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POL 51: Scientific Study of Politics Introduction Why - James Fowler
Part 8 - Examples of Good and Bad Writing. Learning to write often works best by example. The following are excerpts from nine first-year student essays. Most of the on the study of politics a critique examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in the bunch. In most cases, the names and dates from the essays have been changed to not compromise the subject matter for future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in your papers). I have tried to writing a motivational speech categorize the errors as best as I could. Essays Scientific Study A Critique. Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man. His notion of monads included contextual references to God. He believed that God controls the harmony of life through these monads. The essay then goes on to discuss these monads in a Christian context.
Had the student omitted the above sentences, however, the discussion of religion would have been completely out of place, given the essay's topic. But since the person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and work, it is relevant to mention the religious aspect. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about overpopulated, someone in an essay if it wasn't relevant to the topic. For example, it is irrelevant to a critique mention a scientist's race in an essay about their discovery unless the race impacted the essay program discovery.
An example of this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for essays on the of politics a critique, sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in writing proportionally higher numbers. If the on the scientific study of politics a critique same scientist was researching some aspect of physics, it would probably not be relevant to mention the race at all. An introductory paragraph: On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith. Although certainly not of humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and influential men of politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and theology. Smith was brilliant in each of these fields, but he became known particularly for his contributions in the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and logistics. This paper will not only writing, shed light on some of Smith's theories and words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the events in his life that made him the man that he was. This is the introduction to a chronologically-ordered essay about Smith's life and discoveries. Essays On The A Critique. As such, the writing + general test choice to begin with his date of birth is a good one. The paragraph summarizes the fields touched by Smith and also mentions the essays scientific a critique key areas he studied. The paper sets up an admission nursing expectation for the reader of both a detailed explanation of scientific study of politics a critique, Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality.
The sentence structure is grammatically sound and flows well. In the late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to London , she then pulled him out of school with the autumn essays intent to make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality. The decade is the 1650s. The sentence is a run-on. It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the she then should be changed to and. To make someone a farmer is to create a farmer for them. The student meant: to turn him into a farmer or to encourage him to be a farmer. Smith invented the on the scientific study of politics widgetiscope and paved the way for future widget watching. All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to be part of literature review, a team working for the greater good. The bolded part is not a complete sentence.
The entire thing should be one sentence. All-the-while does not require hyphenation. The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to the development of the two original branches of essays of politics a critique, widgetry; fingleish and writing essay knowledge test fnordleish. This sentence is mispunctuated. The comma is confusing and essays on the scientific study should be removed, and the semicolon should be a colon. Another of Smith's ideas was the method of differentiation. The university re-opened after the plague in 1667.
Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, and awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4). After the + general test realization that Calculus was important, and essays scientific study of politics was being recognized, a document to record all of the theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the document that contained the conduct review elements of the theory of differentiation, was created in 1667. Smith believed he was being pulled in two directions when it came to publishing his theories and essays study a critique making his work known. He felt a need for fame and fortune, yet on the other hand he had an abundant fear of rejection.
To the dismay of many future mathematicians, it was never published because of Smith's fear of criticism. Since he was not focusing on publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess. Admission Nursing. There are far too many ideas in it, all of essays on the scientific study of politics a critique, which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. I'll try to with a motivational dissect and rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the entire paragraph would be bold if I did. First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of differentiation the university re-opening after the plague Smith's ascension through the university ranks the need of of politics, a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and fears. Now, if we replace each sentence with the writing essay knowledge test number of the corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3.
Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to essays a critique another topic in the next sentence. While it may sometimes be necessary to a motivational speech mention something as an aside to complement the topic, the return to essays the topic should be swift and easy to understand. Don't bounce around within the paragraph as this student has done. Another problem: there doesn't seem to knowledge be a coherent timeline within the paragraph. Did the university re-open in 1667, or was the plague in 1667? Is the student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the major fellowship and Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to have all happened in scientific of politics one year, though it is possible. The document was created in essay 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to publish and seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667? It sounds like that was a very busy year for poor Smith!
The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the entire thing hard to understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the confusing date information. Here is how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for on the scientific of politics a critique, him to produce a document detailing all of with a motivational speech, his theories on the subject. Thus, when the university re-opened in 1667 following the plague and Smith was elected to essays on the a critique a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection. This dichotomy resulted in his failure to essay program publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by mathematicians well into the future. Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in scientific study of politics [insert year]. Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on pursuing a position as a professor.
Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705 to be given the title of Sir Joe Smith, which made him the first scientist to be so honored for his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is awkward here. It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the writing film title of Sir. Who else could be honoured for essays on the study, Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . which made him the first man to conduct literature review be honored for scientific work. There probably should be a page number listed in the citation. Jones had a main idea of analytic geometry. What does this mean?
Does the essays on the scientific of politics a critique student mean that one of china overpopulated, Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the main ideas of analytic geometry was conceived by on the a critique Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and is very awkward. Whether Smith made no use of the china overpopulated essay manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope, are questions on which at this distance of time no direct evidence is available . If Smith made no use of the manuscript, he can't have used it to copy abstracts. This is a very awkward way of saying that the events in question happened so long ago that there is essays scientific of politics no longer sufficient evidence to answer certain questions. Writing A Motivational. It would be better written:
Questions as to whether Smith made further use of the scientific study of politics manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. This is knowledge still a bit awkward. It's best when broken up into smaller sentences: There are still questions as to scientific study of politics a critique whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the autumn essays widgetiscope. Such questions are rooted so far in the past, however, that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to try to persuade the Germans to essays on the of politics a critique attack the French due to him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the means of his visiting Hamburg. Due to him not agreeing with is a very awkward way of writing a motivational, saying: because he disagreed with. The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Proved the means of his visiting is a very awkward way of saying is study of politics a critique why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to understand, and simplified problems too complex to essays approach. Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible.
If the ideas were too complicated to understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself. If the problems were too complex to approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and scientific study of politics Pronouns. After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for overpopulated, several months. Study Of Politics. After no sign of writing + general, recovery, a lawyer was summoned to the manor.
A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock, grain, and Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10). His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died. He was premature after suffering from illness due to the shock of her husband's passing during the fall . The phrase after no sign of recovery is not properly attached to Smith's father. Instead, it is saying that the lawyer did not recover from on the scientific, something. A will does not include land, a house, etc. China. It states to whom such things are bequeathed. Of Politics. This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock and grain to conduct [whomever]. I don't even understand how and Smith Senior's death fits into this sentence. His in the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to the antecedent Smith Senior. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son.
That would necessitate incest, and is clearly not what the on the study of politics a critique student meant to say. They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth. Essays Film. Who else but someone's mother gives birth to them anyway? Given the confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the student had used first names during this part of the essay. There is inconsistency in capitalization. It is Smith Senior once, and Smith senior another time. The he in he was premature again refers to the wrong antecedent. Smith Senior was not premature. Smith did not suffer illness due to the shock of Smith Senior's passing. Elizabeth did. This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness.
The student suddenly introduces the phrase during the fall when no other mention of the season has been made. This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall. Lastly, the inverse relationship between area and the tangent were never attained. The relationship is singular, even though it refers to multiple elements. Thus, the verb were should be singular as well, and changed to was. It was this century where many of the worlds most honorable and highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus.
A century is not a place, it is a section of time. Say it is a place where. or a time when. In this case, It was this century when. Adding an 's' without an apostrophe in essays a critique this case is pluralization, not indicative of possession. The student means world's. But perhaps the essays largest obstacle , which the essays of politics a critique Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is plural, but obstacle and system are singular.
It should be was. Tragically at the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at autumn essays the age of six. The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the publication of his discoveries. After the publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the angles of the essays on the scientific study projected colour, a new law of refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. Admission Essay Program. To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to alter physics.
During the seventeenth century, the inhabitants of England did not realize the importance of scientific advancement. Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of a word. Are we to understand that ALL of the people in England failed to realize the importance of scientific advancement for an entire century? It would have been better if the student had said most people in England. At the current time, the dominant belief was that light traveled in wave . The current time is the moment the essays scientific study reader is reading the sentence. Admission Essay Program. The student meant to say that the belief was such during the historical time period being discussed. Current should be omitted. The phrase in wave has an on the scientific study a critique error. It should either be in speech waves or in a wave. Both may be correct, but such an error can be misunderstood if one is incorrect. This would likely have been caught if the student had read the on the of politics a critique paper out loud.
Secondly, Jones' reliance on geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to the identification of solutions of computational features found frequently to different problems. Here is an example of a student not knowing the help proper meaning of a word. Impedance means opposition to the flow of electric current. It does not mean the same as to impede, which is to be an obstacle. This could be an essays on the instance where a student used the thesaurus in a word processor to autumn essays come up with a word without bothering to check if the word fit the context. It could also simply be that the student had mislearned the word themselves. Incidentally, a quick check of MS Word 97 shows synonyms to impedance to be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze.
So here is direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word. Be diligent and look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary before using them in on the your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either. This is a motivational a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. Essays Scientific. The sentence should read:
In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and his mother, partly for abandoning him at such a young age. Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in essay test the essay. Since it was about someone historical and the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from essays on the study of politics a critique, a source, it was plagiarism to include it without attribution.
Smith managed one friendship through this time and the value of that is always questioned. Who is questioning the value? There is no attribution to explain who questions it or to prove that it is knowledge test questioned by anyone other than the student. What precisely is of politics a critique being questioned? The value of only having one friend, or the value of the one friendship to Smith in china essay particular? . which means that the cut in the # of points is essays scientific study a critique equal to the degree of the curve. Using the china overpopulated essay # symbol instead of the word number is a bad short cut, and certainly inappropriate for a formal essay.
Smith also helped to essays on the study a critique improve the china essay scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on a subject help to improve a community? It might improve the understanding of the study a critique subject in the community, but does that improve the community itself? This is a badly worded assertion. If it truly did benefit the scientific community as a whole, the student should cite a source demonstrating that to be the case. No attribution was present.
In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for the better. A boy ranked just above him kicked him in the stomach. At the end of the day John challenged the boy to a fight. Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the conduct review boy. Winning the fight was still not enough. John applied himself in class, and soon became the top student in the school. This entire paragraph introduces an anecdote for the purpose of explaining what drove John to become a better student.
Incredibly, it manages to completely fail to mention the relationship between the on the scientific study anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. The relationship is implied and the reader can guess that John wished to writing essay beat the boy in more than just a physical fight, and thus worked hard to on the study outrank the boy in help writing a motivational speech the classroom, but that is not stated. The paragraph is very choppy and the sentences do not flow well. Read it out loud, and you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock. Scientific Study. He constructed the clock out of an old box. This is choppy. It could be easily combined into one sentence.
Jones became began to study motion. This error was probably due to a sentence that once legitimately contained the china overpopulated essay word became being edited without became being removed. If the student had read the essay out loud or given it to a friend to read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the of politics a critique Moon's distance from Earth was incorrect. Here is another example of a simple error of omission that could have been caught if the student had read the help with a motivational speech essay aloud or given it to a friend to read. The word of should be between calculation and the. That one small error makes the on the scientific study of politics a critique entire sentence awkward and essay test confusing. If the instructor has to reread the sentence to essays scientific study try to understand its meaning, the flow of the autumn essays essay is interrupted.
If this happens often enough in essays scientific the essay, it gives an overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in with writing a motivational terms of research. More examples of errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to read their essay: One of Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the notion of the infinite widget, which in fact cam as a great service to Smith in that it served as an study important too in autumn essays helping explain his branch of widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of on the scientific study, them from the beginning.
Admiration for Smith grew in the filed of widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out universe to be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from. In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and science rejected his theories about light until the next century.
Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research? Who performed the research? In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is a good idea to fully explain who did the proving when, and possibly even how they came to their conclusion. These sentences contradict each other. Was Jones proven incorrect or correct? Does the about student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all? Or was Jones correct about some things and not others? The use of Thus implies causality.
How does the proof that Jones is on the study of politics incorrect and the rejection by autumn essays science suddenly become scientific proof of essays a critique, his theory being correct? Regardless of what the student meant by the flip from incorrect to correct, there is nothing given to establish causality. It's disappointing to see such sloppiness as this in an essay. This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on a computer with a modern word processor. Essay. It clearly wasn't spell-checked. Such complete disregard is of politics a critique automatically indicative of a student who doesn't care about their final product, and while the error itself is minor, it gives a bad impression to the grader. In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught. Admission Program. That's inexcusable at the university level. It was also during this time that he traveled to his uncle's place in Brunswick.
Place is colloquial. Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead. Smith attempted to obtain his doctorate of on the scientific study a critique, law degree at autumn essays the University of Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for the older students -- and Smith was much too young. On The Study A Critique. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of negative feelings that the Dean's wife held for essay program, him. Smith's secretary is probably dead, since this essay is about someone from the 19th century. Therefore, they no longer claim anything. It should be past tense. Since the student doesn't cite this, there is an implication that perhaps the secretary is not dead and the student went so far as to scientific of politics interview the secretary personally.
That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of direct quotation] Using bullets in essay test a formal essay is rarely appropriate. Essays Of Politics A Critique. It is preferable to write out the bulleted information into proper paragraph form. Overpopulated. This student seems to have been too lazy to bother paraphrasing a bunch of scientific a critique, direct quotations into a formal essay structure. Along came the Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to be a pioneer of calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith? There has only been one? The student means another, not other. Autumn Essays. Sloppy. The first page of the essay starts with: have been developed (5).
The second page starts with the header Introduction and the opening paragraph. Clearly, the on the study student stapled the pages out of order. What a sloppy mistake! Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to for some reason, and you should always ensure that all of the pages are present and in conduct review proper order before binding the a critique essay. If the instructor has to begin by autumn essays figuring out what the heck is going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and possibly of you. Jones was quite a busy man in that along with his position in the Court of Mainz, he also managed to serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and on the study of politics a critique most importantly, friend.
Quite a busy man is a bit colloquial. A busy man would do. The first as is an error, since Jones did not serve as the Baron, he served the Baron. Admission Essay Program. This may have been caught if the student had read their essay out loud. His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from this fellowship in 1683. Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for Jones. If this is the essays of politics a critique case, it is a quotation from a source and should be cited. Nursing Program. If not, it is colloquial and scientific study of politics should just say His friend Bill Jones. Who should be whom in about film this case.
A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and essays scientific whom. This isn't even a complete sentence. Smith was born prematurely and was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live. Repeating that he was born is redundant. Who does they refer to?
Doctors? Parents? Relatives? Townsfolk? It is a pronoun without an antecedent. In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the belief systems of the natural philosophical world around him.
Has is the wrong word here because the essay is about a person who is now dead. Essay Knowledge. Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in the present, so the word should at least be had. But even had is awkward, and a better word would be wrote. Discourse means to essays scientific study of politics converse, especially orally. One does not speak orally in essay a publication. It is written. This word should be omitted. Essays Study Of Politics. Between denotes at least two participants, but Jones is the only one having the supposed discourse. This too should be omitted. + General Test. Natural philosophical world is confusing. Does the student mean the natural, philosophical world, which would be the world described as both natural and on the study a critique philosophical?
Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and not world, in which case the grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as: In this publication, Jones wrote of the writing + general knowledge test belief systems of the natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on essays on the of politics a critique, the answer to the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the naturally philosophical world around him. He was home for approximately 18 months, according to china essay Jones the 18 months was the most predominant time period of his life. This is a run-on sentence. It should either end between 18 months and according, or it should be rewritten to make it a proper sentence. 18 months is repeated for no reason. 18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was.
Predominant means superior especially in power or numbers. Something cannot be most superior. Most should be omitted. Predominant is not the best word in this case anyway. If the essays on the scientific study student means it was the essay + general knowledge most powerful time of on the of politics, Jones' life, they should be clear about that. If they mean it was the writing about most superior numerical time of his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old. Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment.
Jones was not that easy, the two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment. The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and is awkward and confusing. On The Scientific. Jones was not that easy to what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to literature satisfy or something equivalent. Scientific A Critique. This is a run-on sentence. It should end after easy, or be rewritten to be grammatically correct. Admission Nursing Program. Which two men? Simpson and Jones or Smith and Jones? The information on physics before this section is important to on the study a critique understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in the field of mathematics, most importantly Calculus.
Incorrect use of whom. Should be who. A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. There should not be a comma between arguably and conduct literature his. On The Scientific Study Of Politics A Critique. There is no citation as to anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics.
This might be because it would be difficult to prove in the face of the importance of Newtonian physics. China. Advancements is probably the on the scientific a critique wrong word. Achievements or discoveries would be better. Newton's advancements are more likely to autumn essays be funds paid in advance of publication. The addition of most importantly is on the study a critique awkward.
Particularly would have been a better word. Writing + General Knowledge. The use of greatest and most importantly referring to Calculus is hyperbole. Given that this essay was for a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up. The declarations of essays scientific a critique, superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and possibly pandering. It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence: Smith's great work, theories, and studies will continue to live on forever in the ever-changing world of science and mathematics . How can the student know that Smith's work will live on forever? That's an china overpopulated essay impossible assertion to make. On The Study A Critique. Work, theories and studies don't live.
They exist, but they are not organic creatures. If the world is writing + general ever-changing, how again can the essays scientific study student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense? Or lost entirely? World is singular, but it refers to two worlds, one of science and one of mathematics. Help Writing Speech. This conclusion reeks of hyperbole. (So does the phrase reeks of on the of politics, hyperbole, but this is not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by the name of Jones knew that he could demonstrate the ration between two infinite sums. The phrasing here is a bit awkward. It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of help, Smith, knew that. Ration is the wrong word. The student meant ratio. On The Study. This is one of those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed.
One man was proclaiming to be the inventor of the widgetiscope and essay nursing program another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is telling the truth? The main problem here is the change in tense. You can't go from was to study is if the subject remains fixed in time. Furthermore, it is incorrect to refer to someone who is dead as doing anything in help with speech the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting). A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in on the scientific of politics the past. Try to avoid using the passive form was proclaiming and instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is also bad because of the subject matter.
The student has already shown in the essay that both men happened to program independently invent the widgetiscope, but the issue is who deserved the essays scientific study of politics a critique title for writing essays film, inventing it first . So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and the student should not make it appear that one or the essays on the scientific study other may have been doing so. You must be careful not to libel people. The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question. A better way of writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to be the test inventor of essays on the study a critique, calculus, but only one could be given the credit. The argument was so drawn out that a decision was not easy to come by which worked against Smith's favor. Writing. Jones had been considered the essays on the scientific study of politics a critique sole inventor of the widgetiscope for fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand. The student meant to say that the duration of the argument caused Smith to lose. But because the student failed to put the necessary comma between the bolded words, this sentence actually says, by means of a complicated string of multiple negatives, that it was not easy to come to china overpopulated essay a decision against Smith, meaning he won. This sentence would be better worded this way: Because the argument took so long, Smith lost.
But then, at the beginning of the scientific next paragraph, the student writes: The argument took years to unravel and never really came to a definitive decision. This negates what the student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the duration of the autumn essays argument. This also repeats the essays on the of politics a critique fact that it was a long argument, which is redundant. It was from the autumn essays Greeks, where the underlying of widgetry emerged and set the basis of what widgetry has become. The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. The comma in essays scientific a critique this sentence should not be there. It sets up an expectation that the overpopulated essay portion after the comma is a separate clause, as in: It was from the Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth. Note that because the who is in the separate clause, it should not be whom. The underlying what ? You can't just say the underlying of widgetry. It has to be the underlying something of widgetry, whether that something is basis, foundation, etc.
Although there was a time of intellectual heightening , there came a period of essays on the scientific study, darkness in the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase. Intellectual development would have been much better. In going over this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the name Edwards. I checked the bibliography to essay confirm the of politics a critique name, and discovered that nothing by Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at admission nursing program all. Had this gone noticed when the essays on the study a critique paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to the validity of the student's sources and bibliography. Be sure to list all sources in your bibliography, and be sure to china spell them correctly when citing! One motive of Sumerian algebra was to impose on themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for this reason, rejected concepts of irrational as numbers, all traces of the infinite, such as limit concepts, from their own mathematics. Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians. Essays On The Scientific Study. Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on themselves. About Film. It should be written: One motive of the Sumerians concerning their algebra was to impose on themselves. although that is still an awkward phrase. Concepts should not be plural.
This is sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the student had bothered to on the scientific of politics read over his essay. The sentence should end after compute. A new sentence should begin, For this reason. The word they should be put between reason and rejected to say: For this reason, they rejected concepts. This sentence is so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is autumn essays just icky. I'd put such as limit concepts in parenthesis, or rewrite the sentence to bring that idea out on essays on the of politics a critique, its own. If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to succeed in these elements and refused to admission essay program use real numbers and limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and scientific study a critique mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102). The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is nonsensical.
Be careful to ensure that your verbs match the subject you intend for them. Don't use till when you mean until. That's colloquial at best, and not really a proper use of the word at all at admission nursing worst. The proper phrase is on the study of politics a critique have never been formed. To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form?
Even though there is a citation for this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole. I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the advent of calculus. Be careful that you don't paraphrase in knowledge test such a way as to claim a source said something that they did not. Study Of Politics A Critique. If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and test counting as obsolete, which is ridiculous. Essentially , it is a case of Smith's word against scientific a number of suspicious details pointing against a motivational him. He acknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Jones' manuscripts, on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them, and a material date I none of his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to 1673) (Bogus, 78)
Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to use words like essentially and basically too often. It's somewhat conversational, and possibly colloquial. Try to avoid it unless something is truly essential. Study Of Politics A Critique. A number of suspicious details pointing against him is an awkward way of admission nursing, saying: suspicions of his guilt. But what the student means is not suspicions, but points of evidence. When you list several examples of something you've indicated, the essays on the way to punctuate it is as follows (note the admission essay program placement of the colon and on the study a critique subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and each proof still points to the main part of the sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to writing essays about say: It is a case of Smith's word against the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on on the scientific, more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them; and his manuscripts had been falsified by writing about changing 1675 to 1673 (Bogus, 78). After quoting a dictionary definition:
The editors of the famous dictionary are probably unaware of the fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in the mathematical world , in that they only described fingleish widgetry, and failed to include an explanation of fnordleish widgetry. It's okay to question a source, and at higher levels of education it might even be required. On The Of Politics. But if you're going to do it, be careful to do it well and with evidence. This just sounds presumptuous. Essay Nursing. The student has not shown whether or not the dictionary has separate definitions for widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of sufficient definition. Saying the essays scientific study of politics dictionary is famous is probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole.
A cardinal sin is a sin of fundamental importance. In the Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Thus, calling a disagreement in definition in speech a dictionary a cardinal sin is definitely hyperbole. Even if it was a cardinal sin, the sin was committed in the dictionary, not in the mathematical world. The student meant against scientific the mathematical world. It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for conduct review, centuries upon centuries . It is surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in their essays.
That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is. Sentences like this are insulting and off-putting, and don't belong in a formal essay. Such great minds requires an example. The word such should be omitted. Centuries upon centuries is redundant. Just say centuries and leave it at that. Jones' first object in on the of politics Paris was to essay nursing make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in particular Davis and Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of on the scientific study of politics a critique, topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). An object is knowledge test a thing. The student means Jones' first objective.
This is essays study a critique a bad run-on. It should be broken up like this: Jones' first objective in Paris was to make contact with the conduct review French government, but while waiting for an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers such as Davis and Myers. He discussed a variety of topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to math has helped our society become more technological in building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one.
Math is the colloquial version of mathematics. Essays On The Of Politics. Did Smith's contributions only help our society? What about other societies? More technological in building things is a really awkward way of saying improved our technological aptitude. Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived and this paper will demonstrate that, starting from his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to admission essay program blow that up to one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole. Essays On The Scientific Of Politics. Even if it is true, the paper didn't demonstrate it because the writing essays about paper didn't compare Smith to other great geniuses that have lived. The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the essays on the scientific study of politics geniuses that have ever lived. If you start from autumn essays, something, you go to or follow through to another something. The phrase starting from his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the section of time inclusively between his childhood and on the scientific study of politics death and autumn essays not saying where you're going.
Furthermore, the paper does not start from Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. The student means, starting with his childhood and following through to his death. That is essays on the scientific of politics a critique still awkward, and the sentence would be best written: Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life. So John lived for seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in this context is colloquial and should be omitted.
This really should be cited. John's address may be a matter of public record and therefore doesn't have to be cited, but comments on the emotional quality of the household imply research, and the student should give credit to the source. China Overpopulated Essay. Really is colloquial, and should be omitted. While at Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in his dedication to essays scientific study math . Who is nursing program Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. It facilitates productivity, but it is scientific study of politics not productive itself. A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in overpopulated essay his dedication. Math is colloquial. Study Of Politics. It should be mathematics.
This information helps us to understand how we, as humans stay on the ground; we are matter as well and do have an invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and it pushes back against us . This hand full of essay, knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and on the study their movement. It has also allowed scientist to delve further in exploring our galaxy. Does gravity only affect humans? Granted, the student is autumn essays trying to make the essays on the scientific of politics science seem more personal, but this is an awkward way of writing, doing it. It is also something that seems to indicate an essay geared to essays on the scientific study of politics children.
While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by conduct laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and intellectual peers. The description of the invisible force is very awkward. On The Scientific Study Of Politics A Critique. A better wording would be: do have an help writing invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against us. Gravity does not, in fact, weigh people down. The student's own definition of it earlier in the essay mentions this, and here too it is accurately described as a push, not a pull. To add in the bit about it weighing us down is contradictory. Essays Scientific A Critique. The student means handful. This is a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to show how this knowledge is monumental to scientists.
Both instances of a motivational speech, scientist should be pluralized. One delves further into something, not in it. The Royal Society always had someone coming in scientific each week they met to show off their invention . Always had someone coming in is colloquial and awkward. It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week. The second part of essay + general test, this is a separate sentence and should be capitalized and punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions. Essays Scientific A Critique. Show off is colloquial. Demonstrate would be better.
Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural. A concluding paragraph: Jones was a great man who made an impact in all of our lives . He is recognized as one of the essay centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to further math along. Scientific Study Of Politics. This intellectual man has created something which has and literature will be used for years to on the come. This is an important part of history which will and should never be forgotten. The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and invented some useful things. It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man. A great man is one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and their contributions to their society.
Jones may have been all of this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is hyperbole to declare it in the conclusion. It is also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to one person may not for another. Essay. Centuries is the plural of essays study a critique, century, not the possessive. The student means century's. But Jones was not of our current century, so the student should define which century they mean. Impacts are made on, not in. Review. If by essays scientific study of politics a critique all of us the student means everyone on help with, the planet, this is incorrect. Jones' contributions to essays study mathematics hardly impact the life of a motivational speech, someone living in essays on the study a non-literate, non-industrialized society.
Even if the student merely means her peers, it is still hyperbole to declare that everyone has been impacted. If you're going to mention that the overpopulated essay person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. While it is unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the student cannot effectively predict the future in this way. Some of these comments may seem nitpicky, but the fact of the on the study a critique matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on you and your essay. Help With A Motivational Speech. No one is perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances. But an essay that is full of the errors listed above prevents the reader from scientific of politics a critique, understanding the content. Writing Essays Film. If the instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade. Last updated in on the scientific of politics a critique February 2005.
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Posted in Business Model versus Business Plan. As we prepared for essays on the scientific study, the new Hacking for writing essays, Defense class at essays scientific study of politics, Stanford, we had to stop and ask ourselves: How do we use the Business Model Canvas if the primary goal is not to earn money, but to fulfill a mission? In other words, how can we adapt the Business Model Canvas when the metrics of success for an organization is not revenue? Alexander Osterwalder and help with writing a motivational speech I think we have the essays on the scientific of politics answer – the autumn essays new Mission Model Canvas. Here are our collective thoughts. The Lean Startup is the way most innovators build startups and essays study a critique innovate inside of existing companies. Admission Nursing? As a formal method, the Lean Startup consists of three parts: The Business Model Canvas has been a great invention for everyone from startups to large companies. Unlike an org chart, which describes how a company executes to deliver known products to known customers, the Business Model Canvas illustrates the search for the unknowns that most new ventures face. The 9 boxes of the canvas let you visualize all the components needed to turn customer needs/problems into essays on the scientific study, a profitable company.
From Revenue Streams to Mission Achievement. The Business Model Canvas has served all of autumn essays us well in thinking about essays on the scientific study a critique, building businesses – and essays about film therein lies the problem. In a business the scientific study a critique aim is to + general knowledge earn more money than you spend. What if you’re a government or a military organization or part of the intelligence community? In these cases you don’t earn money, but you mobilize resources and essays on the scientific study of politics a critique a budget to solve a particular problem and create value for a set of beneficiaries (customers, support organizations, warfighters, Congress, the country, etc.)
For these organizations, the canvas box labeled Revenue Streams doesn’t make sense. In a mission-driven organization such as the defense and china overpopulated intelligence community, there is essays study, no revenue to measure . So the first step in building a canvas for mission-driven organizations is to change the autumn essays Revenue Stream box in the canvas and come up with a counterpart that would provide a measure of success. We’re calling this alternative Mission Achievement . Later in this post I’ll explain how we’ll measure and describe Mission Achievement , but first our Mission Model Canvas needs four more tweaks. Customer Segments is changed to Beneficiaries Cost Structure is changed to Mission Cost/Budget Channel is changed to Deployment Customer Relationships is changed to Buy-in/Support. The rest of this blog post explains the how and why of these changes to the canvas. Customer Segments Change to Beneficiaries.
At first glance, when developing a new technology for use in the defense and essays of politics intelligence community, the customer appears obvious – it’s the ultimate war fighter. They will articulate pains in terms of size, weight, form fit, complexity and knowledge test durability. But there are other key players involved. Requirement writers and acquisition folks look at systems integration across the essays on the study of politics a critique battlefield system, while contracting officers, yet another segment, will count beans, measure the degree of competition and assess the quality of market research involved. The support organizations need to worry about maintainability of code or hardware. Does legal need to sign off for cyber operations? So yes, war fighters are one customer segment, but others need to be involved before the war fighter can ever see the + general knowledge test product. So the first insight is that in study of politics the defense and autumn essays intelligence community mission models are always multi-sided markets with the goal of not just building a great demo but getting the product adopted and deployed.
Second, in the defense and intelligence communities almost all of the mission models look like that of an OEM supplier – meaning there are multiple layers of customers in the value chain. Your product/service is just part of someone else’s larger system. So to differentiate “customers” from the standard business model canvas we’ll call all the essays on the of politics different customer segments and the layers in the defense and intelligence value chain beneficiaries . The Value Proposition Canvas. Of all the nine boxes of the canvas, two important parts of the china overpopulated essay model are the relationship between the essays scientific Value Proposition (what you’re building) and the beneficiaries. These two components of the business model are so important we give them their own name, Product/Market Fit. Because of the china complexity of multiple beneficiaries and to get more detail about their gains and pains, Osterwalder added an additional canvas called the Value Proposition Canvas.
This functions like a plug-in to the Mission Model Canvas, zooming in to the value proposition to describe the interactions among these beneficiaries, war fighters, etc. and essays scientific the product/service in more detail. Using the Value Proposition Canvas with the Mission Model Canvas lets you see both the big picture at the mission model level and the detailed picture of writing essay + general each beneficiary at the “product/market fit” level. In the defense and intelligence community mission models, there will always be multiple beneficiaries. It’s important that each beneficiary gets its own separate Value Proposition Canvas . Distribution Channel changes to Deployment. In the commercial world we ask, “What type of distribution channel (direct sales, app store, system integrator, etc.) do we use to get the essays on the study product/service from our company to the customer segments?” For the Department of Defense or Intelligence organizations, we ask instead:
“What will it take to deploy the product/service from autumn essays our current Minimum Viable Product to widespread use among people who need it?” (What architecture components can they innovate on essays on the scientific study a critique, and what can’t they?) “What constitutes a successful deployment? (number of users, units in the field, time to get it into the field, success in the field, etc.)” “How do we turn a Horizon 3 innovation into something that gets adopted by a Horizon 1 organization?” Customer Relationships changes to writing + general knowledge Buy-In/Support. In an existing business, Customer Relationships is essays scientific study of politics a critique, defined as establishing and maintaining a relationship to admission nursing program support existing customers. In a startup we redefined Customer Relationships to answer the question: How does a company get, keep and grow customers? For the defense and intelligence communities, we have modified Customer Relationships to mean, “For each beneficiary (customer segment), how does the team get “Buy-In” from all the beneficiaries?” Customer discovery helps you understand whose buy-in is needed in order to deploy the product/service (legal, policy, procurement, etc.) and essays a critique how to get those beneficiaries to buy-in? (Funding?
Mandates? User requested? etc.) In addition, the long-term support and maintenance of new projects need to be articulated, understood and bought-into by the support organizations. At the Pentagon a favorite way to kill something is to coordinate it to death by requiring buy-in from too many people too early. How to determine who are the small group of writing essay + general knowledge test critical people to get buy-in from – and how to determine who are the next set required to sustain the essays on the scientific iterative development of future MVP’s – is one of the arts of entrepreneurship in the defense and intelligence community. Revenue Streams changes to Mission Achievement. Mission Achievement is the value you are creating for the sum of all of the autumn essays beneficiaries / the greater good. It’s important to distinguish between the value for individual beneficiaries (on the Value Proposition Canvas) and overall Mission Achievement . For example, Mission Achievement could be measured in a variety of ways: the essays on the number of refugees housed and fed, the number of soldiers saved from roadside bombs, the number of cyberattacks prevented, the increased target surveillance of sensor fusion, etc. None of these are measured in dollars and cents. Keep in mind, there is only mission achievement if it delivers value to autumn essays the end beneficiary.
In the essays a critique defense and intelligence community the metrics of success are not revenue but mission achievement We’ve modified the Business Model Canvas into a Mission Model Canvas Changed Revenue Streams to Mission Achievement Changed Customer Segments to Beneficiaries Changed Cost Structure to Mission Cost/Budget Changed Channel to admission nursing Deployment Changed Customer Relationships to essays on the study Buy-in/Support Organizations without specific revenue goals can now use a version of the program Business Model Canvas. Why Build, Measure, Learn – isn’t just throwing things against the wall to see if they work – the Minimal Viable Product. I am always surprised when critics complain that the essays on the scientific a critique Lean Startup’s Build, Measure, Learn approach is nothing more than “throwing incomplete products out autumn essays of the building to see if they work.” Unfortunately the Build, Measure, Learn diagram is the essays on the scientific cause of that confusion. Writing Essay? At first glance it seems like a fire-ready-aim process.
It’s time to update Build, Measure, Learn to study a critique what we now know is the best way to build Lean startups. Build, Measure, Learn sounds pretty simple. Build a product, get it into essay knowledge test, the real world, measure customers’ reactions and behaviors, learn from this, and study of politics use what you’ve learned to build something better. Repeat, learning whether to iterate, pivot or restart until you have something that customers love. While it sounds simple , the china overpopulated Build Measure Learn approach to product development is a radical improvement over the traditional Waterfall model used throughout the 20 th century to essays scientific study build and china overpopulated essay ship products. Back then, an entrepreneur used a serial product development process that proceeded step-by-step with little if any customer feedback. Founders assumed they understood customer problems/needs, wrote engineering requirements documents, designed the product, implemented /built the hardware/software, verified that it worked by testing it, and then introduced the product to customers in essays on the study of politics a formal coming out called first customer ship . Waterfall Development was all about execution of the requirements document. While early versions of the product were shared with customers in Alpha and Beta Testing, the conduct goal of early customer access to the product was to uncover bugs not to provide feedback on features or usability. Only after shipping and attempting to sell the essays on the scientific study product would a startup hear any substantive feedback from conduct literature customers. And too often, after months or even years of development, entrepreneurs learned the hard way that customers were not buying their product because they did not need or want most of its features.
It often took companies three tries to get products right. Version 1 was built without customer feedback, and essays scientific study a critique before version 1 was complete work had already started on version 2 so it took till version 3 before the customer was really heard (e.g. Conduct Literature Review? Microsoft Windows 3.0) Best practices in software development started to scientific study a critique move to writing knowledge test agile development in the early 2000’s. This methodology improved on waterfall by essays on the scientific of politics building software iteratively and involving the customer.
But it lacked a framework for testing all commercialization hypotheses outside of the literature building. With Agile you could end up satisfying every feature a customer asked for and still go out of business. Then came the Build-Measure-learn focus of the Lean Startup. The goal of Build-Measure-Learn is not to build a final product to scientific of politics a critique ship or even to build a prototype of china a product, but to maximize learning through incremental and iterative engineering. (Learning could be about product features, customer needs, the right pricing and essays on the scientific of politics distribution channel, etc.) The “build” step refers to building a minimal viable product (an MVP.) It’s critical to understand that an MVP is not the product with fewer features. Rather it is the simplest thing that you can show to customers to get the most learning at that point in time . China? Early on in a startup, an MVP could simply be a PowerPoint slide, wireframe, clay model, sample data set, etc. Each time you build an MVP you also define what you are trying to test/ measure . Later, as more is learned, the MVP’s go from low-fidelity to essays scientific higher fidelity, but the goal continues to be to maximize learning not to build a beta/fully featured prototype of the help speech product. A major improvement over Waterfall development, Build Measure Learn lets startups be fast, agile and efficient. The three-circle diagram of on the study a critique Build Measure Learn is good approximation of the process. Unfortunately, using the word “build” first often confuses people. The diagram does seem to imply build stuff and throw it out of the building. Help With A Motivational Speech? A more detailed version of the Build Measure Learn diagram helps to clarify the meaning by adding three more elements: Ideas -Build- Code -Measure- Data -Learn.
The five-part version of the study of politics Build Measure Learn diagram helps us see that the real intent of building is to test “ideas” – not just to admission essay program build blindly without an objective. The circle labeled “code” could easily be labeled “build hardware” or “build artificial genome.” The circle labeled “data” indicates that after we measure our experiments we’ll use the essays scientific data to further refine our learning. And the china essay new learning will influence our next ideas. So we can see that the goal of essays on the scientific study of politics Build-Measure-Learn isn’t just to build things, the goal is to build things to validate or invalidate the initial idea. The focus on testing specific ideas counters the concern that build-measure-learn is just throwing things against the wall and see if they work. But it’s still not good enough. We can now do better. Start With Hypotheses.
What Build-Measure-Learn misses is that new ventures (both startups and writing + general new ideas in existing companies) don’t start with “ideas”, they start with hypotheses (a fancy word for guesses.) It’s important to understand that the words “idea ” and “hypotheses” mean two very different things. For most innovators the word “idea” conjures up an insight that immediately requires a plan to bring it to fruition. In contrast, a hypothesis means we have an educated guess that requires experimentation and data to validate or invalidate . These hypotheses span the gamut from who’s the customer(s), to what’s the value proposition (product/service features), pricing, distribution channel, and demand creation (customer acquisition, activation, retention, etc.) That the Lean Startup begins with acknowledging that your idea is simply a series of untested hypotheses is a big idea. It’s a really big idea because what you build needs to match the essays on the scientific of politics a critique hypothesis you want to test . The minimum viable product you’ll need to build to find the overpopulated right customers is on the study of politics, different from the minimum viable product you need for autumn essays, testing pricing, which is different from an MVP you would build to test specific product features. And all of these hypotheses (and minimal viable products) change over time as you learn more.
So instead of Build-Measure-Learn, the diagram for building minimal viable products in a Lean Startup looks like Hypotheses – Experiments – Tests – Insights. Using this new Hypotheses – Experiments – Tests – Insights diagram the question then becomes, “What hypotheses should I test?” Luckily Alexander Osterwalder’s business model canvas presents a visual overview of the nine components of a business on one page. They are: value proposition, product/service the company offers (along with its benefits to customers) customer segments, such as users and scientific of politics a critique payers or moms or teens distribution channels to reach customers and offer them the value proposition customer relationships to essays create demand revenue streams generated by the value proposition(s) activities necessary to implement the essays on the scientific of politics business model resources needed to make the activities possible partners 3 rd parties needed to make the activities possible cost structure resulting from the business model. And it brings us to the definition of literature review a startup: A startup is a temporary organization designed to search for a repeatable and scalable business model . And once these hypotheses fill the scientific of politics a critique Business Model Canvas, how does an essays film entrepreneur go about testing them? If you’re a scientist the answer is easy: you run experiments. The same is true in a Lean Startup. (The National Science Foundation described the Lean LaunchPad class as the scientific method for entrepreneurship.) The Customer Development process is essays on the scientific a critique, a simple methodology for taking new venture hypotheses and getting out of the building to china test them. Customer discovery captures the founders’ vision and turns it into a series of business model hypotheses.
Then it develops a series of experiments to test customer reactions to those hypotheses and turn them into facts. The experiments can be a series of questions you ask customers but most often a minimal viable product to help potential customers understand your solution accompanies the questions. So another big idea here is startups are not building minimal viable products to build a prototype. They are building minimal viable products to study of politics a critique learn the most they can . Finally, the goal of designing these experiments and minimal viable products is not to get data . The data is not the review endpoint. Anyone can collect data.
Focus groups collect data. Essays On The Of Politics? This is writing essay + general knowledge, not a focus group. The goal is to get insight . The entire point of getting out of the building is to inform the founder’s vision . The insight may come from analyzing customer responses, but it also may come from ignoring the data or realizing that what you are describing is a new, disruptive market that doesn’t exist, and that you need to change your experiments from measuring specifics to inventing the of politics a critique future. Build, Measure, Learn is essays about film, a great improvement over Waterfall product development and provided the framework to truly join the on the scientific study customer to agile development However, emphasizing “Build” or “Ideas” as the first step misses the key insight about review, a Lean Startup – you are starting with hypotheses to be tested and scientific are searching for repeatable and scalable business model Hypotheses, Experiments, Test, Insights better represents the Lean startup process: Use the Business Model Canvas to frame hypotheses, Customer Development to get out of the building to test hypotheses, and program Agile Engineering to build the product iteratively and essays on the scientific study of politics incrementally. Fear of Failure and literature Lack of on the scientific study a critique Speed In a Large Corporation. I just spent a day working with Bob, the Chief Innovation Officer of help with speech a very smart large company I’ll call Acme Widgets. Bob summarized Acme’s impediments to innovation. “At our company we have a culture that fears failure. A failed project is considered a negative to a corporate career.
As a result, few people want to start a project that might not succeed. And worse, even if someone does manage to start something new, our management structure has so many financial, legal and HR hurdles that every initiative needs to match our existing business financial metrics, processes and procedures. So we end up in “paralysis by analysis” – moving slowly to ensure we don’t make mistakes and that everyone signs off on every idea (so we can spread the essays on the scientific study a critique collective blame if it fails). And when we do make bets, they’re small bets on incremental products or acquisitions that simply add to the bottom line.” Bob looked wistful, “Our founders built a company known for taking risks and moving fast. Now we’re known for autumn essays, “making the numbers,” living on our past successes. More agile competitors are starting to eat into our business. How can we restart our innovation culture?” What Drives Innovation?
I pointed out to essays scientific study of politics Bob the irony – in a large company “fear of failure” inhibits speed and conduct literature review risk taking while in a startup “fear of failure” drives speed and urgency. If we could understand the essays scientific study a critique root cause of that difference, I said, we could help Acme build a system for continuous innovation. I suggested the best place to writing essays about start the scientific of politics a critique conversation is with the essay knowledge 21 st century definition of essays a critique a startup: A startup is literature, a temporary organization designed to search for a repeatable and scalable business model. Startups have finite time and resources to find product/market fit before they run out of money. Therefore startups trade off certainty for speed, adopting “good enough decision making” and iterating and pivoting as they fail, learn, and discover their business model. The corollary for a large company is: A company is a permanent organization designed to essays study a critique execute a repeatable and scalable business model. That means in their core business, large companies have a series of knowns . They’ve found product/market fit (what products customers want to buy). They’ve learned the best distribution channel to writing essays get the product from their company to the customer. They’ve figured out the revenue model (subscription, license, direct sale, etc.) and how to price the product. Essays Study? They know the activities, resources and partners (manufacturing, regulation, IP, supply chain, etc.) – and the costs to deliver the help a motivational speech product/service and have well defined product development and product management tools that emphasize the linear nature of shipping products to existing customers.
There are financial metrics (Return on Investment, Hurdle Rate, etc.) for new product development that emphasize immediate returns. And everyone has job titles and job descriptions that describe their role in execution . Why Execution and Innovation Need Different Tools, Cultures and Organizations. Talking to Bob I realized that at Acme Widgets (and in most large companies) the word “failure” was being used to describe two very different events: failure in execution of a known product in known market failure in searching for innovation when there are many unknowns. Therefore, in a large company, failure to meet a goal – revenue, product delivery, service, etc.– is essays of politics a critique, a failure in execution of an individual and/or organization to perform to a known set of success criteria . Writing Essay Knowledge? In corporations the penalty for repeated failure on scientific a critique, known tasks is being reassigned to other tasks or asked to leave the company. As I sat with Bob and his innovation team, I realized that all of with a motivational speech Acme’s new product innovation initiatives were being held to the same standard as those of existing products . Acme was approaching innovation and disruptive product ideas using the same processes, procedures, schedules, and incentives within the same organizational structure and culture as its existing businesses. No wonder innovation at Acme had stalled. The Ambidextrous Organization – Execution and Innovation. That companies should be simultaneously executing and innovating isn’t a new insight. For decades others have observed that companies needed to be ambidextrous. So while we did not lack the insight that execution and innovation need to be separate, we did lack the processes, tools, culture and organizational structures to implement it . On The Study A Critique? Corporate innovation initiatives have spent decades looking at other corporate structures as models for innovation when in fact we should have been looking at startups for autumn essays, innovation models – and adapting and adopting them for corporate use.
What We Now Know about Corporate Innovation. In the last five years, as the need for continuous innovation in companies has become critical, Lean innovation methodologies (Lean LaunchPad/I-Corps) have also emerged. These methods allow rapid experimentation – at startup speed – with the same rigor and discipline as traditional execution processes. Adopted by the National Science Foundation and large companies, over essays on the of politics 1000 teams have used the process, and the resulting commercialization success speaks for itself. But running a Lean Startup inside an organization designed for execution is an exercise in futility. Working with large corporations we’ve learned that innovation groups need their own structure, culture, tools (Lean, Design Thinking, etc.), metrics (validated/invalidated hypotheses, Investment Readiness Level) and processes. And both organizations – execution and innovation – need to literature understand that the success of the company rests on essays scientific, how well they can cooperate. Bob’s eyes lit up as he said, “Now I understand why innovation seemed beyond our reach.
We were missing four ideas: Accepting failure and running at speed are part of an innovation culture. China Overpopulated Essay? We need to separate out innovation risks from execution risks. There are now proven Lean innovation methodologies (Lean LaunchPad/I-Corps) that we can use off the shelf in building an innovation culture without inventing our own. We need to make sure that management no longer uses execution metrics to manage and judge our innovation teams. In a startup “fear of scientific study failure” drives speed and urgency In a large company “fear of china overpopulated failure” inhibits speed and risk Innovation means experimentation in on the scientific a critique searching for about, a business model. Often failure is the norm not the exception.
Innovation processes and essays on the study of politics metrics need to be different from those of the execution organizations There are proven Lean innovation methodologies that work in large existing companies. I’m on the Air – On Sirius XM Channel 111. Starting this Monday, March 9 th 4-6pm Pacific Time I’ll be on about film, the radio hosting the Bay Area Ventures program on Sirius XM radio Channel 111 – the Wharton Business Radio Channel. Over this program I’ll be talking to essays on the scientific study a critique entrepreneurs, financial experts and academic leaders in the tech and biotech industries. And if the autumn essays past is prologue I guarantee you that this will be radio worth listening to. On our first show, Monday March 9 th 4-6pm Pacific Time join me, as I chat with Alexander Osterwalder – inventor of the Business Model Canvas, and Oren Jacob, ex-CTO of Pixar and now CEO of ToyTalk on Sirius XM Radio Channel 111 . Oren Jacob – CEO ToyTalk. Alex Osterwalder – Business Models. On Monday’s show we’ll be talking about a range of entrepreneurship topics: what’s a Business Model Canvas, how to build startups efficiently, the 9 deadly sins of scientific study of politics a startup, the life of a startup CEO, how large companies can innovate at startup speeds. Writing? But it won’t just be us talking; we’ll be taking your questions live and on the air by phone, email or Twitter. On April 27 th , on my next program, my guest will be Eric Ries the author of the Lean Startup.
Future guests include Marc Pincus, founder of Zynga, and scientific study other interesting founders and investors. Is there anyone you’d like to hear on the air on admission essay, future shows? Any specific topics you’d like discussed? Leave me a comment. Mark your calendar for 4-6pm Pacific Time on of politics, Sirius XM Radio Channel 111 : Blowing up the Business Plan at U.C. Berkeley Haas Business School. During the Cold War with the Soviet Union, science and autumn essays engineering at both Stanford and U.C. Berkeley were heavily funded to develop Cold War weapon systems. Essays Study? Stanford’s focus was Electronic Intelligence and those advanced microwave components and systems were useful in a variety of weapons systems.
Starting in autumn essays the 1950’s, Stanford’s engineering department became “outward facing” and developed a culture of spinouts and active faculty support and essays on the scientific participation in the first wave of with a motivational Silicon Valley startups. At the same time Berkeley was also developing Cold War weapons systems. However its focus was nuclear weapons – not something you wanted to be spinning out. So Berkeley started a half century history of “inward facing innovation” focused on on the study a critique, the Lawrence Livermore nuclear weapons lab. (See the presentation here.) Given its inward focus, Berkeley has always been the neglected sibling in Silicon Valley entrepreneurship. That has changed in writing essay the last few years.
Today the U.C. Berkeley Haas Business School is a leader in entrepreneurship education. It has replaced how to write a business plan with hands-on Lean Startup methods. It’s teaching the LaunchPad ® and the I-Corps for the National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health, as well as corporate entrepreneurship courses. Here’s the story from Andre Marquis, Executive Director of Berkeley’s Lester Center for Entrepreneurship. When I came to U.C. Berkeley in essays on the scientific of politics a critique 2010 to run the Lester Center for Entrepreneurship in admission nursing program the Haas School of scientific of politics a critique Business we were teaching entrepreneurship the same way as when I was a student back in 1995. Our core MBA class used the seminal textbook New Venture Creation by Jeffrey Timmons of writing a motivational speech Babson College that was first published in scientific 1977. The final deliverable for essay, that class was a 30-page business plan. We had multiple business plan competitions. As I looked around at other schools, I saw pretty much the on the study of politics same landscape – business plan classes, business plan competitions and loosely coupled accelerators that focused primarily on mentoring.
Over my career as a serial entrepreneur I observed that since the late 1990s, no early-stage Silicon Valley investor had used business plans to screen investments. Even those who asked for essay, them never read them. Traction and evidence from customers were what investors were looking for scientific study, – even in about “slow” sectors like healthcare and energy. There had been tectonic shifts in on the of politics a critique the startup world, but our business school curriculum had barely moved. There was a big gap in autumn essays our educational paradigm. Essays Scientific Of Politics? To create great entrepreneurs, we had to give our students the experience of essay + general navigating the study a critique chaos and writing test uncertainty of essays on the of politics running a lean startup while providing the same kind of rigorous framework the business plan did in its day. Autumn Essays? The advantage of following New Venture Creation is that it had a deep pedagogical infrastructure that students took away after they left school. The disadvantage is essays scientific study of politics, that its methodology was based on writing film, the old waterfall model of product development and not the agile and lean methods that startups use today. As I began my search to increase the relevance of our entrepreneurship curriculum with the same rigor as Timmons and New Venture Creation, I found the answer right here at scientific study of politics, Berkeley, in writing about Steve Blank’s Lean LaunchPad class.
(Our founding Executive Director Jerry Engel, recently retired to become dean of essays on the a critique faculty for the National Science Foundation I-Corps, had a tradition of incorporating leading practioners, like Steve. Help? These ‘pracademics’ proved to scientific of politics a critique be some of the biggest innovators in overpopulated essay entrepreneurship education.) Seeing Is Believing. The Lean LaunchPad class was completely different from a traditional entrepreneurship class. It taught lean theory (business model design, customer development and agile engineering) and practice. Every week, each student team stood in front of the class and presented their business model hypotheses, what they had learned from talking to essays study of politics a critique customers, demo’d their minimal viable products and + general knowledge test had to explain what they were going to do next. Steve and the venture capitalists at the back of the room relentlessly peppered them with questions and pushed them to get out of the building and call on the real decision-makers instead of talking to people they already knew.
Some teams stepped down from the podium proud that they had made real progress that week while others were chastised because they stuck to their comfort zone, were not doing the tough work required by entrepreneurs and on the road to failure. I realized this class was teaching students exactly what it felt like to be an entrepreneur! Great entrepreneurs are on a search for the truth, no matter how wrong their initial conception is. Being an entrepreneur is about starting out with no idea whether you are working on the next big thing or something no one wants and on the study of politics a critique certainly no one will pay for. Essays About? It’s struggling to find the right path forward through chaos and uncertainty. Killing bad ideas quickly and moving on.
Staring at the phone while mentally wrestling to pick it up to make that next cold call. It’s having investors tell you that you’re dead wrong and, perhaps with enough customer traction, showing them the path to essays on the of politics a critique a new future neither of you could see at the time. And there it was. The Lean LaunchPad was unlike any class I’d ever seen. As a Silicon Valley entrepreneur I had lived the lean approach, yet I had never seen it taught. Done informally as part of an accelerator, yes, but not with a framework based on a clear process and clear pedagogy. The Lean LaunchPad was teaching students concepts and a process that they took away from the class and could use again for + general knowledge, their next startup. I realized I was looking at a paradigm shift in entrepreneurial education – away from the business plan-focused model to a Lean Startup model. (The irony is that once you’ve gone through the lean cycle, you have all the information that goes in a business plan: customers, sales strategy, product features, and on the study a critique financial metrics. It’s just that they are validated instead of made up.) The Business Plan is Dead.
Now, 4 years after I arrived at BerkeleyHaas, we don’t teach business plan writing in any of our entrepreneurship classes or in any of china overpopulated our dozens of programs and competitions. We use Customer Development and the Lean LaunchPad to train and study of politics accelerate teams U.C. Berkeley-wide. We’ve gone global as well. In the about past year alone, we’ve taught over 250 teams, over 1,000 entrepreneurs and their mentors in dozens of essays scientific of politics countries how to create scalable startups in domains from software and hardware to healthcare and energy. Haas global footprint. The international teams watch the lectures online, get out of the building, present to us each week via WebEx and get the same brand of relentless and direct feedback their U.C. Berkeley peers got in Steve’s class. For example, our Intel Technology To Market Accelerator took 22 teams from 11 countries across 15 time zones, from northern Russia to southern Chile and from Saudi Arabia to the U.S. About Film? (Chicago) through the Lean LaunchPad process. Clearly, lean works globally.
And we’ve been part of the U.S. Essays Scientific Study? effort to use the Lean LaunchPad to accelerate commercialization for help writing a motivational speech, the country’s best research spinouts from the National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health. We do this by running classes for essays scientific study, the NSF Innovation Corps and The I-Corps at the NIH. And the same lean techniques work just as well in the corporate innovation programs we run such as the Intel Make It Wearable Challenge. An important distinction is that these programs are accelerators. The teams in them start with an idea or product, meet with customers, build prototypes and search for a scalable business model.
All declare their startup a “go” or “no go” at the end. They learn it’s all about building to scale, pivoting or declaring failure, and moving on using a hypothesis-driven search for the truth. Even our venerable 15-year old business plan competition, once dubbed “bplan,” has transformed into LAUNCH, a multi-month accelerator with a rigorous process combining the Lean LaunchPad, agile product development and a focus on measurable Lean Analytics. Ironically, LAUNCH has turned out to be much more rigorous than the prior business plan competition because we immerse every entrepreneur and their mentors in conquering the chaos and uncertainty that is normal for startups. We expect them to come out conduct with specific knowledge of essays a critique their markets and writing + general knowledge business ecosystem, verified metrics, a product and a plan for essays on the of politics, moving forward based on interacting with their actual customers – not honing the teams for a beauty pageant-like pitch fest or making them produce a business plan that’s fundamentally speculative. As educators, we are having a deep impact on these entrepreneurs and their startups. Lean LaunchPad Works Across Industries. I often hear the conduct literature review concern that the Lean LaunchPad only on the scientific, works for software. After 700 teams in overpopulated essay robotics, materials, hardware, therapeutics, diagnostics, medical devices, and enterprise software, it’s clear that Lean Startup methods work across all industries.
We’ve taught versions of the Lean LaunchPad for life sciences at UCSF and as part of the National Institutes of Health, for hardware-focused startups making wearable devices as part of the essays of politics a critique Intel Make It Wearable Challenge, for teams working on essays, nanotechnology and in education (STEMKids and Build and Imagine). Two of our BerkeleyHaas Faculty, Jorge Calderon and Will Rosenzweig, created a Social Lean LaunchPad class that embraces the mission and essays on the a critique stakeholders central to writing essay + general social ventures. Whether it’s making iPhone apps or medical devices, every startup is looking for a repeatable and scalable business model. Focusing on finding customer needs, figuring out essays how they buy and how to scale up product delivery are universal. Where We Are Going From Here. At U.C. Berkeley we’ve undergone a complete transformation in just four years.
But the longer journey is to continue to build new lean-tools and classes separate from the 40 year-old, business plan-based tradition. We continue to ask ourselves, “What can we do to get our students out of the classroom, in cross-functional teams, building for specific customers and having the experience of admission making hard decisions under conditions of uncertainty? What can we do to expand and deepen the rigor of the Lean Startup methodologies and fully elaborate our curriculum?” At BerkeleyHaas we are sharing what we are learning (see below). On The Study Of Politics A Critique? By embracing lean, you can be assured you will be giving your students essential innovation skills they will use for essay, the rest of their lives. You will see great startups focused on solving real customer problems emerge as well. Scientific A Critique? This is an exciting journey and we are all right at the start.
Some resources for admission program, shifting the paradigm in your organization: Early-stage investors don’t read business plans We are in essays study a critique the middle of + general knowledge test a shift in entrepreneurship education from teaching the waterfall model of startup development (enshrined in business plans) to teaching the lean startup model The Lean LaunchPad process works across a wide range of essays on the of politics domains – from conduct science and engineering to healthcare, energy, government, the social sector and for corporate innovation Customer Development works outside Silicon Valley. In fact, it works globally The Lean LaunchPad is a business process that teaches entrepreneurs and innovators to scientific a critique make business-focused, evidence-based decisions under conditions of overpopulated essay chaos and uncertainty. It’s a big idea.
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Essays in Political Science (Book Review) - St John s Law
An Essay on the Principle of Population by Thomas Malthus. Essays Scientific Study Of Politics? Question stated - Little prospect of a determination of it, from the autumn essays, enmity of the opposing parties - The principal argument against the perfectibility of man and on the scientific of society has never been fairly answered - Nature of the knowledge, difficulty arising from on the of politics population - Outline of the principal argument of the with a motivational speech, Essay. The different ratio in which population and food increase - The necessary effects of these different ratios of increase - Oscillation produced by on the study them in the condition of the lower classes of autumn essays society - Reasons why this oscillation has not been so much observed as might be expected - Three propositions on which the general argument of the Essay depends -- The different states in essays on the, which mankind have been known to exist proposed to be examined with reference to these three propositions. The savage or hunter state shortly reviewed - The shepherd state, or the tribes of writing essay + general knowledge barbarians that overran the Roman Empire - The superiority of the power of population to the means of on the scientific subsistence - the cause of the great tide of Northern Emigration. State of civilized nations - Probability that Europe is much more populous now than in the time of Julius Caesar - Best criterion of population - Probable error of Hume in one the criterions that he proposes as assisting in an estimate of population - Slow increase of population at present in autumn essays, most of the states of Europe - The two principal checks to population - The first, or preventive check examined with regard to England. The second, or positive check to population examined, in England - The true cause why th immense sum collected in England for the poor does not better their condition - The powerful tendency of the poor laws to defeat their own purpose - Palliative of the distresses of the essays scientific, poor proposed - The absolute impossibility, from the fixed laws of our nature, that the pressure of want can ever be completely removed from the lower classes of society - All the checks to population may be resolved into overpopulated essay misery or vice. New colonies - Reasons for their rapid increase - North American Colonies - Extraordinary instance of increase in the back settlements - Rapidity with which even old states recover the ravages of war, pestilence, famine, or the convulsions of nature. A probable cause of epidemics - Extracts from Mr Suessmilch's tables - Periodical returns of sickly seasons to be expected in certain cases - Proportion of births to burials for short periods in any country an essays study inadequate criterion of the real average increase of essay + general knowledge test population - Best criterion of scientific of politics a critique a permanent increase of population - Great frugality of living one of the causes of the famines of China and Indostan - Evil tendency of one of the overpopulated essay, clauses in Mr Pitt's Poor Bill - Only one proper way of encouraging population - Causes of the Happiness of nations - Famine, the last and essays on the scientific most dreadful mode by which nature represses a redundant population - The three propositions considered as established.
Mr Wallace - Error of supposing that the difficulty arising from population is at a great distance - Mr Condorcet's sketch of the progress of the human mind - Period when the writing film, oscillation, mentioned by Mr Condorcet, ought to be applied to the human race. Essays On The Study? Mr Condorcet's conjecture concerning the organic perfectibility of man, and the indefinite prolongation of human life - Fallacy of the argument, which infers an unlimited progress from a partial improvement, the limit of which cannot be ascertained, illustrated in the breeding of animals, and the cultivation of plants. Mr Godwin's system of equality - Error of attributing all the vices of mankind to human institutions - Mr Godwin's first answer to china overpopulated the difficulty arising from population totally insufficient - Mr Godwin's beautiful system of equality supposed to be realized - In utter destruction simply from the principle of population in so short a time as thirty years. Mr Godwin's conjecture concerning the future extinction of the passion between the sexes - Little apparent grounds for such a conjecture - Passion of on the scientific a critique love not inconsistent either with reason or virtue. Mr Godwin's conjecture concerning the indefinite prolongation of writing about film human life - Improper inference drawn from the effects of essays on the study of politics mental stimulants on the human frame, illustrated in various instances - Conjectures not founded on any indications in the past not to be considered as philosophical conjectures - Mr Godwin's and Mr Condorcet's conjecture respecting the approach of man towards immortality on earth, a curious instance of the inconsistency of scepticism. Error of Mr Godwin is help writing a motivational considering man too much in the light of a being merely rational - In the essays scientific a critique, compound being, man, the passions will always act as disturbing forces in the decisions of the understanding - Reasonings of Mr Godwin on the subject of coercion - Some truths of a nature not to admission program be communicated from one man to another. Mr Godwin's five propositions respecting political truth, on which his whole work hinges, not established - Reasons we have for supposing, from the distress occasioned by the principle of population, that the essays of politics a critique, vices and moral weakness of man can never be wholly eradicated - Perfectibility, in the sense in which Mr Godwin uses the term, not applicable to man - Nature of the real perfectibility of admission nursing man illustrated. Models too perfect may sometimes rather impede than promote improvement - Mr Godwin's essay on 'Avarice and Profusion' - Impossibility of dividing the necessary labour of a society amicably among all -Invectives against labour may produce present evil, with little or no chance of producing future good - An accession to the mass of agricultural labour must always be an advantage to the labourer. Probable error of Dr Adam Smith in representing every increase of the revenue or stock of a society as an increase in the funds for the maintenance of labour - Instances where an increase of wealth can have no tendency to better the condition of the labouring poor - England has increased in riches without a proportional increase in the funds for on the study of politics a critique, the maintenance of writing + general knowledge test labour - The state of the poor in China would not be improved by an increase of wealth from manufactures. Question of the proper definition of the scientific, wealth of a state - Reason given by the French economists for considering all manufacturers as unproductive labourers, not the true reason - The labour of artificers and manufacturers sufficiently productive to literature individuals, though not to essays on the a critique the state - A remarkable passage in Dr Price's two volumes of Observations - Error of Dr Price in overpopulated, attributing the happiness and rapid population of America, chiefly, to study a critique its peculiar state of civilization - No advantage can be expected from literature review shutting our eyes to the difficulties in the way to the improvement of society.
The constant pressure of distress on man, from the principle of population, seems to direct our hopes to the future - State of trial inconsistent with our ideas of the foreknowledge of God - The world, probably, a mighty process for awakening matter into mind - Theory of the formation of mind - Excitements from the wants of the body - Excitements from the operation of general laws - Excitements from the difficulties of life arising from the principle of population. The sorrows of life necessary to soften and humanize the heart - The excitement of social sympathy often produce characters of a higher order than the mere possessors of essays scientific study of politics talents - Moral evil probably necessary to the production of moral excellence - Excitements from intellectual wants continually kept up by writing about the infinite variety of nature, and study of politics a critique the obscurity that involves metaphysical subjects - The difficulties in revelation to autumn essays be accounted for upon this principle - The degree of evidence which the scriptures contain, probably, best suited to the improvements of the human faculties, and the moral amerlioration of mankind - The idea that mind is created by excitements seems to account for on the scientific a critique, the existence of natural and moral evil.
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Essays in Political Science (Book Review) - St John s Law
Essay on essays of politics a critique Biotechnology: Definition, Advancement and Application. Read this essay to learn about Biotechnology. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Definition of Biotechnology 2. Traditional and Modern Biotechnology 3. Advancement of Biotechnology 4. Applications 5. Scope 6. Biotechnology in India 7. Gene Therapy 8. Genetic Counseling 9. Bio Fertilizers and 10. Gene Bank. Essay on the Definition of Biotechnology Essay on the Traditional and Modern Biotechnology Essay on the Advancement of essay, Biotechnology Essay on the Applications of Biotechnology Essay on the Scope of Biotechnology Essay on essays on the scientific the Biotechnology in India Essay on the Gene Therapy Essay on the Genetic Counseling Essay on admission the Bio Fertilizers Essay on the Gene Bank. Essay # 1. Definition of Biotechnology: Biotechnology is a term which is a combination of two individual terms: Biology and Technology. As the name suggests “It is the assembly of technology in science of biology”. Most simply it may be defined as: “The regulated and controlled use of the biological agents for the manufacture of useful products or for generating beneficial services”. These biological agents may be microorganisms, animals or plants or their cellular components.
However, it is not easy to define biotechnology in a single sentence because of its wide and multidisciplinary applications. Various definitions have been given by different scientific organisations. One of such standard definition as given by the ‘European Federation of Biotechnology’ is as follows: Biotechnology is the integrated use of biochemistry, microbiology and engineering sciences in order to achieve technological applications of the capabilities of on the scientific a critique, microorganisms, cultured cells/tissues and parts thereof. U.S. National Science Federation says that “Biotechnology is the controlled use of biological agents such as microorganisms or cellular components for beneficial use.” According to IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), biotechnology means “the application of biochemistry, biology, microbiology and chemical engineering to industrial processes and products and on environment.” Essay # 2. Traditional and Modern Biotechnology : The art of biotechnology is essays very old. Essays Scientific! It is as old as human civilization. It actually began when man started the domestication of useful plants and animals and started utilizing microbes for making various beverages (like wine, beer), curd, vinegar, etc. Alcohol was probably the essays about film, first product of ancient biotechnology.
Such practices which have been in vogue since long by our ancestors and are being used even today are included in the traditional biotechnology. Essays Scientific! Such practices are very common in day-to-day life and are also used in normal kitchen technology, i.e., while preparing idli, dhokla, cheese, curd, etc. With the advancement of science and technology, advent of new analytical instruments and recent progress in the field of autumn essays, microbiology, molecular biology, etc. it has become possible for us to discover or improve better strains of microbes for commercial production. This all comprises the modern biotechnology. Essays On The Scientific Study! In simple words we may also differentiate between traditional (old) and modern (new) biotechnology. Old Biotechnology is the one which involves the writing + general, exploitation and utilization of on the a critique, natural capabilities of microbes or cellular components for manufacture of useful products or for writing a motivational services. New Biotechnology involves the use of recombinant DNA technology, enzyme engineering, genetic engineering practices, etc., for developing newer or improved capabilities of biological agents for essays study of politics production of beneficial services or products.
Essay # 3. Advancement of Biotechnology : This branch of conduct review, biology is in use by mankind since very long. Numerous important achievements and advancements have been made by many eminent workers for this discipline. A few of such important contributions by various workers in the field of biotechnology are enlisted below: Biotechnology as a Multidisciplinary Activity: Biotechnology is truly multidisciplinary (or interdisciplinary) in nature and it encompasses several disciplines of basic sciences and engineering. The science disciplines from which biotechnology draws heavily are Microbiology, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Immunology, Tissue Culture and on the Physiology. Recent advancements have led to a multidisciplinary’ applicability of biotechnology. Various areas in which this discipline is very frequently used on large scale are: agriculture, food and beverage industry, environment, medicines, energy and fuels, enzyme technology, waste utilization, biodiversity conservation, etc. (Fig. 1).
Biotechnology has great impact in areas like Environment, Bioinformatics, Genomics Proteomics and Human Genome Project (HGP). Essay # 4. Literature Review! Applications of Biotechnology : Biotechnology is such a branch of on the scientific a critique, science which has advanced rapidly and has emerged as a potential science for providing benefits in all the fields of overpopulated, human welfare. It has a great impact in almost all the domains of human life, may it be health, environment, foods or agriculture. Recent advancements have led to essays on the scientific, a multidisciplinary applicability of biotechnology. Various areas in which this discipline is very frequently used on a large scale are as follows:
2. Food and Beverage Industry. 4. Health care and Medicines. 5. Energy and Fuels. 6. Enzymes and Biochemical. 7. Other Industrial applications. 8. Forensic cases. 9. Conservation of Nature. Agricultural biotechnology is supposed to be the answer to a hungry world’s food supply.
The applications of biotechnology in agriculture rank second (first being in medicines). Biotechnological approaches are used valuably in the fields of horticulture and floriculture also. Major applicability’s of biotechnology in the field of agriculture and autumn essays horticulture are: Manufacture of Bio fertilizers which prove to be more beneficial than other synthetic and chemical fertilizers. Bio fertilizers are cost effective, harmless for plants and they also increase soil fertility. The Nitrogen-fixation and essays on the scientific a critique assimilation efficiency of the crops are also being increased by the practices like cloning of nif (nitrogen fixing) genes or by transferring such genes Production of conduct review, Transgenic plants or Genetically Modified plants (GMP) – The plants whose genome has been modified by introduction of foreign gene(s) of an unrelated organism, are called transgenic plants or GMPs e.g. Br cotton, Flavr Savr Tomato, golden Rice, etc.
The transgenic plants may provide one or more characteristics of the following: (a) Resistance to insects, fungi, bacteria and on the a critique virus. (b) Highly resistant to herbicides, pesticides and other chemicals. (c) Drought, resistance, flood resistance, Salinity resistance, etc. (d) High productivity. (e) Crop plants with improved quality. Plant Tissue Culture: It aims at admission nursing program, the in-vitro culture of plants. It is very beneficial for agriculture. This is evident by the following points: (a) Clonal propagation helps in rapid production of commercially important plants and trees like timber trees, ornamental plants, orchids, fruits, rubber plants, etc.
(b) Production of somatic hybrids by hybridization of of politics, protoplasts compatible plant species. Such somatic hybrids have characters of china essay, both umelated species. (c) Production of artificial seeds, etc. 2. Biotechnology in on the of politics a critique Food and writing essays film Beverage Industry: A number of on the study a critique, microorganisms are Used beneficially in the production of certain foods and beverages like cheese, wine curd beer, vinegar, etc. The underlying process behind such productions is fermentation Natural fermentation has played a vital role in human development and it is the autumn essays, oldest form of study, production of wine.
Fermentation may be defined as the process which involves the biochemical activity of microorganisms to produce an economically important product like food, beverages or pharmaceuticals. In other words, it is the use of autumn essays, microorganisms for production of commercial products. Natural fermentation is the part of traditional biotechnology. Several modifications are also done in essays on the of politics a critique the genome of microbes by gene transfer methods to achieve better results and this is involved in modern biotechnology. The fermentation may be performed by yeasts, bacteria, molds or by combination of essays about, these organisms. Yeasts are of primary importance in manufacture of bread, beer, wine and distilled liquors. Molds are important in the preparation of some cheeses and oriental foods A few fermented products are listed below along with the substrate name and the name of microorganism involved: Liquors or spirits of scientific, interest produced by distillation of an alcohohcally fermented product.
(a) Rum-Distillate from alcoholically fermented sugarcane juice or molasses. (b) Whiskey—Distillate from fermented grain mashes. (c) Brandy—Distillate from wine. (d) Gin—Distillate from fermented rye malt. Single Cell Proteins (SCP): It is the term which designates the high protein food from microorganisms like algae, filamentous fungi, bacteria and yeast. Genetic engineering is used to select and produce the high protein content or desirable composition of food by improving the autumn essays, microbial strains. SCP is, actually, the total microbial biomass which is free from any type of toxins and contaminants. It is high in protein content so it can be used to replace the conventional vegetable and animal protein sources.
Bio technological approaches have been in use for the mass-cultivation of SCP by improving the source microorganisms. Some such microbial sources are: Chlorella, Spirulina, Scenedesmus. Agaricus campestris; Morchella crassipes. Candida utilis, Saccharomyces fragilis, Rhodotorula. A clean environment is essays scientific study a critique as important for writing about film us as better health and nutritious food.
Environmental biotechnology promises to on the study, solve many problems related with pollution, waste disposal, etc. i. Essay Nursing! Methods using organisms to breakdown the pollutants for e.g. the traditional septic tanks where domestic sewage is decomposed by bacteria. ii. Genetically engineered microbes (GEM) are used for essays study of politics a critique efficient treatment of industrial waste water. iii. A greatly enhanced oil-eating bacterial strain i.e., Pseudomonas helps in the removal of oil-spills. iv. Bioremediation of pollutants is an essays about film, effective, simple and more practical method of removal of earth’s pollution. Bioremediation means the on the scientific of politics a critique, utilization of biological organisms for conduct review reducing pollution or for the removal of environmental pollutants.
The bioremediation of organic toxic pollutants is mainly based on essays of politics a critique the microorganisms and conduct review thus it is called as ‘microbial bioremediation. On the other hand, the bioremediation of inorganic contaminants is carried by certain plant species and therefore it is termed as ‘phytoremediation’ (i.e., bioremediation by use of plants). v. Growing plants with high metal absorbing ability can be a cheap and effective method to remove toxic chemicals from a particular land area. vi. Most importantly, the scientific a critique, production of biofuels is essays film also a gift of environmental biotechnology for us. 4. Biotechnology in Medicines and Health Care: In medical field, the contribution of biotechnology is most frequent. It not only helps in the cure of diseases but also aids in detection and prevention of disease. It also helps in curing genetic disorders by means of gene therapy. i. DNA probes and Monoclonal antibodies are used as tools for diagnosis of study, diseases. ii.
Many valuable drugs and writing antibiotics are also produced on essays scientific of politics large scale by using biotechnological processes. iii. Writing Test! Human Insulin was the first therapeutic product to be made commercially by genetically engineered bacterium. iv. Essays On The Of Politics A Critique! Cloning of human leukocyte interferon gene, HepatitisB Virus gene, Human Growth Hormone (HGH) genes, etc. Admission Nursing! have also helped in the production of vaccines. v. Essays Study! Gene therapy is the about film, method of curing genetic diseases (or acquired diseases) by essays scientific study of politics a critique the replacement of an abnormal gene by a therapeutic gene. Diseases like Tay-sachs disease, Cystic fibrosis, etc. can be cured by gene therapy. Currently biotechnologists are also making trials for using gene therapy to cure tumours, cancers, etc. The type of gene therapy which is done at the level of germ cells like sperms, or eggs is called as germ line gene therapy. In this type of gene therapy, the functional genes are introduced into the genome of conduct review, germ cells. The changes so occurred are passed on to the forthcoming generations also, i.e., the changes are heritable in case of germ line gene therapy.
Other type of gene therapy is the somatic cell gene therapy. It involves the correction of genetic defects by introduction of therapeutic gene into the somatic cells of essays scientific study of politics a critique, body. Help With! The changes so occurred are not heritable. vi. Study A Critique! Genetic engineering aids in the high speed and high quantity production of antibiotics by certain microorganisms. A few important antibiotics and their sources are given below: (a) Penicillin – Penicillium notatum, P. chrysogenum. (b) Streptomycin – Streptomyces griseus. (c) Aureomycin – S. aureofaciens. (d) Chloromycetin – S. venezuelae, S. lavendulae.
(e) Erythromycin – S. erytheraeus. (f) Griseofulvin – P. griseofulvum. (g) Oxytetracyclin – S. rimosus. 5. Biotechnology in Energy and Fuels: Today oil is the major fuelling material but it is bound to run out in forthcoming years. Conduct Literature! Also, it causes a great amount of pollution.
A substitute of it is essays on the scientific study a critique being found in biofuels which are produced from the sources that are relatively clean and renewable. i. Potential fuel crops can be genetically engineered so that they can grow at a faster rate and that also with a higher ratio of easily fermentable tissues. ii. Writing Essays Film! The microbes involved in fermentation can also be engineered for more efficient conversion of substrate into biofuel. Biotechnology is contributing a lot to essays on the scientific study, increase the acceptability of biomass, biogas. etc. as the commercially stable energy options for forthcoming time. The biomass of other biological wastes can be utilized for the generation of different forms of energy. Biotechnology provides a number of advanced techniques for this purpose.
For instance, the techniques of gene manipulations, improved varieties of plants for high yield, modified microbes, etc. makes it possible to explore renewable sources of energy. There are certain plants which produce hydrocarbons and are called as petro-plants. e.g. Hevea rubber plant, Calotropis procera, Euphorbia lathyris, etc. Certain algae are also of immense use in production of biofuels. Biological agents like plants and microbes are modified biotechnologically and are then used to generate efficient fuels like biogas, bioethanol, biodiesel, bio hydrogen, etc. 6. Help With Writing! Biotechnology in Production of Enzymes and essays of politics a critique Biochemical: Many commercially important enzymes and other biochemical compounds can be obtained on large scale by modifying the source microbial strains using gene transfer methods. Such modified microbes are termed as GEMs (Genetically Engineered Microbes). Similarly, many other compounds like vitamins, steroids, secondary metabolites, organic acids, etc. may be extracted and derived from the activity of a motivational, other GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms).
i. Bio fertilizers, Bio herbicides, Bio-insecticides etc. are certain biologically produced chemical compounds which involve the essays study of politics a critique, utilization of microbial activities. ii. Some Examples of enzymes with their source microorganisms are: Pectinase – Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilis. Glucanase – A. niger, B. subtilis. Lipase – A. niger, Mucor spp. Cellulase – A. niger, Rhizopus, Trichoderma. ?- amylase – B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens. Invertase – Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. fragilis.
Rennet – Mucor spp. Urate oxidase – Aspergillus flavus. Protease – Bacillus licheniformis. Glucose oxidase – Penicillium notatum. Microorganisms are of great importance for autumn essays production of various substances having great scope in different industries. Essays Scientific Study Of Politics A Critique! Microbial strains can be improved biotechnologically to get the desired product in sufficient quantity. About! For this purpose, the microbes can be improved using genetic engineering (recombinant DNA technology).
Different products of interest which are frequently produced in this manner are vitamins, enzymes, organic acids, amino acids, etc. Using genetic engineering techniques, it has become possible to on the of politics, obtain the mutants of microorganisms which can produce a much higher amount of product of interest than the natural ones. Genetic engineering not only results into enhanced metabolite production but may also help in product modification, or producing a completely new product of essays about, interest. Different uses of genetically engineered microbes (GEM) in of politics various industries can be enlisted as follows: (a) Vitamins like Vit. A, B, C, etc.
(b) Alcohols like Ethanol, Butanol, Amyl Alcohol. (c) Amino Acids e.g. L-Glutamate, Glycine, L-Lysine, L-Valine, eta. (d) Antibiotics e.g. Penicillin, Tetracyclic Streptomycin, etc. (e) Enzymes from essays film fungi, bacteria, etc. e.g. L-amylase, lipase, penicillinase, protease, invertase etc. (f) Bio fertilizers, Bio insecticides and Bio herbicides from biotechnologically improved bacterial, fungal, protozoan strains. These are of great benefit in agriculture. (g) Extraction of minerals like copper, uranium from ores through leaching by using improved bacterial strains.
8. Biotechnology in forensic cases: The applications of biotechnology in forensic science involve mainly the DNA fingerprinting technique. It helps in the identification of the rapists, murderers, or any other criminals on the basis of the study of essays scientific study of politics a critique, DNA isolated from blood stains, hair roots, semen, sweat, saliva or urine. This technique also helps in autumn essays solving the parentage disputes i.e., to find out the biological father of study, a child. 9. Biotechnology for Conservat ion of Nature: For ex-situ conservation of conduct literature review, plant species, the essays study of politics, biotechnological approaches are used.
The germplasm banks, seed banks, gene banks, etc. utilize the cryopreservation technique. Various tissue culture techniques are also employed for conservation of with writing, threatened species. Of Politics! Micro propagation helps in the rapid multiplication of endangered plant species. Biotechnological approaches are applied to with, accomplish goals for the benefit of mankind. Scientists have achieved many such goals and a few fields are also there in scientific of politics a critique which they are trying for success. Following are a few programmes being undertaken by the biotechnologists: (a) Development of effective antiviral vaccines. (b) Bio-control of plant diseases. (c) Genetically improving the pharmaceutical microorganisms.
(d) Large scale production of bio pesticides and bio fertilizers. (e) Production of Human Interferon’s. (f) Upgrading the photosynthetic efficiency of plants. (g) Production of secondary metabolites from plants on large scale. (h) Improved production of vitamins. (i) Developing efficient biofuels. (j) Developing methods for curing cancer.
(k) Better gene therapy practices for human. (l) Production of help a motivational, transgenic animals and plants with better qualities. (m) Protection of threatened species. Biotechnology has become a very happening branch of science today. Developed countries and even some developing countries also, are pushing the researches in this field biotechnology has a great commercial potential It has revolutionized the industries specially the pharmaceuticals. This revolution is clearly reflected by the emergence of a number of biotechnological companies all over the world. To name a few of these biotech companies are Monsanto Co. (U.S.A.), Genentech Inc. (U.S.A.), Eli lilly Smithkline, Hybritech U.S.A., etc.
In India also, there are a number of companies which have been successfully producing the on the study, modern biotechnological products specially the drugs Some such Indian companies are Pennetia Biotech Ltd., Wipro, Reliance, etc.. Like other developing countries, biotechnology has become a major thrust in India also for promotion and planning of overpopulated essay, various biotechnological programmes in India, there is present a separate department called Department of Biotechnology (DBT). DBT was set up in 1986 under the Ministry of Science Technology. DBT funds some important centres for exploiting biotechnological approaches and also for promotion of postgraduate education and research in essays on the scientific a critique the field of biotechnology. Apart from DBT there are some other agencies also which work under the autumn essays, Indian Government for promotion of essays scientific of politics a critique, biotechnological approaches in various fields like industry agriculture and environment. A few important of them are: i. Writing Knowledge Test! DST—Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi.
ii. Essays On The Study A Critique! CSIR—Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. iii. ICMR—Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. iv. IARI—Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi. There are many other centres in India which function, in one way or the other for promoting biotechnology in India. Conduct Literature Review! Some of these centres are: NDRI—National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana.
i. CDRI—Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, U.P. ii. IVRI—Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. U.P. CFTRI—Central Food and Technological Research Institute, Mysore. iii. CIMAP Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, U.P. iv.
IITs of Kanpur, Madras, Bombay, New Delhi. v. On The Scientific! NBPGR—National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. In addition to all the above mentioned centres, there are also a number of companies in private sector of India which have been showing keen interest in the production of modern biotechnological products. Gene therapy in conduct most simple words is the use of a gene to cure a disease. There are a number of genetic diseases or acquired disorders that may have occurred due to specific mutations in on the a critique genes.
Such disorders may be corrected by replacing the defective gene by a normal healthy gene. This strategy of correcting the diseases is autumn essays termed as gene therapy. So, the gene therapy may be defined as the introduction of normal functional gene in the defective cells of a patient to on the scientific, correct a genetic or acquired disorder. The process of introduction of gene into the appropriate cell of admission nursing program, patient is essays on the scientific study of politics called as the gene delivery. During 1940s it was discovered that a gene from autumn essays one bacterial strain could be transferred into another strain and also that gene could be expressed in another strain successfully. Scientific A Critique! This discovery made the researchers to think about the possibility that human genetic disorder can be corrected in an analogous manner. Introduction of a normal (therapeutic) gene into a cell having defective gene, results into the correction of help with writing, disorder because the transferred gene provides the normal required gene product and this whole strategy is termed as the gene therapy. A number of human diseases have been targeted for gene therapy. Some of these are: A. Genetic diseases like Cystic Fibrosis, Haemophilia-A, B, Phenylketonuria, Severe combined Immunodeficiency Disease (SCID), etc. B. Essays On The Study Of Politics! Acquired diseases like Rheumatoid arthritis, AIDS, Cancer, etc.
While performing gene therapy, one of the two strategies can be followed for gene delivery. These two strategies are given below: In this strategy, the normal therapeutic gene is introduced directly into the target cell of patient. In this type of approach, the cells are isolated, cultured in-vitro and then the normal gene is introduced into these cells. Such transformed cells are then transplanted into overpopulated, the patient. Gene therapy can be done at essays scientific study of politics a critique, two levels for disease-correction, either at the embryo level called as embryo therapy in conduct literature which inheritance is also altered, or it can be done at the patient level which is called as the patient therapy. There are mainly two types of gene therapies; these are somatic gene therapy and germ line gene therapy. In this type, the therapeutic gene is introduced in the somatic cells of the patient. The effect so produced is not heritable.
This approach is being used for trials made to treat cancer and blood disorders mainly. In this type of gene therapy, the functional normal genes are introduced into the germ cells like sperm and eggs to correct the disorder. The changes produced by such approach are heritable and essays on the scientific study of politics a critique thus are passed to the next generations. Gene therapy is beneficial not only to autumn essays, treat genetic disorders but also for treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. To ensure a successful gene therapy, it is essential to decide an appropriate gene delivery system corresponding to the type of the target tissues. It is another application of biotechnology for human welfare. This technique is a boon to those couples who have some kind of a critique, doubt regarding the essays about, health of essays on the scientific of politics a critique, their future progeny. Genetic counselling is actually for those couples who have a threat in their minds that there may be a risk of producing a child with any genetic disease. In developed countries, it has become a very popular and literature routine part of the medical practices. However now-a-days, it has also been suggested even in developing countries to go for genetic counselling, if there is any kind of doubt. The person who serves the genetic counselling to the couples is called as a genetic counsellor.
A genetic counsellor has a role for identification of genetic disease on essays scientific study of politics the basis of description provided by the couple. After studying the family history thoroughly, a genetic counsellor suggests the couple for the probability of autumn essays, giving birth to a normal or a diseased child. On the basis of essays a critique, his studies and observations, a genetic counsellor tells the possibilities of autumn essays, giving birth to the child or aborting the child. The technique of genetic counselling is on the scientific study of politics a critique based on the antenatal diagnosis. In this method of diagnosis, a small quantity of amniotic fluid is taken from the china essay, foetus of a pregnant woman.
This amniotic fluid contains foetal cells which are cultured on medium and then are tested to check for essays scientific study a critique the presence of any genetic disorder. Essay Nursing! If on genetic counselling, the possibility of disease is detected to be higher, then, the abortion can be recommended. Usually those couples seek genetic counselling who have a family history of diseases or those who already have any diseased child and wish to know the chances of having a normal child in essays next pregnancy. Genetic counselling is recommended mostly for the cases of diseases like cystic fibrosis, thalassaemia, etc. A genetic counsellor may also prescribe gene therapy to the patients if he finds any scope for it after diagnosis.
Bio fertilizers are described as the microorganisms which are utilized as fertilizers for plants as they enhance the availability of nutrients like Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) to the plants. Another term used for bio fertilizers is Microbial Inoculants. Overpopulated Essay! A number of biological agents are being employed at large scale for the commercial preparation of bio fertilizers which include algae, bacteria and fungi. So, we may define bio fertilizers as the microbial inoculants of bacteria, algae and fungi which increase the availability of nutrients like N, P to the plants and thus result into benefit of plants. The importance of bio fertilizers has been realized now and therefore a lot of efforts are being made by the government as well as private sector to essays scientific study a critique, encourage the use of bio fertilizers. The microbial inoculants/bio fertilizers serve following advantageous aspects: (i) These are economical. (ii) Unlike chemical fertilizers, they are environment friendly. (iii) Bio fertilizers do not damage the soil texture. (iv) They not only provide nutrition to the plants but also help in enhancing the plant growth and yield. On the basis of the type of nutrient provided by the bio fertilizers, they can be categorized as follows: (a) Nitrogen Bio fertilizers:
These are the microbial inoculants which enhance the overpopulated essay, availability of nitrogen by fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Examples of this category include Rhizobium, Azospirillum, Cyanobacterium, etc. (b) Phosphatic Biofertilizers: These are the bio fertilizers which are responsible to increase the availability of nutrient phosphorus to scientific study, the plant by solubilizing the soil phosphorus. Bacteria like Thiobacillus, Bacillus, etc. are important examples of such category. Some important microorganisms which are used commercially as bio-fertilizers are enlisted below: For large scale production of bio-fertilizers, it is a motivational choose the efficient strains for N 2- fixation and/or P-solubilization. To ensure the longevity of essays on the, bio-fertilizers, their storage and distribution systems must be proper. In India, there is a continuous progress of bio-fertilizers exploitation.
A number of private industries are also involved in manufacturing of bio fertilizers. Government has also prepared a range of standards regarding the maintenance and quality of admission essay, bio-fertilizers. A National Bio-fertilizer Development Centre is located at essays a critique, Ghaziabad in U.P. Overpopulated Essay! which functions for the quality check and on the scientific development of bio-fertilizers in India. A gene bank is a facility where the writing essay knowledge, genetic material is on the a critique stored in the form of writing + general test, seeds or plant parts at low temperatures. It serves as an efficient method to store the germplasm of on the study of politics, wild as well as cultivated plants and therefore it helps in conserving the vanishing genetic-diversity. A gene bank is actually like a compartmentalized cold storage where the genetic material is stored under controlled conditions of the temperature and humidity for their germplasm conservation. Conventionally ‘seeds’ are preferred as the essays, material for germplasm conservation. The principle of a gene bank is essays on the study that the dehydrated seeds can retain their viability for essay a longer period of time if stored in cold conditions. For a long-term storage usually a temperature ranging between 0-18°C is applied. However, cryopreservation has made it more easy to store seeds in viable condition for even longer durations of time. In cryopreservation, the scientific of politics, genetic material is stored in liquid nitrogen having a very low temperature of -196 C.
Along with conserving the original genetic diversity, gene banks also make the genetic material available as raw material to the breeders and biotechnologists. A few of the important gene banks are located at nursing program, Vavilov Institute (Russia), National seed storage laboratory (Fort Collins, USA), International Rice Research Institute (Philippines), National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (New Delhi) and essays a critique Royal Botanic Garden (Kew). Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to provide an essay, online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages:
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