structure (Four paragraphs: intro, conclusion, two middle paragraphs). It’s absolutely crucial to make it unique because it actually gets you the job.
Resume is only a formal overview – cover letter gets you hired.
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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: email@example.com. Essay. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today.
It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. Persuasive Essay Euthanasia. It traps the nursing poorest in writing essays about film, the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and admission nursing, prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and to buy, benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and admission essay nursing, companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of autumn essays extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to program, solve the big global challenges of exam essays our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the admission essay nursing poverty trap?
How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the writing essays corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is a hesitation in essay nursing, raising them.
For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. Spelman College Essays. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in essay, his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to apus history essays, change – and it has to change in every country. Essay Program. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. Autumn Essays. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of essay nursing corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them.
That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of essays who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on admission, these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the persuasive new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by admission program 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the spelman college application inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption.
We are going further still. I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for essay nursing, corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on euthanasia, ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to essay program, bid on writing essays, a contract with the admission essay nursing UK government should publically state who really owns it. Apus Essays. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to program, tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book.
The essays in this book are not about trying to spelman college application essays, claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Admission Nursing Program. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over writing essays, how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. While the essay nursing program essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem. Essay Euthanasia. Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to admission essay, which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on spelman application essays, the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the admission nursing essays bring home the need a research paper sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of essay life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to to buy, get treatment for a sick child, to the world of admission program sport which was for spelman college, so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the admission essay nursing rules that everyone else was expected to follow.
Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the persuasive euthanasia origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to essay program, the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. Autumn Essays. There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to admission, prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in essay, the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries.
President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on program, earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and autumn essays, points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and admission, mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and spelman essays, procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of admission essay program corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is college application essays explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the admission essay nursing Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of autumn essays existence.
Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Nursing Program. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in pursuit of happiness belonging essay, combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the admission essay nursing program president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to spelman application, use online actions and events to successfully campaign for admission essay nursing program, a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. Pursuit. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about nursing program public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on to buy, instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for essay nursing, follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections.
Christine Lagarde also cites an euthanasia example from Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the essay nursing program game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to essays about film, officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in essay nursing, local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to autumn essays, the distance of admission essay nursing a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and autumn essays, more mean that the biggest message of admission essay nursing program this book is one of optimism. History. This battle can be won. Admission Essay. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an to buy international agenda to admission essay, defeat and deter corruption.
First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the use of secret shell companies, so that the apus history exam corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to admission essay, drive out the writing essays film rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. Admission. We need to exam essays, expose the theft or misuse of program taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and essay, they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in essay program, those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the need a research heart of all of this is essay nursing international co-operation on transparency. In the writing about UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies.
But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of admission program finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the writing essays natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of essay nursing program civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to apus exam, account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the admission essay program corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the pursuit essay corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to essay nursing program, explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of essays Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore. But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries.
That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at essay nursing, the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and autumn essays, why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the admission essay program corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of need to buy a research paper public wealth has been on such a scale in nursing, some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to exam essays, their development prospects. It would also begin to address the essay nursing program sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced.
As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the pursuit essay underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. This means tackling head on admission essay, what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by autumn essays embracing the admission essay program vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of to buy a research probity and honesty. Changing the culture of nursing program corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for autumn essays, public money and public services.
In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to admission essay, prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the of happiness courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and admission essay, civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it.
2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy.
What distinguishes them from belonging essay, Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Admission Essay Nursing. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to pursuit belonging essay, spend their time gaming the admission essay nursing system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Writing Essays About Film. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice. However, the admission essay phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for autumn essays, all of the academic effort put into admission program, the study of autumn essays corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for essay program, distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to essay, the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in essay program, a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool.
I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the writing essays film abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. Nursing Program. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon. Persuasive Essay Euthanasia. The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist. Admission Program. In the apus European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to admission essay nursing program, talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the spelman essays rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by admission essay program nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the writing essays guardian of a collective public interest.
Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the admission essay program common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is persuasive euthanasia that elites enter politics to essay, extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else. A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and essays, inherently fragile. The reason for this has to admission nursing, do with human nature.
Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of apus history exam essays favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on admission essay, an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is persuasive euthanasia a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in essay nursing program, rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the about truth of the admission nursing program matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of autumn essays government. So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of essay nursing corruption. Apus History Essays. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it.
The first is the admission nursing creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Euthanasia. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation.
Placing tariffs on essay program, imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the need paper most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to program, denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. To Buy. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time.
Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to considerable corruption and essay, abuse, it also worked as a means of to buy paper stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of essay rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and essays, Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in essay program, all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of spelman college essays voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp.
4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from admission, good democratic practice in several respects. Spelman Application Essays. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of admission essay program broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to college essays, reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and admission essay, not just what is good for one individual voter. Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to history exam, individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system.
It was suboptimal when compared to essay nursing, programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for pursuit belonging essay, political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the essay program public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for essay, getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to nursing program, be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and about film, the absence of corruption as equivalents. Essay Nursing Program. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently.
It is linked to persuasive euthanasia, the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out admission program, their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to autumn essays, undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of corruption and admission program, high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. Persuasive Essay. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of admission nursing corruption in countries around the world.
In the autumn essays World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and admission essay nursing, just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of film state capacity. Nursing Program. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and to buy, Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of essay nursing capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. Autumn Essays. The predictability and admission nursing program, scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from writing, year to year. Essay. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by about increasing wage dispersion and admission essay nursing, setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in autumn essays, the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over essay nursing, long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of history agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes.
Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to essay, demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. Need To Buy Paper. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and admission program, Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by of happiness belonging essay news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. Admission. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of independent courts, the film paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of nursing program existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail.
Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and autumn essays, outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about admission nursing good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. Paper. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by admission essay nursing news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. Persuasive. The mere existence of a democratic political system is admission nursing program no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and autumn essays, a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from admission essay nursing program, power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job.
Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of exam essays corruption and the necessarily political nature of the essay reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in persuasive essay, the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). Essay Nursing Program. American politics in essay euthanasia, that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. Admission Essay Nursing. This system, known as the essay spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the program highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. Persuasive Essay. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to essay program, astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. Pursuit Of Happiness. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one.
There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and admission, knowledge over autumn essays, political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the essay nursing program Pendleton Act. It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on application essays, the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in essay nursing program, New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century.
The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into pursuit of happiness essay, office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only essay nursing program, reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by need to buy paper intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson.
Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of essay civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in need to buy paper, contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in essay program, favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Need A Research Paper. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. The period that saw the admission nursing emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government. Writing About Film. One of the first government agencies to be modernised in essay, the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in autumn essays, the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States.
The latter, in turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of admission nursing 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Essays About Film. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in nursing program, Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to autumn essays, poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education. The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the admission process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle.
Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. Spelman Essays. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in essay program, poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and spelman college, resources that will make government reform more feasible. Admission Essay Program. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is to buy a research also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Essay. Patrons, Clients and of happiness essay, Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. Nursing. 2011.
The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of persuasive Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Johnston, M. Admission. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and autumn essays, Evidence in nursing program, Asia.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and spelman application, Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth.
Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Admission Essay Program. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Autumn Essays. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of admission nursing its Center on need a research, Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law.
His book, The End of nursing History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and paper, Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times. Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is nursing partly because projects in autumn essays, these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to admission nursing, scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and paper, Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to admission essay nursing, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in persuasive essay, the 18th century exemplified the admission essay nursing program behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort.
Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in history exam, the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is program concentrated in college, pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Admission Essay Nursing Program. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour?
Because of this, pockets of pursuit corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent. In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the admission essay entire society has stayed honest.
But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to persuasive euthanasia, competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and admission essay program, self-worth. By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and history, competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy.
But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for nursing program, military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of history exam essays corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the admission nursing globalisation of essays about business and social networks has created an important role for international action.
Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for admission essay, corruption. Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to autumn essays, persist. Corrupt behaviour is admission nursing program self-reinforcing, and breaking out of a research paper it is not easy. Essay Program. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt.
It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of need paper secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in admission essay nursing program, ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in a research paper, dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency. Essay Nursing Program. Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is persuasive essay euthanasia scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in admission nursing program, key sectors.
In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for autumn essays, the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an nursing program equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to belonging essay, increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to admission nursing program, be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government.
In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of autumn essays Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is admission a means of persuasive essay revenue-raising encouraged globally by essay nursing program the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes. But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). Of Happiness. VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to admission essay, corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the spelman rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of nursing this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of euthanasia generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. Nursing. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception?
Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and need to buy paper, they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Admission Nursing. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in of happiness, which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable.
They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and admission nursing, therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to spelman college essays, twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and essay program, the potential for apus, accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. Admission Nursing Program. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of persuasive essay a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in admission essay nursing, the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to make the rest of government feasible.
Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Essay. Creating this tension is admission essay program not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the college application co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. Essay Program. 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. Euthanasia. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to admission nursing program, close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time.
Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for spelman application, twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Admission Nursing Program. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the essay euthanasia potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers.
An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the admission profitability of companies and voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and a research, impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to admission nursing program, broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by essays the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015).
This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in program, the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in college application, the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to nursing, forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the essays civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to essay, development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs.
But an autumn essays important part of tackling corruption is program resetting the college cultures of essay nursing professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Pursuit Belonging. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other.
As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to essay nursing program, spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. Need. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding.
Competition within rule-based markets is an essay nursing program important part of the system of checks and need paper, balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of admission essay program office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour.
Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. Persuasive Euthanasia. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of program retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and apus, fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Essay Nursing Program. Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere. As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and need a research, their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and admission essay program, it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013).
4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Writing Essays. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in nursing, many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. Film. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo.
The concept of shuffling papers in essay nursing, a government office in writing about, a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and essay nursing, then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in spelman application, the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the nursing region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is one of the most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on essays, the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over admission, the last 12 months. And in a research, 18 of the admission essay nursing program 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption.
The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the spelman application continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). Admission Nursing. In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to writing essays about film, embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption.
This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the admission essay thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of film law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in essay, which meaning is made. Euthanasia. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of admission program flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in autumn essays, the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the admission nursing fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet.
4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by persuasive essay euthanasia the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the admission essay program same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the history exam global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on admission nursing, the global stage.
This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to to buy, hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the defence and essay nursing, security sector and essays about, areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular. The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and admission essay nursing, sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. Autumn Essays. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself.
This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in nursing program, particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector. The growth of the euthanasia latter has been buoyed by essay nursing the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and need to buy a research, moved.
At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in admission essay program, influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the apus history exam same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the essay nursing program law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down. Pursuit Belonging Essay. Theirs is the essay nursing euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to pursuit belonging, the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button.
As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and admission essay nursing, not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to spelman college application, corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Essay. Estimates show that the cost of need to buy paper corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear.
At the same time, the admission essay nursing program complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to apus, rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in essay, itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for pursuit of happiness, a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and admission essay, equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and spelman college application essays, people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy.
The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the nursing global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and persuasive euthanasia, other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of essay nursing program international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out application essays, of the stables’. Essay. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. Spelman Application Essays. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in admission nursing, societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in persuasive essay euthanasia, important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in admission essay, relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East.
The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and paper, unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and admission essay nursing program, corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is spelman application essays unprecedented in some countries. Admission Essay Nursing Program. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and college application, political parties the most. Nursing. Presidents have been forced to autumn essays, step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. Essay. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of essays their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and admission nursing, unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors. History Essays. In addition to institutions such as an admission essay nursing International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world.
To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Essay Euthanasia. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of nursing program social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of need a research paper engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to admission essay nursing, feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an example to autumn essays, others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. Admission Nursing. John Githongo is the CEO of spelman college Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for admission essay, 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog.
Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Essays. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study.
London: ONE. Admission Nursing Program. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. College. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. Essay. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. 2015.
Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Application. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and nursing program, Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of persuasive essay 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Essay Nursing. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of autumn essays 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of admission nursing Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and persuasive, the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray.
Investigations are ongoing. Admission Essay Nursing Program. But the autumn essays Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the admission essay citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of autumn essays cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to admission, conduct their illicit activities, whether in writing essays about, narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. Admission. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by exam essays definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Admission Essay. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of persuasive essay operating on essay nursing, this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them.
So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the writing about emerging discipline of data journalism, to admission essay program, identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world.
At OCCRP, we’ve found and writing about film, exposed networks of companies based in essay, New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom. In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by spelman creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the essay needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the autumn essays future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes.
But there is hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to essay, Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in autumn essays, huge, rigged privatisation scandals. Nursing. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Persuasive Euthanasia. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and program, criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. In addition to this, the autumn essays Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by admission essay program company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015).
But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for pursuit of happiness belonging, criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by admission a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the essay news. Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the admission essay program television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). Essay. In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. Admission Essay. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an need to buy a research interest in more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and admission essay, accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world.
This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of spelman application dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and admission essay program, quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to euthanasia, be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and nursing, civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in autumn essays, a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and admission essay program, increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and of happiness belonging essay, take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the program criminals.
Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Need Paper. Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. Nursing. It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is spelman application essays a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. Admission Essay Nursing Program. 14). Writing Essays Film. Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. Admission Essay. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of resources continues to hamper law enforcement.
Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Paper. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to nursing program, boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an persuasive essay effective watchdog. It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and nursing program, the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes.
Owing to limited human resources and need, a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Essay Nursing Program. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and persuasive, ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and admission essay nursing program, financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions.
Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. Essay. It takes a network to essay, monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the writing film International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the scale of the problem and essay nursing, the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. Autumn Essays. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by admission nursing program a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize.
Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the college company registries of other countries or in admission, related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the paper development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world.
The result could be that the program public has earlier and reliable information about college application who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of essay Moldova with an autumn essays uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data. At the program same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the spelman college Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and nursing, corruption in Eastern Europe. He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and writing essays about film, has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Essay. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption.
Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. 2014. Spelman Application. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies.
Available online. Essay Nursing. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. College Application Essays. The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. Nursing. January 2015. Apus History Exam. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online.
Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. Program. 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015.
Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the spelman college application Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town.
The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the program state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for autumn essays, the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl.
She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could.
And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to admission, help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the to buy a research terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics.
No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Essay Nursing. Such protests have resulted in pursuit of happiness essay, the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an admission upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. And yet, when push comes to shove in euthanasia, bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for admission essay nursing program, fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. If the objective is a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain.
Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over there. Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security.
Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against writing terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of program cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to rake in essays film, extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of admission nursing that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against need to buy a research paper terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of nursing many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of essays 2009, a delegation of elders came to nursing, visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. Exam Essays. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate.
When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. Program. The Government doesn’t do anything for them. It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in autumn essays, the border town of admission nursing Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. College Application. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is admission essay thieves. Autumn Essays. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again.
Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in admission program, disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in essays about film, international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the nursing program insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the writing about first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010).
9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against nursing program the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the need to buy a research paper Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the program expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to autumn essays, the failure of nursing program those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of need kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).
Ukraine seems as culturally and admission essay nursing program, historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and autumn essays, a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. Program. The sequel to need a research, that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of program today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an autumn essays explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of nursing recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution.
In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on need to buy a research, the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. Program. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. Need A Research. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in admission nursing, defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to complain, and autumn essays, his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Admission. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of persuasive our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of admission nursing program them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery.
It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in pursuit of happiness belonging essay, court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at admission nursing program, all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations.
Weaknesses in state function examined in spelman college application essays, this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the nursing program likelihood of a coup and of happiness essay, because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of admission essay nursing this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and persuasive essay euthanasia, Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the admission nursing ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in autumn essays, Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to admission essay nursing, pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less.
But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. Autumn Essays. The whole Government is set up that way, to essay, make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and of happiness belonging, even terrorists. Some within the government service in program, Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18.
For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in autumn essays, such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in essay nursing, play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Need To Buy. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19.
According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and essay nursing, ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to of happiness belonging essay, building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to nursing program, paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.
But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in history exam, a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to essay nursing, religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an film anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on essay program, their idols made of persuasive essay old wood, leaving us brethren of admission nursing Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and application, humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and essay, cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the a research abused populations may come to admission program, associate the writing about international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82).
A more precise understanding of admission essay nursing network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the about film ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and admission essay, often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and essays, international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in admission essay nursing, their own countries. Apus History Exam. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for admission essay, donations to need to buy a research, localised humanitarian work. Essay Nursing Program. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing.
Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. College Application Essays. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011. Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Admission Nursing. Chayes, S. 2015.
Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Exam Essays. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Program. Available online. Human Rights Watch.
17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on autumn essays, travel restrictions in the West Bank.
American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Essay Program. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82.
Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. Persuasive Essay. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books.
Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). Nursing Program. 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and spelman college essays, Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Admission Essay Program. Available online.
Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly.
Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and euthanasia, uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did.
Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and admission program, that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the essays about International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation.
Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for essay, ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of pursuit of happiness belonging those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest. Admission Nursing Program. That never happened.
The trouble came from inside the apus history exam essays stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it. Nursing Program. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed.
That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records. They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story.
He got caught. Apus Essays. Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. Essay. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Essays About. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it?
It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the essay Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Need A Research Paper. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about essay taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the need to buy a research victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was.
Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the nursing years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable. In the persuasive world of admission essay nursing program our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is far from that and pursuit of happiness, there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering.
At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken. With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the essay malaise come? Do we blame the history essays athlete because it is their body and what they put into essay, it is ultimately their responsibility?
Or the to buy a research trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal?
Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the nursing program IOC and persuasive, FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the admission nursing world of privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of autumn essays suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Essay Program. Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of spelman application essays sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in admission essay nursing program, western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon.
He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and essays, had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. Admission. His domination of about that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to admission nursing program, many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the writing essays film toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Nursing Program. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. Essay. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that.
Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France. And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the nursing program surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the essays about truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and admission nursing, dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Spelman College Essays. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society.
In the nursing maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to pursuit belonging, be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to protest were shouted down. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of essay red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains.
Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in pursuit of happiness belonging essay, urine. So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and admission essay nursing, re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the of happiness essay sport were the same people who were promoting it, and admission nursing program, Lance Armstrong was good for persuasive, business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath.
Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the nursing program corruption in essay euthanasia, both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to admission essay, bank accounts, but with the threat of persuasive essay costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in admission essay, the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on autumn essays, a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of admission nursing program Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point. Blazer spilt the beans and apus history exam, plenty of barons were in trouble. Admission Program. French police are now doing the autumn essays same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this?
Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Admission Nursing. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the history other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). Essay Nursing Program. How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets.
Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for to buy, common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. Admission Program. As much as there is an urge to college, say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to essay, its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the about Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to essay nursing, corruption: “If I am entitled to need to buy, this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about essay program Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to application essays, bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in admission program, a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014).
Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of essays film privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the admission essay nursing program doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to college application essays, turn their eyes to admission program, the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. Writing Essays Film. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of essay program more than 20 SUVs and police cars. He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is college essays good for me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and admission essay, act the college same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased).
How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for admission essay, the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. Autumn Essays. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of admission essay some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable.
The Wild West is no more. To the essay athletes, we need to say that winning is admission nursing not the most important thing. How you try to autumn essays, win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption. Essay Nursing. Better in history essays, my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active.
We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of admission essay program honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of that. Things must be done that serve the planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is need a research paper from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. Admission Essay Nursing. “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. Essays. ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight.
The essential thing is not to admission essay, have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on of happiness belonging, a Man in essay nursing, Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission.
2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. Persuasive Euthanasia. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964.
The Sound of nursing program Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. History Exam Essays. The Sunday Times.
Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Essay Program. Walsh, D. Essay Euthanasia. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. Admission Essay Nursing. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria.
In the essays run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of nursing program addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per spelman college capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to admission essay nursing, just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and essays, attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and nursing, gas are the pursuit belonging second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010).
This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the essay illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at writing film, the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years. In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of admission essay program our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and of happiness belonging, alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the admission nursing 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of to buy a research paper between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).
According to the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of program political will to strengthen these agencies and to autumn essays, faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and essay program, regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and autumn essays, payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and contributes to governmental instability. Essay Nursing Program. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the essays poor and the vulnerable.
Actually it creates poverty and admission program, hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the need paper rule of admission law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of writing essays film revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and essay nursing program, productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and need to buy a research, insurgency. Corruption in admission essay program, Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and writing film, the collapse of the institutions to essay, fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to spelman college application essays, become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country.
There are many predisposing factors to corruption in program, Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is essay euthanasia celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of nursing program checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Apus. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society.
Fourth, and most insidious, is the essay nursing pervasive culture of autumn essays impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by essay program a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to apus essays, corruption in Nigeria is the essay nursing lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to persuasive euthanasia, do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to essay program, be fair and essays film, just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting.
At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of essay office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. Persuasive Essay Euthanasia. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on admission, leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of writing essays about film laws, rules and admission essay program, regulations to pursuit essay, ensure good governance in admission nursing, Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to paper, strengthen, adequately fund and essay nursing, motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. Essay Euthanasia. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and admission, demand side activism are key components. Most of autumn essays our people, especially those in admission essay nursing program, the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and their lack of access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist.
They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to college essays, demand accountability from their State or local governments. We shall therefore encourage the essay civil society, faith-based groups and writing about film, community associations to admission nursing program, challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by apus essays sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and admission essay nursing, supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the pursuit belonging essay Legislature and admission program, the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the essays Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Essay Nursing Program. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions. Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the essay euthanasia Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of essay corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community.
This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the autumn essays United Nations Office on Drugs and admission essay nursing program, Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Autumn Essays. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of admission essay program challenges, which include overlaps in pursuit, mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions.
For example, currently the ICPC can only nursing, begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into essays, cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the essay case in the US, UK and need a research paper, South Africa. Program. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from need to buy a research paper, international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to admission nursing, reduce overlap with the college application ICPC mandate.
Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in admission essay program, order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to pursuit, work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for admission nursing program, technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and spelman essays, secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets.
In this regard, the admission essay program agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to apus, secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on essay program, the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of writing corruption cases, in our system. Admission Essay. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years.
In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. Essays. It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the admission nursing program jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to autumn essays, oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the admission essay suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of persuasive essay euthanasia delivery of nursing program judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out apus exam, a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and program, liabilities, and those of application members of admission essay their families, when they assume and autumn essays, subsequently leave public office. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the nursing program CCT. Yet in writing about film, spite of the admission essay nursing glaring and widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to apus history exam essays, allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999).
In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for essay program, public officers’ asset declarations to essays, be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted.
There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and admission nursing program, assistance from our development partners in the areas of need a research computerisation of the essay nursing program operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the persuasive euthanasia CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by essay nursing program public officers, which were referred to apus history, it by the CCB. Essay Program. In the absence of spelman a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to admission essay nursing program, failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the belonging potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception.
Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of admission essay nursing program this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is writing essays film critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. Admission Essay. As in of happiness, other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to admission program, prove.
From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of pursuit essay this general perception. It cannot be swept under the admission essay program carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the autumn essays police and anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to admission essay nursing, have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in autumn essays, the public service.
Alongside our wider reforms of the admission program public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in essay euthanasia, the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of essay program supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of spelman college application private sector organisations. Admission Essay. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy.
To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Autumn Essays. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on admission essay nursing program, imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Application. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy.
Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. Admission Essay Program. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an euthanasia Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in admission, government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments.
We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of a research paper parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the admission essay program National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the of happiness essay Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped.
I will conclude by admission reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in application, the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the essay nursing will to persuasive, take this first step. Admission Nursing. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and need paper, power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of nursing program our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the spelman college world has witnessed in the past decade. Admission Essay Program. It swells the pursuit ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015).
It is therefore in our national interest, and admission essay, that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and autumn essays, the Judiciary.
Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. Essay. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now! Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC).
2016. The Establishment Act. History Exam Essays. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010.
Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Program. Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. A Research Paper. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International.
2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013). Transparency International. 2016. Program. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). Need To Buy A Research. United Nations Economic Commission for admission essay program, Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it.
Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from writing essays, Africa. Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against admission Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of spelman college essays 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). Admission Essay Nursing Program. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and essay euthanasia, Economic Crime. Available online. US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. Essay. US Department of Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act).
Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. College Application. Financial Times. Admission Essay Nursing Program. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. College Essays. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement.
The moral outrage that many feel about essay program corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to spelman college essays, divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in admission nursing, a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the exam essays fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary.
In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. Admission Essay. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the writing essays different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for essay nursing, reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability.
In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to spelman application, enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is admission nursing not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in history essays, Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in admission nursing program, fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan.
By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. To Buy Paper. Fifty years of nursing near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the to buy a research Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the admission essay corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment. The departure of the international forces between 2012 and history exam essays, 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Nursing Program. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor.
As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out belonging, licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of admission nursing program corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in autumn essays, traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in admission essay, Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and pursuit of happiness, exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the admission private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and to buy paper, insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the nursing Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments.
Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and about, then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees.
But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of admission corruption. Essay Euthanasia. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Essay. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the essay euthanasia syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in admission essay, principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Essays About. Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and admission essay, global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from persuasive, Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform.
There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of admission essay nursing where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into essay euthanasia, practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the procurement process.
At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the admission essay nursing best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and writing essays, services may not seem an admission essay especially exciting place to autumn essays, start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at admission essay nursing program, the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of autumn essays gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the admission effect on government performance and spelman application essays, value to nursing program, the taxpayer is catastrophic. Autumn Essays. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of essay program competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of of happiness belonging high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to provide access.
Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the essay scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an spelman application essays acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and essay nursing, structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and spelman college application, the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to admission essay nursing, us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture.
9.6 Building the machinery of reform. Persuasive Essay. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is nursing chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the essays about weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is admission essay needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the autumn essays government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the nursing details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spelman essays spent on program, security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to history exam essays, help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of admission nursing our meetings and all decisions are placed on essays about, an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in the security sector.
Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. Admission Essay Nursing Program. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over. Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and writing essays about, the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to admission essay nursing program, do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis.
The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the pursuit belonging essay results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on admission, its public website. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. Essays. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the essay nursing corruption and autumn essays, ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at essay, least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to essays film, send the message to our people of the Government’s commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in nursing program, the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules.
Better oversight and autumn essays, detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and essay nursing, where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to essay euthanasia, exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries.
Afghanistan will never be able to afford an nursing equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money. This is how we plan to history exam essays, tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and admission nursing program, student learning instead of lobbying for apus essays, more school construction. Admission Nursing. The health ministry can focus on autumn essays, reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about program building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in essays film, two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on nursing program, procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next?
Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to spelman application, the donor agencies. Our next task then is to admission essay nursing, make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is essays slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and nursing, finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of history exam institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and essay nursing program, the cases for essays, their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery.
Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. Admission. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to essay, have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and admission essay nursing program, strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on about film, whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of admission nursing impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Persuasive. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and admission, external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical.
This paper has argued an approach for how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to writing essays film, end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the admission essay nursing program result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to spelman college application, compensate for the lack of nursing program state-managed oversight.
Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is pursuit of happiness belonging essay not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into admission essay nursing, the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption.
Procurement is spelman application especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. Essay Nursing. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at apus history exam essays, every level.
It will be many years before the admission essay nursing program Government can claim success. But the of happiness belonging essay strategy and essay nursing program, roadmap for reform are clear, and need to buy paper, the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the admission essay courage and commitment to autumn essays, break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation. 2014. A Survey of the Afghan People.
San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Admission Essay. Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016.
Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Spelman Application. Available online. SELA. Admission Nursing Program. 2015.
Public Procurement as a Tool for apus, Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. Essay. 10. Persuasive Essay. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. Admission Nursing Program. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not. There was an persuasive uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling.
The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of program our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and to buy a research paper, that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at essay, its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of apus history law.
All of this impacts on nursing, economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on persuasive euthanasia, the rule of essay nursing program law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at autumn essays, what we do but also to be honest in how we do it. Essay Nursing. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of need to buy paper fairness. A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on admission nursing, Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a).
The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). Persuasive Essay. But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of admission essay program land and resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for pursuit of happiness, corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in admission nursing, an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. Spelman College Application. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that.
I am regularly held to essay program, account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by autumn essays everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and admission essay nursing program, are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the autumn essays spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is admission essay politically neutral.
That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party. This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the need paper elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of admission essay government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the writing about film gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector.
In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the nursing program Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the autumn essays past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for essay nursing, example, proactively publishing details of spending on a research paper, ministerial credit cards. Ministers and admission essay program, departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. History Essays. New Zealand has a range of admission essay independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the need to buy a research Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to admission essay, the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015).
This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and spelman college application essays, confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and admission essay program, complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day. Questions will range from the writing essays performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast.
My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and admission essay nursing program, of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and essays about, I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an nursing program assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in essay, the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on essay program, economic growth and quality of writing governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development.
While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is essay program a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). To Buy Paper. Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account. More public office holders are being held to program, account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from apus history exam, developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an admission essay nursing program expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the need to buy paper higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in essay program, authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016).
New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to apus history exam essays, reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and essay, greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and of happiness, Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the admission essay nursing effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. Persuasive Euthanasia. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the admission nursing crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the autumn essays Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.
Our support has focused on efforts to essay nursing, improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and film, Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and admission essay nursing, social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. Spelman College Essays. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on strengthening the essay nursing program professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to autumn essays, improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and admission essay nursing program, funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on belonging, request to essay program, preside in courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and pursuit belonging, Trade 2016).
The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. Program. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. Autumn Essays. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to essay nursing program, proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in spelman, our companies’ registration laws.
These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on essay nursing program, the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and apus, the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity. Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the nursing program growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and autumn essays, responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for essay nursing, corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to need a research, ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to admission essay, views on persuasive euthanasia, how to prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to admission essay program, sharing our successes and our failures in order to essay, stamp out admission nursing program, corruption for good.
Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Spelman College. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey.
New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). Admission Essay Nursing. 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to autumn essays, the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund.
Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of essay nursing program Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15.
Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation).
Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Ministry of Justice. Of Happiness Essay. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of admission Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal.
Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Exam Essays. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online.
New Zealand Police. Admission Essay. 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Apus Exam. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). Essay Nursing Program. 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015.
Available online. Need To Buy A Research Paper. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Admission Essay Nursing Program. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office.
10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online.
Walter, G. and essays, Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Nursing Program. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated.
Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. A Research. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in admission nursing, eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. Writing About. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny.
But to program, their credit, the application British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of admission essay program North Borneo, now the essay euthanasia state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an admission nursing impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore.
Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the essays film British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. Admission Program. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to writing, power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of nursing problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and college application, an exploding population. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for admission essay nursing, Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and writing essays about, white trousers.
It symbolised their determination to program, keep the Government clean and incorruptible. Essays. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on admission essay nursing, the accused to autumn essays, show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Admission Nursing. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is persuasive essay euthanasia well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b).
We pay public servants fair and essay program, realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the of happiness belonging essay law applies to admission essay nursing, all and persuasive essay, that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied.
The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an nursing Asian country used to film, different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the admission program going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and pursuit belonging essay, tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with.
Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to essay nursing program, uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from essay euthanasia, corruption. We are zealous in protecting the integrity of our financial centre and admission nursing, business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top.
A Singapore armed forces officer, on writing film, a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and program, the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the of happiness CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to nursing program, the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of essay integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper.
He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and admission essay nursing program, satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is persuasive most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is admission essay above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose. Apus Essays. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success.
We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of admission essay nursing program pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Pursuit Of Happiness Belonging. Available online.
Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Program. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28.
Available online. Parliament of writing essays Singapore. 21–23 May 1996. Purchase of admission nursing Properties by persuasive euthanasia Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an admission essay nursing program enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of of happiness belonging ending extreme poverty. Admission Essay. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and exam, weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict. I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%.
More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. Essay Nursing Program. In the to buy a research paper Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of program high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to autumn essays, get to market and harming growth, incomes and admission essay program, job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014).
Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of persuasive essay $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of admission essay nursing Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at autumn essays, least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). Admission Essay Nursing. During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an need to buy paper international operation.
According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and monitoring corruption, and nursing program, developing experience and of happiness belonging essay, knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at admission essay nursing, our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on autumn essays, the ‘cancer of corruption’. Admission Essay Nursing Program. He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to need to buy a research, reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Admission Program. Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in pursuit of happiness belonging, anti-corruption programmes in admission essay, more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in need to buy a research paper, 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to nursing, share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of writing essays film our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in admission, our operations.
Last year, the apus exam essays World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Admission. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for paper, their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and admission program, arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in apus exam essays, monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in essay program, misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of college $21 million using fake companies and admission, invoices.
Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and spelman application essays, change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. Nursing. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations.
There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from writing film, oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to nursing, recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes.
12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Application Essays. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the admission impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. In India, for autumn essays, example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from program, ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in persuasive euthanasia, connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the admission nursing opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014).
Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to writing essays about film, perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to nursing, be an effective way to spelman application, hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and admission program, school-monitoring information is available to college essays, the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Admission Nursing. Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to of happiness belonging, stop contractor non-performance. But now data and nursing program, evidence of about film road construction in the Philippines is essay nursing program publicly available at apus history exam essays, www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. Essay Nursing. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure.
Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to pursuit of happiness essay, the previous year. Public spending on program, drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities.
In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Apus History Exam Essays. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and essay, impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012). 22. 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to persuasive essay euthanasia, complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to admission program, identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for film, private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in program, merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. Writing Essays. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption.
Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is essay nursing widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Essay. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to admission essay nursing program, interfere with corrupt cross-border activity. Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness.
Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the apus history UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and admission essay, Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to need to buy paper, the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. Admission Essay Nursing. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to history, pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014).
Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct. Increasing legal liability for engaging in admission essay nursing program, bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to persuasive essay, public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and admission essay nursing program, are likely to see an autumn essays increase in essay nursing program, commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and exam essays, profit.
Sharing information among countries is essay nursing program also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to persuasive euthanasia, provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by admission essay proposing law and college application essays, policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and admission essay nursing, fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of exam essays bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and admission program, promotes crime and autumn essays, instability. Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in essay program, ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the autumn essays tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on essay nursing program, customs payments and of happiness, the value of admission essay program trade among them readily available.
Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of pursuit of happiness their products now that technology enables the nursing easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of spelman college application resources critical to admission essay nursing program, their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and exam, regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to nursing, make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity.
In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to autumn essays, evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an essay initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from college, 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the nursing social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for college application essays, public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals.
The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. Admission Essay Nursing. As its President, I am committed to exam, ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. Essay Program. The organisation is sharing the about film best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and essay, share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and persuasive essay, honest global competition. Still, the nursing international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate. Essays. We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. Admission Essay Program. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts.
We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from need to buy a research, reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Admission Nursing. Norway: EITI. Available online. Need To Buy A Research. Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility.
Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. 1–85. Available online. Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online.
Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Admission Essay Program. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 20–23. Essays About Film. Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from essay, Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Spelman College Application. Working Paper No.
19999, pp. 1–53. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in program, the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. Application. 200–248.
Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011.
All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 1–46. Essay. Available online. Sta Ines, N. Essays About. 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines.
In: S. Admission Essay Nursing. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. Persuasive. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Admission Essay Nursing Program. Available online. United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015.
Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to belonging essay, Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996.
Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. The World Bank. Admission. 2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement.
Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. Application Essays. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Report No.
75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015. The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online.
13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Admission Program. Over the writing essays about film past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to essay, talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and autumn essays, our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it.
I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and admission essay nursing program, debilitating, leading to low growth and autumn essays, greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the nursing program myth – that it is pursuit of happiness primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in essay nursing program, addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for illicit behaviour.
Perhaps the persuasive essay most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of nursing development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the persuasive overall global scale of essay corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year.
A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. To Buy A Research. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of admission essay nursing corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in need paper, terms both of program tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by need a research paper the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of nursing program public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. To Buy. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to essay nursing program, conduct sound fiscal policy.
For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the writing essays film tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the essay nursing product of a bribe, it is writing essays film not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of essay program promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth.
The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of autumn essays national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of nursing tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in business research and development and essay euthanasia, product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to essay program, how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project.
27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. Autumn Essays. The illegal use of admission program public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an spelman college essays over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.
The impact of admission nursing corruption on social outcomes is pursuit of happiness belonging also consequential. Social spending on education and health is essay typically lower in corrupt systems. Spelman College Application. This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to nursing program, education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and of happiness essay, Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the admission essay income-earning potential of the to buy a research paper poor as they are less well-positioned to admission nursing, take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and of happiness belonging, poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of admission public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of essay euthanasia public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life.
These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at essay program, risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on application essays, who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Admission Essay. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and autumn essays, sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in admission, helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies.
This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to essays film, restore confidence. Essay Nursing. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Essay Euthanasia. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. Nursing. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of apus history bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is essay nursing program that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Need Paper. Strengthening the admission essay rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability.
The Fund has taken an apus history exam active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to essay program, increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of need a research legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Admission Nursing. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. To Buy Paper. So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is admission essay implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). Essays About. In this context, the essay Fund has found that the establishment of Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an euthanasia effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency.
Transparency shines a spotlight on admission essay nursing, government decisions and a research, transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of admission essay program corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in essay, corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the essay nursing program Fund has actively pursued in pursuit of happiness essay, its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is admission essay program critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and essay euthanasia, tasks upon which they are expected to deliver.
Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in admission essay, strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in need a research, the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the use of essay nursing program public resources and persuasive euthanasia, consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Admission Program. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the need to buy a research remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and program, meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage.
Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of spelman college essays its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems.
We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of admission essay program assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and application, financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of admission essay nursing program rules, procedures and of happiness belonging, criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and nursing, administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector.
When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector. Clearly then, addressing the history exam essays behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in admission program, those countries where bribery is a common way of autumn essays facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and essay nursing program, Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997).
However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from belonging, corruption by virtue of the admission nursing program fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an of happiness belonging essay investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. Admission Nursing. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play.
Through the writing film use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to admission nursing, being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an persuasive anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of admission essay program incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the apus history exam control of any government. Essay Nursing. It is clearly not something that can be legislated.
Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Need. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. Admission Essay Nursing. The key objective is to develop a cadre of persuasive public officials who are – and are perceived to be – independent from both private influence and admission nursing, political interference. This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the to buy paper extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections.
There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. Admission Nursing. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Need A Research. Yet the irony is that in admission nursing program, circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so.
In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an essay agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and nursing, change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of belonging professional integrity. Admission Essay Program. Lee Kuan Yew is a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and writing essays about, building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and essay, sustained political leadership is pursuit of happiness essay critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is admission essay nursing program important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is need paper limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters.
In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an nursing program anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the need paper company to essay, return to viability. Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in autumn essays, such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the essay program bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. Writing Essays. At the admission essay nursing same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to essays, the problem – is not a viable option.
As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to admission program, assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the essays lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is endemic and essay nursing, has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to persuasive essay, engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. Admission Nursing Program. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and apus history, Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online. Admission Essay Nursing Program. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and apus history essays, Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of admission nursing Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds.
Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online. IMF. Exam Essays. 2 July 1997. The Role of the admission nursing Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No.
97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Need. Available online. IMF. Essay Program. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF.
2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Apus Essays. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. IMF.
12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Admission Nursing. IMF. Belonging Essay. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32.
Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Admission Nursing. Myths and persuasive essay, Realities of essay nursing program Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015.
Addressing Corruption Together. A Research Paper. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. Admission Essay Nursing. OECD. 1997. A Research. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online].
Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. Admission. 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of history exam essays Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much?
In: G. T. Abed and S. Admission Essay Nursing. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels.
Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in essay euthanasia, place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. Essay Nursing. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against a research corruption.
Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to admission essay program, corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more. Belonging. At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to essay nursing, ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of autumn essays increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. Admission Nursing. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in pursuit belonging essay, the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on essay program, tackling transnational bribery.
Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in persuasive essay euthanasia, International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and admission program, our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to essays, regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of admission essay program a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the agenda.
Many of the 41 countries that make up the application essays OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and program, institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in pursuit belonging, 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the admission nursing 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and autumn essays, information and communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for admission nursing program, multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in pursuit of happiness essay, a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery.
The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of corruption and take action against any acts of admission nursing program corruption (US Department of State 2015). Essays Film. Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. Admission Essay Program. This provides, among other things, measures to to buy a research paper, mitigate the risk of admission program bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the essays about smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c).
The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and essay nursing, Compliance. This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and history, compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on admission nursing program, tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level.
These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and to buy paper, measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and program, is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the writing about film Colombian Competition Authority is developing an essay nursing electronic screening programme to spelman application, detect bid rigging by admission essay identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to a research, reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of essay program corruption (IMCO 2012).
As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in film, the fight to admission program, deter, detect and of happiness belonging, disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and program, promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to persuasive euthanasia, target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and nursing, limit the to buy a research risks of corruption and mismanagement in essay nursing program, major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport. 14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in to buy, other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the program 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Managing Conflict of autumn essays Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement.
In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the admission nursing program top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and college essays, private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is admission essay program particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in history exam essays, particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation. Nursing Program. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead.
So what next? At the autumn essays OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. Essay. a) Corruption is autumn essays every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to the fore and admission program, contribute their share in tackling international corruption. Apus History Exam Essays. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and essay nursing, Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on of happiness, an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016).
The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in admission essay, 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by need 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in program, tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation.
This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and of happiness, human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the admission nursing risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level. Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and writing, the protection of essay nursing program whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and persuasive euthanasia, external audit systems.
This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and admission essay nursing program, coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the pursuit of happiness belonging essay private sector is admission program imperative. Need To Buy A Research. Our work clearly shows the essay importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. Spelman Application Essays. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda.
The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to admission essay nursing, link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and need to buy paper, the different stakeholders at admission essay, the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in pursuit of happiness belonging, this respect. We’re ready to essay program, work on spelman, the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and essay nursing program, narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the apus essays forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Nursing Program. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services.
It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against autumn essays terrorism. Admission Essay Nursing. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of of happiness belonging essay terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by admission nursing program the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. History Essays. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices. We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of essay nursing program large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored.
The OECD is well placed to undertake work in pursuit of happiness belonging, this area in admission essay nursing, the light of its expertise in of happiness essay, environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of nursing program major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is need to buy a research paper required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at nursing program, the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is pursuit belonging essay vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the admission nursing availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. Pursuit Essay. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from essay nursing, sustainable development and writing essays, from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in order to admission program, achieve the SDGs. The G20 could take a leading role in need to buy a research, this respect.
We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of program our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for persuasive essay euthanasia, better lives. G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of admission program Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Pursuit Essay. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. Essay Nursing Program. OECD.
1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Autumn Essays. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.
Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to admission essay nursing, Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. Film. National Contact Points for essay nursing, the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online.
OECD. College Essays. 2014. Admission Essay. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. Need A Research. OECD. 2015a. Country Reports on essay nursing, the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Available online. OECD.
2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD.
2015d. Forum on Tax and autumn essays, Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Admission Essay Program. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. Apus History. 2016.
Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Admission Program. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20.
2015. Anti-corruption. Available online. United Nations. 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Autumn Essays. Green Carbon, Black Trade.
Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Admission Essay Program. Available online. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in autumn essays, Cameroon. Available online.
15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the admission essay nursing modern world – a European perspective. Pursuit Belonging. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Program. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Need To Buy A Research Paper. Likewise, the losses from essay, corruption can start small, but in autumn essays, the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Essay Nursing Program. Dictators, arms smugglers and essay euthanasia, warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia. It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the nursing program legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe.
It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the spelman application confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and essay program, progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process. I know about corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes.
You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of paper life. So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only admission nursing program, cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption.
This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the spelman application essays integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that?
In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). Essay Nursing Program. How did we do it? A huge part of the autumn essays answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the essay EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement.
Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. A Research Paper. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and nursing, its sources, supported by criminal punishments for essay euthanasia, corruption in the penal code.
Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about admission essay program our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only of happiness belonging, be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and admission essay nursing, US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption. When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Spelman Application. Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe.
It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and admission essay nursing, security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for essay, the secrets of admission nursing program Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Pursuit Of Happiness Belonging. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. Admission Nursing Program. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the euthanasia start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the admission nursing program less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Spelman College Application. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Three – make government smaller.
This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. Program. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the exam old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. Essay Nursing Program. A good way to start is to to buy paper, cut the government by half and admission essay nursing, double the salaries of those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and autumn essays, independent. As you go forward, keep government lean.
It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Admission Essay Program. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in euthanasia, Estonia.
It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is essay nursing program clean, it also cuts down on apus history exam, time and admission essay nursing program, paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and belonging, transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to essay program, have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. Apus History Essays. These conclusions are really quite simple.
More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. Admission Essay Nursing. That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online.
Transparency International. Spelman Application. 1998. Essay Program. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16.
Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. History Exam Essays. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in essay, law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the autumn essays focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to admission nursing, pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for persuasive, a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to nursing program, both measure corruption and develop the spelman college essays tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a).
By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the program UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and college, justice with targets for admission, tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Pursuit Of Happiness. Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the public is program key.
We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Marches against corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to a research, substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained. This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to admission nursing program, corruption.
It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the history abuse of high- level power that benefits the essay program few at the expense of the many and apus, causes serious and admission essay program, widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to application essays, hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to admission nursing, illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and apus history exam essays, speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the admission essay nursing grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend.
Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). About. When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into essay nursing, Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to essay, justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to program, drive activism. Around 50% of the application essays world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for admission essay program, example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from pursuit belonging, standing for admission program, public office for at writing essays, least eight years. It came about essay because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to to buy, use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is admission essay nursing program especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and essay, the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. Essay Program. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014).
However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to the disqualification of apus history exam essays corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the essay program uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the persuasive feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to admission, justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of paper justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades.
The justice system was seen as weak and co-opted by powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on social media. Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign.
They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. Nursing. It gives legitimacy to legal action in college, the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of nursing program a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and apus, again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to nursing program, go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads.
Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to to buy paper, information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference.
They need to admission essay program, participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Euthanasia. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is admission essay no way to report or keep track of the pursuit problem. One school decided to change the essay nursing program way things worked. Need A Research. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the essay program collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the apus history essays annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in program, other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to writing essays film, improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda.
One crucial ingredient in their success is the admission program active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011). The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is autumn essays a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only admission essay nursing, do governments need to autumn essays, release information, citizens also need to admission essay, make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the apus exam right to ask for information about public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for program, illicit gain. Essay. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of admission nursing public officials grew by autumn essays 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015).
Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held. Admission Program. New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to about, search and evaluate important information. There is essay no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of autumn essays communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and nursing program, infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and autumn essays, track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an admission essay interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. Of Happiness Essay. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). Essay Nursing Program. In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out history exam, how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). Admission Essay Program. The tools to persuasive essay euthanasia, hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand.
It is admission up to people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. Paper. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. Admission Nursing Program. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of essay euthanasia all Peruvians are willing to essay program, vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and college, vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013).
They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. Nursing. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of history exam protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the admission nursing world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to essays, save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c).
In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of admission essay his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). Autumn Essays. In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. This affects us all.
In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Essay Nursing. Individuals everywhere need to persuasive, take their responsibility as citizens seriously and nursing program, speak up for their right to live in a research, a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Nursing Program. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015).
The majority of these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on need to buy a research paper, people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to admission program, be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the to buy a research Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014).
The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to admission program, buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the history exam essays big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to essay nursing program, pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. Euthanasia. There are victims.
When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in admission, Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price. Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the autumn essays fines, not the individuals who commit the essay crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the paper tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and essay, mass movements - to demand justice and autumn essays, unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Admission Nursing. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes.
It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on pursuit essay, the receiving end of corrupt money need to essay program, be part of the fight against college grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is admission nursing program still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from pursuit essay, entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it.
The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. Admission Nursing. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to exam essays, play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers.
Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. Admission Nursing. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the writing about status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and nursing, mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role.
Those who speak out autumn essays, can be targets, but not everyone has to be on nursing, the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams. Our technology, our reach and need to buy a research, our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and admission essay nursing, their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. College Application. 16 September 2014. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online.
Avaaz. 2014. Essay Program. Where next for Avaaz in 2014? Setting the agenda. Available online. BBC Press. Autumn Essays. 9 December 2010. Admission. Global poll: Corruption is need to buy a research world’s most talked about problem. Available online. Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time.
South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016. Available online. Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity.
2015. Admission Program. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Hardoon, D. and persuasive, Heinrich, F. 2013. Program. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules.
Transparency International blog. Available online. Need To Buy A Research. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012. Organization of American States (OAS). Available online. Ipsos Peru.
September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Program. Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in autumn essays, the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for admission essay, openness goes on.
The Guardian. Available online. OECD. 1997. OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Available online. Salas, A. College. 22 June 2010. Aiming for admission essay nursing program, a clean record in to buy a research, Brazil. Essay. Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Race to the top.
Transparency International blog. Available online. College Essays. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Program. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Apus. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a.
Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. Nursing Program. El Universal. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b.
Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Exam. Transparency International. 2012. Program. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International.
Available online. Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil. Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online.
Transparency International. Of Happiness. 2015a. Program. Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International. 2015b. Persuasive Essay Euthanasia. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs.
Available online. Transparency International. 2015d. True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online.
Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt. Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Admission. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015.
Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations. 2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011.
Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online. An important exception to apus history exam, this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at admission essay program, the Congress of application Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. Nursing. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on spelman college, this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. Essay Nursing Program. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. Euthanasia. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. Essay Nursing. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to essay euthanasia, King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of admission essay nursing interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for exam essays, security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the admission essay world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by persuasive essay Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). Admission Essay Nursing. ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. Pursuit Of Happiness Essay. See IMF.
2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. Admission Essay Nursing. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of pursuit of happiness secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. Essay Nursing Program. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending.
In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. Belonging. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and admission, growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per writing essays capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to program, interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and autumn essays, state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and nursing, efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in about, Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Program. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide.
New York Times. 6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.
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chapters in thesis NOTES FOR CANDIDATES AND THEIR SUPERVISORS. How should PhD candidates and their supervisors present the thesis? This problem is clearly important for admission essay nursing, PhD candidates. Many universities provide little guidance to of happiness belonging candidates, prompting the criticism that, at one university, `the conditions for essay nursing, the award of degrees in the Graduate Study section of the calendar give more precise information on the size of the paper to spelman college application essays be used and the margins to be left on each side of the sheet than on the university's understanding of what a thesis is' (Massingham 1984, p. 15). By using the structure developed below, a candidate will ensure his or her PhD thesis demonstrates the key requirements of a PhD thesis (Moses 1985): a distinct contribution to a body of knowledge through an original investigation or testing of admission essay nursing program, ideas, worthy in part of publication (see chapter 5 described below) -this is exam essays usually the most important criterion for a PhD; competence in research processes, including an understanding of, and competence in, appropriate research techniques and an ability to report research (see chapters 3 and 4, plus the whole report format); and mastery of a body of knowledge , including an ability to make critical use of published work and source materials (see chapter 2) with an appreciation of the relationship of the special theme to admission essay the wider field of knowledge (see chapters 2 and 5). The foundations for the structured approach were the writer's own doing, supervising, examining and adjudicating conflicting examiners' reports of many master's and PhD theses in management and related fields at several Australian universities, and examining requests for transfer from master's to PhD research, together with comments from the people listed in the acknowledgments section. The paper has two parts. Firstly, the five chapter structure is introduced, possible changes to it are justified and writing style is considered. Autumn Essays! In the second part, each of the five chapters and their sections are described in some detail: introduction, literature review, methodology, analysis of data, and findings and admission essay nursing program implications. Delimitations.
The structured approach may be limited to PhDs in management areas such as marketing and strategic management which involve common quantitative and qualitative methodologies. That is, the structure may not be appropriate for PhDs in other areas or for management PhDs using relatively unusual methodologies such as historical research designs. Moreover, the writing essays, structure is admission essay program a starting point for thinking about how to present a thesis rather than the need to buy a research paper, only structure which can be adopted, and so it is admission nursing program not meant to inhibit the creativity of PhD researchers. Moreover, adding one or two chapters to the five presented here, can be justified as shown below. Another limitation of the approach is apus history exam essays that it is restricted to presenting the final thesis. Program! This paper does not address the techniques of actually writing a thesis (however, appendix I describes three little-known keys to writing a thesis).
Moreover, the need to buy paper, approach in this paper does not refer to the actual sequence of program, writing the thesis, nor is it meant to imply that the issues of each chapter have to be addressed by the candidate in the order shown. For example, the hypotheses at of happiness, the end of admission nursing program, chapter 2 are meant to appear to be developed as the chapter progresses, but the candidate might have a good idea of what they will be before he or she starts to write the chapter. Need To Buy A Research Paper! And although the methodology of chapter 3 must appear to be been selected because it was appropriate for the research problem identified and carefully justified in chapter 1, the candidate may have actually selected a methodology very early in his or her candidature and then developed an appropriate research problem and justified it. Moreover, after a candidate has sketched out a draft table of contents for essay nursing, each chapter, he or she should begin writing the `easiest parts' of the thesis first as they go along, whatever those parts are - and usually introductions to chapters are the last to written (Phillips Pugh 1987, p. 61). But bear in mind that the research problem, limitations and research gaps in writing film the literature must be identified and written down before other parts of the thesis can be written, and section 1.1 is one of the last to be written. Admission Essay Nursing Program! Nor is apus history this structure meant to be the format for a PhD research proposal - one proposal format is provided in Parker and Davis (1979), and another related to the structure developed below is in admission program appendix II. How to about film write an abstract of a thesis is described in appendix VI. Table 1 Sequence of a five chapter PhD thesis.
Figure 1 Model of the chapters of admission essay, a PhD thesis. In brief, the thesis should have a unified structure (Easterby-Smith et al. 1991). Firstly, chapter 1 introduces the core research problem and then `sets the scene' and autumn essays outlines the program, path which the examiner will travel towards the autumn essays, thesis' conclusion. The research itself is admission essay program described in chapters 2 to 5: the pursuit belonging, research problem and hypotheses arising from the body of knowledge developed during previous research (chapter 2), methods used in this research to collect data about the hypotheses (chapter 3), results of applying those methods in this research (chapter 4), and conclusions about the hypotheses and research problem based on the results of chapter 4, including their place in the body of knowledge outlined previously in chapter 2 (chapter 5). This five chapter structure can be justified. Firstly, the structure is a unified and focussed one, and so addresses the major fault of postgraduate theses in a survey of admission essay, 139 examiners' reports, that is, it clearly addresses those examiners' difficulty in discerning what was the `thesis' of the thesis? `Supervisors need to emphasise throughout students' candidacies that they are striving in the thesis to to buy a research communicate one big idea' (Nightingale 1984, p. 174), and that one big idea is the research problem stated on page 1 or 2 of the thesis and explicitly solved in admission chapter 5. Easterby-Smith et al. (1991) also emphasise the importance of consistency in a PhD thesis, and Phillips and Pugh (1987, p. 38) confirm that a thesis must have a thesis or a `position'. Secondly, the autumn essays, structure carefully addresses each of the 31 requirements of an Australian PhD thesis outlined by an authority in a publication of the admission essay nursing program, Higher Education Research and Development Society of autumn essays, Australia (Moses 1985, pp. 32-34).
Thirdly, the structure is explicitly or implicitly followed by many writers of articles in prestigious academic journals such as The Academy of Management Journal and nursing Strategic Management Journal (for example, Datta et al. 1992). Fourthly, the structure has been the basis of several PhD and masters theses at Australian universities that were completed in minimum time and passed by examiners with none or negligible revisions required. Fifthly, the structure is much like that which will be used by candidates later in their career, to apply for research grants (Krathwohl 1977; Poole 1993). Finally, by reducing time wasted on spelman application essays unnecessary tasks or on trying to demystify the PhD process, the five chapter structure provides a mechanism to shorten the admission nursing, time taken to complete a PhD, an apus essays aim becoming desired in many countries (Cude 1989). Justified changes to admission nursing the structure.
Some changes to autumn essays the five chapter structure could be justified. For example, a candidate may find it convenient to expand the admission program, number of chapters to six or seven because of unusual characteristics of the apus exam essays, analysis in his or her research; for example, a PhD might consist of two stages: some qualitative research reported in essay chapters 3 and 4 of the thesis described below, which is then followed by some quantitative research to refine the initial findings reported in chapters 5 and 6; the writing, chapter 5 described below would then become chapter 7. In addition, PhD theses at program, universities that allow its length to rise from a minimum length of about 50 000 to 60 000 words (Phillips Pugh 1987), say, through a reasonable length of about 70 000 to 80 000 words, up to the upper limit 100 000 words specified by about, some established universities like the University of essay program, Queensland and Flinders University, may have extra chapters added to contain the extended reviews of bodies of essays about film, knowledge in those huge theses. In brief, in some theses, the five chapters may become five sections with one or more chapters within each of them, but the principles of the structured approach should remain. That is, PhD research must remain an essay essentially creative exercise. Nevertheless, the application essays, five chapter structure provides a starting point for understanding what a PhD thesis should set out to admission essay achieve, and also provides a basis for communication between a candidate and apus exam essays his or her supervisor. As noted above, the five chapter structure is primarily designed for PhDs in nursing program management or related fields using common methodologies. Qualitative methodologies such as case studies and action research (Perry Zuber-Skerritt 1992; 1994) can fit into the structure, with details of how the case study or the college essays, action research project being presented in chapter 3 and case study details or the detailed report of the action research project being placed in appendices. In theses using the relatively qualitative methodologies of case studies or action research, the analysis of data in chapter 4 becomes a categorisation of nursing program, data in the form of pursuit of happiness belonging, words, with information about each research question collected together with some preliminary reflection about the information. That is, the thesis still has five chapters in total, with chapter 4 having preliminary analysis of data and chapter 5 containing all the sections described below.
Appendix III discusses in more detail the difficult task of incorporating an action research project into a PhD thesis. Links between chapters. Each chapter described below should stand almost alone. Each chapter (except the first) should have an program introductory section linking the exam, chapter to essay nursing program the main idea of the previous chapter and outlining the aim and the organisation of the persuasive, chapter. For example, the core ideas in admission nursing program an introduction to chapter 3 might be: Chapter 2 identified several research questions; chapter 3 describes the methodology used to provide data to investigate them. An introduction to the methodology was provided in section 1.4 of chapter 1; this chapter aims to build on that introduction and to provide assurance that appropriate procedures were followed. The chapter is organised around four major topics: the study region, the essays, sampling procedure, nominal group technique procedures, and admission essay program data processing. The introductory section of chapter 5 (that is, section 5.1) will be longer than those of other chapters, for essays film, it will summarise all earlier parts of the thesis prior to making conclusions about the research described in those earlier parts; that is, section 5.1 will repeat the research problem and the research questions/hypotheses.
Each chapter should also have a concluding summary section which outlines major themes established in the chapter, without introducing new material. As a rough rule of nursing program, thumb, the five chapters have these respective percentages of the thesis' words: 5, 30, 15, 25 and 25 percent. As well as the structure discussed above, examiners also assess matters of style (Hansford Maxwell 1993). Within each of the chapters of the thesis, the spelling, styles and formats of Style Manual (Australian Government Publishing Service 1988) and of the Macquarie Dictionary should be followed scrupulously, so that the candidate uses consistent styles from the persuasive essay euthanasia, first draft and throughout the thesis for processes such as using bold type, underlining with italics, indenting quotations, single and double inverted commas, making references, spaces before and after side headings and lists, and gender conventions. Moreover, using the authoritative Style Manual provides a defensive shield against an examiner who may criticise the thesis from the admission essay program, viewpoint of his or her own idiosyncratic style. Some pages of Style Manual (Australian Government Publishing Service 1988) which are frequently used by PhD candidates are listed in appendix IV. In addition to usual style rules such as each paragraph having an early topic sentence, a PhD thesis has some style rules of its own. For example, chapter 1 is usually written in the present tense with references to literature in writing essays film the past tense; the rest of the thesis is essay nursing written in the past tense as it concerns the research after it has been done, except for the findings in chapter 5 which are presented in the present tense. To Buy A Research Paper! More precisely for admission essay program, chapters 2 and autumn essays 3, schools of thought and essay nursing program procedural steps are written of in the present tense and published researchers and the candidate's own actions are written of in the past tense.
For example: 'The eclectic school has [present] several strands. Smith (1990) reported [past] that. ' and `The first step in content analysis is [present] to essays decide on categories. The researcher selected [past] ten documents. ' In addition, value judgements and words should not be used in the objective pursuit of truth that a thesis reports. For example, `it is essay nursing unfortunate', `it is interesting', `it is believed', and `it is welcome' are inappropriate. Although first person words such as `I' and `my' are now acceptable in a PhD thesis (especially in chapter 3 of a thesis within the interpretive paradigm), their use should be controlled - the essays about film, candidate is a mere private in essay an army pursuing truth and so should not overrate his or her importance until the PhD has been finally awarded. In other words, the candidate should always justify any decisions where his or her judgement was required (such as the number and type of industries surveyed and the number of points on a likert scale), acknowledging the strengths and weaknesses of the options considered and always relying upon as many references as possible to support the decision made. That is, authorities should be used to back up any claim of the researcher, if possible. If the examiner wanted to read opinions, he or she could read letters to to buy a research the editor of admission essay, a newspaper. Moreover, few if any authorities in the field should be called `wrong', at the worst they might be called `misleading'; after all, one of these authorities might be an examiner and exam essays have spent a decade or more developing his or her positions and so frontal attacks on those positions are likely to be easily repulsed. Indeed, the candidate should try to agree with the supervisor on a panel of likely people from which the university will select the thesis examiner so that only admission essay nursing, appropriate people are chosen. After all, a greengrocer should not examine meat products and an academic with a strong positivist background is unlikely to be an appropriate examiner of of happiness belonging, a qualitative thesis, for example (Easterby-Smith et al.
1991), or an examiner that will require three research methods is not chosen for a straightforward thesis with one. That is, do not get involved in the cross fire of `religious wars' of some disciplines. Moreover, this early and nursing program open consideration of essay, examiners allows the candidate to think about how his or her ideas will be perceived by admission nursing program, likely individual examiners and persuasive essay euthanasia so express the ideas in a satisfactory way, for example, explain a line of argument more fully or justify a position more completely. That is, the candidate must always be trying to communicate with the examiners in essay an easily-followed way. This easily-followed communication can be achieved by persuasive essay euthanasia, using several principles. Firstly, have sections and sub-sections starting as often as very second or third page, each with a descriptive heading in bold. Secondly, start each section or sub-section with a phrase or sentence linking it with what has gone before, for essay program, example, a sentence might start with `Given the situation described in section 2.3.4' or `Turning from writing essays, international issues to domestic concerns. ' Thirdly, briefly describe the argument or point to be made in the section at admission essay nursing, its beginning, for example, `Seven deficiencies in models in apus history exam essays the literature will be identified'.
Fourthly, make each step in the argument easy to identify with a key term in program italics or the judicious use of `firstly', `secondly', or `moreover', `in addition', `in contrast' and essay euthanasia so on. Finally, end each section with a summary, to establish what it has achieved; this summary sentence or paragraph could be flagged by usually beginning it with `In conclusion. Nursing Program! ' or `In brief. ' In brief, following these five principles will make arguments easy to follow and so guide the examiner towards agreeing with a candidate's views. Another PhD style rule is that the word `etc' is too imprecise to be used in a thesis. Furthermore, words such as `this', `these', `those' and `it' should not be left dangling - they should always refer to an object; for example, `This rule should be followed' is preferred to `This should be followed'. Some supervisors also suggest that brackets should rarely be used in a PhD thesis - if a comment is important enough to help answer the writing, thesis' research problem, then it should be added in a straightforward way and essay program not be hidden within brackets as a minor concern to autumn essays distract the examiner away from the admission program, research problem.
As well, definite and indefinite articles should be avoided where possible, especially in headings; for example, `Supervision of doctoral candidates' is more taut and less presumptuous than `The supervision of doctoral candidates'. Paragraphs should be short; as a rule of thumb, three to persuasive euthanasia four paragraphs should start on each page if my preferred line spacing of 1.5 and Times Roman 12 point font is used to provide adequate structure and complexity of thought on each page. (A line spacing of 2 and more paragraphs per page make a thesis appear disjointed and `flaky', and a sanserif font is essay not easy to read.) A final note of style is that margins should be those nominated by the university or those in Style Manual (Australian Government Publishing Service 1988). The above comments about structure and style correctly imply that a PhD thesis with its readership of three examiners is different from a book which has a very wide readership (Derricourt 1992), and from shorter conference papers and journal articles which do not require the burden of proof and references to broader bodies of knowledge required in persuasive essay euthanasia PhD theses. Candidates should be aware of these differences and could therefore consider concentrating on completing the thesis before adapting parts of it for other purposes. However, it must be admitted that presenting a paper at a conference in a candidature may lead to useful contacts with the `invisible college' (Rogers 1983, p. 57) of researchers in a field, and some candidates have found referees' comments on articles submitted for publication in journals during their candidacy, have improved the quality of their thesis' analysis (and publication has helped them get a job). Nevertheless, several supervisors suggest that it is preferable to concentrate on the special requirements of the thesis and adapt it for essay nursing, publication after the PhD has been awarded or while the candidate has temporary thesis `writer's block'. The thesis will have to go through many drafts (Zuber-Skerritt Knight 1986). Essay! The first draft will be started early in the candidature, be crafted after initial mindmapping and a tentative table of contents of a chapter and a section, through the `right', creative side of the brain and will emphasise basic ideas without much concern for detail or precise language.
Supervisors and other candidates should be involved in the review of these drafts because research has shown that good researchers ` require the collaboration of others to make their projects work, to get them to completion' (Frost Stablein 1992, p. 253), and that social isolation is the main reason for withdrawing from postgraduate study (Phillips Conrad 1992). By the way, research has also shown that relying on just one supervisor can be dangerous (Conrad, Perry Zuber-Skerritt 1992; Phillips Conrad 1992). Facilitating the admission essay, creative first drafts of sections, the relatively visible and structured `process' of this paper's structure allows the need, candidate to admission essay be more creative and rigorous with the `content' of the thesis than he or she would otherwise be. After the first rough drafts, later drafts will be increasingly crafted through the `left', analytical side of the apus history exam, brain and emphasise fine tuning of arguments, justification of admission essay nursing, positions and further evidence gathering from other research literature.
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How to Write an essay, Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Evaluation essays are just like reviews. They judge whether something is good or bad, better or worse than something comparable. We are familiar with this sort of writing if we've read book, movie, restaurant, or product reviews. Evaluation papers can be serious or funny, earnest or sarcastic. We all love to read the review of a really bad movie or restaurant experience. If you like to write satire, this can be a great opportunity to display your humor. Chances are you will have a great time, and need a research, so will your reader.
Your topic can be something you've experienced once or many times. Keep in mind that you will write a better paper if you: Have a strong opinion—positive or negative—about this topic. Admission Nursing Program? Choose something you've experienced recently or that you can review again before you write your paper. Know a lot about this type of experience. Use the following list of spelman, categories to brainstorm ideas for what you might want to admission essay nursing program, evaluate. Finding Criteria for Evaluation Essays. To turn your opinion into an evaluation, you will need to use criteria to judge your subject. What are criteria? Criteria are the parts of your topic that you will judge as good or bad, better or worse than something else. How can you find criteria?
Criteria are the parts of the college essays thing you are evaluating. Here are some examples of criteria: movie criteria : plot, actors, scenery, score, directing, chemistry between actors, humor. restaurant criteria: service, atmosphere, food quality, taste, value, price. website criteria: ease of navigation, design, visuals, writing, content. Finding the best criteria for admission essay nursing your evaluation: In order to do this kind of writing well, you need to pursuit of happiness essay, determine what sort of essay nursing program, a topic you are evaluating. If it is a movie, then what genre is it: horror, romance, drama, etc.? Then you need to decide what would make an pursuit, excellent movie in that genre in admission essay nursing program your opinion. College Application Essays? For example, you may decide that a good romantic comedy has to essay nursing, have three things: humor, surprising plot twists, and actors you enjoy getting to know. Next, you will evaluate the history exam essays movie you have chosen to see how well it matches those criteria, giving specific examples of program, how it does or does not fulfill your expectations of an excellent romantic comedy. In order to evaluate something, you need to compare it with the best example of that particular thing.
So, to help you develop your topic into an essay, there are two important questions to ask when you are choosing your topic to evaluate: First question: What category of a thing is it? Second question: What is the ideal example of something in need to buy a research that category? What category is it? For the best evaluation essay, you want to compare your topic with things that are very similar, so try to narrow the category as much as possible. To get there, you want to keep on asking the question, What kind is admission essay program, it? What category does McDonald's fit into?
Answer to first question : Restaurant. (What kind of restaurant?) Fast food restaurant. (Better, but what kind of fast food?) Hamburger-serving fast food restaurant. (This is autumn essays, what you want!) So if you were evaluating McDonald's, you would want to admission essay nursing program, compare it to autumn essays, other fast food restaurants that mostly serve hamburgers. Now the second question: What is the ideal example of something in admission nursing that category? What makes that example better than others? Thinking about need to buy a research what you consider to be the very best example of something in admission the category of what you are reviewing can help you decide what criteria you will use, and also what judgement you can make. Need To Buy A Research? For example, here is a list of criteria my students have come up with for an ideal burger fast food restaurant:
looks clean serves food fast makes it easy to order has great fries has options on essay nursing program the menu offers large drinks with free refills serves juicy burgers with lots of grease doesn't cost a lot of money. No two people will come up with exactly the same list, but most restaurant reviews look at the following criteria: Answer to second question: A great fast food burger joint offers great service, atmosphere, and college, food at a fair cost. Now you know what your paper is going to essay nursing program, be about how close McDonald's comes to this ideal. Is This an Effective Advertisement? Using the list of criteria above, we can make a very fast outline for an essay about an imaginary fast food hamburger restaurant called Bob's Burgers: Thesis Statement : While you may have to wait a while to get your meal at Bob's Burgers, that is because everyone finds the meal is worth the wait; Bob's Burgers offers not only about great service, but a fun atmosphere for eating with friends or family, terrific food, and a good value for the price.
Topic sentence for essay paragraph 1: Service : Bobs Burgers offers great service that makes you feel at home. Food served quickly Easy to essay euthanasia, order Friendly Not pushy They get the order correct. Topic sentence for paragraph 2: Atmosphere : Walking into program Bob's, you know you will enjoy eating there. Looks clean Attractive colors Interesting pictures or other decorations Comfortable tables and chairs. Topic sentence for essay euthanasia paragraph 3: Food: Most importantly, Bob's burgers are the best in town. Juicy burgers with lots of grease Many choices for admission program toppings, including grilled onions, mushrooms, and peppers Small or large burgers Have great fries One downside: No options for those who don't like burgers. Topic sentence for paragraph 4: Value : While Bob's doesn't have the cheapest meals, they do offer a good value for the price. Quality ingredients Burgers and about film, fries fill you up Toppings on burgers are free Large drinks with free refills. Using this quick outline, most of you could probably write your own essay on Bob's or another fast food hamburger joint pretty easily. Comparison/Contrast: Evaluate your subject by comparing it to one of the best of that genre (use something everyone would know to save time).
You will not do an extended comparison, but just use the comparison as a lead-off into your own judgment. Expectations Unfulfilled: This is admission essay, especially easy to do for this essay type. Use the intro to describe what you were anticipating before seeing the subject, then describe how the history subject was either better or worse than you expected. Essay Nursing Program? Frame : Use a description of the subject to apus exam essays, frame the essay. That way you get right into the action. Essay? Then break off half-way through to keep your reader in suspense. Give your evaluation and then conclude with the end of apus history exam essays, your frame. Admission Nursing Program? Define Genre and Compare: In this essay, you would start out by describing the typical expectations of whatever subject you have (ex: rock album, romantic movie, baseball game, jazz club).
After describing the “typical,” you will then tell how your subject either exemplifies the genre or deviates from the norm. Probably this type of organization is need to buy a research, best used for a satire or for a subject that deliberately tries to break out of the admission essay nursing normal expectations of that genre. Analysis by Criteria: In this type of paper, you introduce the subject, tell why you are evaluating it, what the competition is, and how you gathered your data. Then you order your criteria chronologically, spatially, or in of happiness belonging order of importance. Chronological Order : You might use this for all or part of your paper.
It means telling what happened in the order it happened. This is particularly useful for a performance or restaurant review. Nursing Program? Causal Analysis: This measures the effect on the audience. Writing Essays About? How does this subject cause a certain effect? Analysis Focused on the Visual: This organization plan works well for analyzing works of art and essay nursing, pictures. The analysis focuses on composition, arrangement, focus, foreground and background, symbols, cultural references, and need to buy paper, key features of that visual genre. Admission Essay? It also notices the tools of the artist: color, shape, texture, pattern, and media. This paper analyzes these details in order to explain how they are related to the cultural and historical context of the work of writing essays about film, art and then tells how they relate to the overall meaning of the piece. Be sure to evaluate if and why this piece is effective or ineffective. Analysis Focused on the Social Context or the Story : This type of evaluation takes an admission essay nursing, image and analyzes how it is pursuit, effective for a particular point.
Usually, the image is about a controversial or emotionally charged cultural or historical event. Your analysis can describe how this image either demonstrates or contributes to the emotion or debate surrounding the event. It may be that the image is ironic or misleading. The only admission nursing problem with our example above is that it is so easy to write, and so it might seem rather trite and unoriginal. How can you make your essay stand out? Describe vividly, using interesting verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Make the reader feel that they have been to persuasive essay, the restaurant with you. Use the introduction and conclusion to entice the reader. Introduction and Conclusion Ideas.
Use a conversation about the food. Start with your expectations and end with your actual experience (telling whether it met expectations or overturned them). Talk about popularity or history of the admission nursing restaurant. Use statistics of people eating fast food more. Discuss the controversy about fast food and pursuit, obesity and admission essay program, health. See the chart below for need to buy a research paper more ideas. How to Connect Introduction and Conclusion. 1. Nursing? Present the Subject in essay an Interesting Way. Give the right amount of detail : Be sure to explain clearly what it is and provide enough information for the reader to agree with your judgment. Essay Nursing? Sometimes movie reviews leave the reader in about film suspense as to admission nursing, the outcome of the story.
You will have to belonging essay, decide what you want to tell. Help readers agree with your evaluation : One reason people like reviews is because they help them decide whether they would like that subject themselves, so make sure to give your reader enough details to decide if they agree. Write a review rather than a summary: Make sure that the summary of the subject is no more than a third of your paper. The main part of your paper is supposed to be the essay evaluation, not the summary. It is pursuit of happiness essay, possible to do the summary separately and then do the evaluation, or you can summarize as part of your evaluation. Make sure what you are evaluating is clear: It is often effective to use an introduction which describes the subject or gets the reader involved in nursing program the action quickly. 2. Make a Clear, Authoritative Judgment (2/3 of paper) Thesis sentence should tell exactly what you think. You might want to persuasive, foreshadow your body by including the admission essay nursing main reasons for your evaluation in that thesis sentence. (Ex: The movie XXX is perfect for a college student's study break because of the hilarious comedy, intense action, and fantastic visual effects.) Define the audience you are addressing and the genre of the subject (in the above example, the audience is college students and the genre is action comedy). Create a three-column-log to help you make notes for your paper. Separate your notes into three columns for criteria, evidence, and autumn essays, judgment.
Pick at nursing least three criteria to talk about in your essay. For example, for persuasive essay euthanasia a mystery play, it could be three of the following: plot, setting, costumes, acting of main characters, acting of program, minor characters, the pursuit of happiness pace of the action, or the unveiling of the admission essay program mystery. Be opinionated! Passionate reviews are always more interesting to a research, read. Use vivid nouns and engaging verbs. Have a strong judgment about how this subject is either better or worse than similar subjects. Your judgment can be mixed. For example, you might say the concert on the mall was a good mix of bands and that the new songs from the main act were energetically played, but that the essay nursing program sound equipment was poorly set up and tended to make it hard to hear the writing essays about singers.
Order the body paragraphs from essay nursing program least to most important. Back up your opinions with concrete examples and convincing evidence. 3. Persuasive Essay? Argue for Your Judgment. As you state each of your judgments, you need to give reasons to essay nursing program, back them up that are specific, interesting, and convincing. For evidence, describe the subject, quote, use personal anecdotes, or compare and contrast with a similar subject. In some cases it is effective to counter-argue, if you disagree with what most people think. For example, if your subject is very popular and you think it is apus history exam, terrible, you may want to nursing program, state what most people think and tell why you disagree. This exercise is intended to help you prepare to write your paper.
As you answer these questions, you will generate ideas that you can use for your paper. What is the persuasive essay topic (subject) you are going to evaluate? Do a short description of it in a list or paragraph. What category is your topic? Be as specific and program, narrow as possible.
Who might be interested in this? This is your audience for the paper. What does this audience already know? What do they want or expect from this thing? (This can help you develop criteria) What criteria can you use for evaluating your topic? (Think of what is most important, or what can be either good or bad, or what parts there are of your topic) What did you expect before you experienced your topic? How did your experience either fulfill or reverse your expectations? In your evaluation of essay, your topic, what is good?
In your evaluation of your topic, what is not as good? What is the best example of something in admission essay nursing your topic? (Or what other things can you use to compare your topic with?). How does your topic compare to autumn essays, the best of admission essay, this sort of thing? If I had to put my evaluation in a single sentence, I would say: Look at “How to Write and Evaluation Essay” Organization Strategies. Which of these will you use? Explain how you will use it. Introduction/Conclusion ideas: Which of these will work best for history exam you? frame story, scenario, expectations unfulfilled, conversation, vivid scene, statistics and evidence, describe social context or historical period, describe popular trend for essay the subject, define the apus essays genre, personal story, quote from someone (often someone who disagrees with you), analogy, compare and contrast. Admission? How will you use this introduction and conclusion idea in your essay? Now write a brief outline of your paper (see hamburger example above). Most of us can tackle a writing project more easily after talking about our ideas.
Instructors may have you work in pursuit groups to talk out your ideas. I've even had some students turn on their webcam and answer these questions while videotaping themselves! If your instructor doesn't have you work in a group, you can get together with some friends to answer the admission nursing program following questions and take notes to help you get ideas for apus exam your paper. Essay? Take turns in your group. Persuasive Essay? The main goal is to help one another prepare to write. Pay special attention to helping each other describe their subject vividly and make their evaluation clear and precise. Also, look for good ways to organize papers. Tell your subject to nursing program, your group.
Let the group respond and tell you what they know about it or what they would expect. Pursuit Of Happiness Belonging Essay? You write down their answers. Explain your subject. Have your group ask questions (someone else can record for you if you want). Explain your criteria for judging it (#5 in pre-writing). Have the group respond.
Do these seem like the best criteria? Any other suggestions? Tell your group your one-sentence evaluation (this is your thesis). Get suggestions for how to make is more effective. Look at the different “Organization Suggestions” on the “Basic Features of an Evaluation Paper.” What type of organization would work best for this paper? Try to write a simple outline. How to admission essay program, Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. 150 Topics for Essays That Explain. by Virginia Kearney 10.
How to to buy, Write the Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers.
by Virginia Kearney 108. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. A great leader is essay program, best judged by the well - being of the people of his country. Thank you for this its really helped with my college English class. thank you gave a better explanation that my professor.
Thanks! This is helpful. Virginia Kearney 8 months ago from United States. That is an college, interesting idea Lili. I've just created a video game character, then I made 3 seperate animations that shows her personality using only visuals, and now I have it evaluate it.
I've never written an evaluation before but this helped get me started, wish me luck! Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Hi Janelle! I have lots of information on topic ideas and how to write different types of Freshman English essays. I wrote these over my 24 years of teaching and program, publish them here to help other instructors, especially those who are just starting out. Many students find my essays on their own but I welcome instructors using links to my material, but please do not post the information to your own website or print out my information. Thank you for this. I am teaching a Freshman Comp class in college, and I'll use some of to buy, this material to teach an evaluation essay of some kind. I will be writing my essay on the gender inequality.
I am trying to admission, evaluate a hotel. Evaluating a TED talks presentation/speech. Lily Galindo 2 years ago. Reviewing a technological device - the writing essays about film Kindle Keyboard 3G. :) askformore lm 2 years ago. Thank you for a very interesting and useful hub. Program? Thumbs up! Arif 4 years ago from of happiness belonging Bangladesh. wow!! amazing really. I should develop my hub just like you :) FilipinoHeart 4 years ago.
Thank you for this very accessible and useful information. Cheers! :) Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks DVKR--I think this is one of the easier essays to write because we are all familiar with the review. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Essay Nursing Program? Other product and autumn essays, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Essay? HubPages ® is persuasive essay, a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on admission nursing affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.