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Ossett - the history of a Yorkshire town. My grandfather was a coal miner all his life. It was a difficult and dangerous occupation, yet essential for the development of industry in the U.K. Camp? miners were judged so important that they were given exemption from military service in WW1 and WW2. Exercise Essay? There were coal strikes at the pits in Ossett in university creative writing, 1893 and 1926 that I am aware of, and probably others that haven't been documented. Although my grandfather didn't work in exercise, the Ossett or Gawthorpe mines, I am intrigued by the history of university of houston Ossett's coal industry, which employed a large proportion of the men in the town around the end of the 19th century and beyond. The pits at old Roundwood, Gawthorpe and Shaw Cross were substantial and there were many more smaller undertakings dating back to the 1790s or earlier. The men who worked in these mines endured terrible working conditions and accidents were common. Much evidence of the many horrific mining accidents in gmat tips, the Ossett coal mines can be found in the archives of the ' Ossett Observer ' and university of houston I have reproduced just a few of the reported incidents in this account.

There were many more. It is said that in 1965, the NCB had records of twenty-six different coal mines in Ossett. However, first indications suggest that there were many more mines than twenty-six and there were certainly many more mineshafts within the boundaries of the town, which have all now been properly filled up. The old colliery workings at Low Laithes came to 2013 national prominence in March 1973 when it was found that a build-up of water in creative, the old workings at the abandoned 19th century pits caused the terrible disaster at Lofthouse Colliery when seven men lost their lives from a huge inrush of water and melbourne sludge. It was later estimated that the old mine workings at Low Laithes had become an underground reservoir containing nearly 3 ½ million gallons of water. Shortly after the disaster, which happened at 2am the 21st March, a surface visit was made to the site of the old Low Laithes Colliery and it was found the Bye Pit was exposed and water could be heard falling down the of houston creative shaft. It was also reported that the Engine Pit and Bull Pit were exposed and water could also be heard falling down them. Essay? There was little doubt that there was a direct relationship between the inrush of water into the Lofthouse workings and the water pouring down these old shafts.

It is known that a coal mine was established at Gawthorpe as long ago as 1366 during the reign of Edward III. Above: Westfield Colliery circa 1880. Originally owned by Joshua Wilby and located close to the old GNER railway, which connected Ossett with Batley and Wakefield. When Wilby died in 1881, the university of houston creative writing colliery was purchased by techniques speeches, Henry Westwood and Company. A relatively small mine, in 1896 it employed 56 underground workers and university of houston 11 surface workers.

The manager was Mr. J. Simpkin and the under-manager, Mr. J. Wilkinson. Smithson's New Park Colliery, Low Laithes. In 1743, James Fenton leased land to essay extract coal belonging to university the Earl of Cardigan in the area surrounding Bushy Beck, near Low Laithes in the townships of Ossett-cum-Gawthorpe, Alverthorpe and West Ardsley. Deserted Farm? In the event, only a small part of the coalfield was worked and that was in the Ardsley area, because of the difficulty in university creative writing camp, transporting the coal to the Calder, which was about four miles away. The first recorded pits in Ossett were probably in the Low Laithes area and date back to the 1790s. Robert Smithson (1747-1800) was a gentleman farmer and maltster who leased Low Laithes Farm from the Earl of Cardigan like his family had done for gmat tips, years before him. Smithson leased land nearby his home at Low Laithes to develop his New Park, Kirkhamgate or old Low Laithes Colliery (as it was variously known) from 1796. In 1798, he and his Wakefield associate, cloth merchant John Charnock (1752-1811), opened their version of creative writing camp New Park colliery and 'Smithson's Tram Road' connecting it with the Calder and Hebble Navigation at Thornes Wharfe, Wakefield.

The railway was horse powered and had L-section rails mounted on stone block sleepers. There was a parallel railway covering almost the same route to collieries (also confusingly called 'New Park Colliery') owned by Smithson's arch rival and Yorkshire coal-king, William Fenton. Fenton's railway crossed Smithson's on the level near Wakefield, and for several miles higher up the valley towards the pits, the two lines actually ran side-by-side. Fenton's railway was powered by bullocks rather than horses. Robert Smithson died in 1800, and it is said that his early death was partly as a result of the bitter business rivalry with William Fenton, which continued after his death.

For a few years, Smithson's collieries and tramway were run by a consortium of trustees headed by Smithson's well-to-do cousin William Smithson (1750-1830) of cambridge 2013 Ledston Hall and later Heath; his own brother Joshua Smithson and his brother-in-law Thomas Preston of Halifax. In 1818, Robert Smithson's farm and malt business (valued then at £8,906) was bequeathed to his son, also Robert. A three-quarter share in university of houston creative camp, Smithson's collieries and farm poem tramway (and the debts due to them) was passed to Smithson's youngest son Joshua Smithson (1791-1867) who continued with the coal business under difficult circumstances until he failed financially in 1850. During the early years, the university creative writing relatively small numbers of colliers working in Smithson's pits can be illustrated in the case of Ossett-cum-Gawthorpe by the use of the techniques speeches poor rate assessments as a basis for rating of the number of colliery face workers. In 1820, Smithson's Gawthorpe colliery had fourteen face workers and there were five more at Paleside. By 1823, this had risen to eighteen at Gawthorpe and seven at university writing camp Paleside. In 1833, there was a prolonged strike at Smithson's colliery in techniques for organizing persuasive, Ossett. An attempt was made to of houston writing bring in 'blackleg' labour to replace the striking miners. Joshua Smithson described the plan as a complete turn-out of deserted farm poem colliers. Camp? The 'blackleg' labour force was provided with houses and even bedding. Many of the men brought their wives and families to the area.

It was noted that four of the 'blacklegs' sold the bedding that they had been provided with and ended up in binding services, front of the local magistrate accused of theft. At the Bye Pit at creative camp Low Laithes, Ossett, records show that in 1844, four coal miners, who were aged between 60 and 70 years, earned on average, a weekly wage of £1-1s-3d each. Deserted Farm Poem? However, at Bye Pit No. 5, seventeen colliers earned up to £1-5s-6d for creative writing, an eight hour day. For this, they had to fill twenty corves (coal wagons) a day with coal. Techniques Persuasive Speeches? By the end of the 1840s, the colliers were being paid 3s-3d for creative writing, getting one dozen of coal at cambridge law essay 2013 the face and 3s for straitwork. Straitwork is the work involved in extending the access tunnels to the area of the of houston coalface. Fatal Colliery Explosion at titles Low Laithes - December 3rd 1859. Smithson's colliery had a low fatality rate, although in 1859 when the university Low Laithes colliery business had been bought by Benjamin Roberts, there was a fatal accident at Bull Pit and this was recorded as follows:

Mr. Taylor, Coroner for the horour of Pontefract, held an inquest on Monday evening, at Alverthorpe, near Wakefield, respecting the death of David Beacher. On the 28th November 1859. Beacher and another man, named Brown, were working together at a bank in the Bull Pit of the Low Laithes Colliery, belonging to Mr. Benjamin Roberts, under the direction of John Noble, the steward. Noble told the men to get the thesis binding services melbourne coal until they got to of houston creative writing the old works ; but he gave no orders about lamps, and gmat awa essay they worked with naked candles. Both men placed their candles upon the edge of the solid coal, when the gas from the old workings fired at that of Beacher. Creative? The two men were badly burned but Beacher most severely. A third person, a burrier, was also burned.

Beacher died from his injuries on Saturday morning last. Verdict - Accidentally burned. There was no formal contract for colliers to serve for a fixed period in Smithson's mines and they could leave their employment as and when they desired. Cambridge? Of course, this arrangement worked both ways and coal miners could be summarily dismissed without comeback. These were the days before Unions were established. Between 1834 and 1850, Smithson made profits of £4,320 in nine of the years and losses of £3,690 in the other seven years. This left a net profit of only £630, or about £40 a year over the entire period. Clearly, the modest profits could not sustain the rentals and by 1850, the business had failed.

By 1850, Smithson had ten working pits in Ossett, close to where Low Laithes Golf Club is now situated. These pits all took coal from either the Haigh Moor seam or the Gawthorpe seam. The first recorded instances of coal workings in Ossett date back to the 13th and 14th century after woodland was cleared and coal was beginning to university of houston creative be used as fuel. There were several day holes and simple mines located in various parts of Ossett. These pits were recorded in the Manor Court Rolls of film digital photography Wakefield and examples are Rhode Pyttes, Coolepitt Close, Runtinge Pitts, Totteringe Pitts, plus many more unnamed workings. There are several references in the Court Rolls of university creative people mining for for organizing persuasive speeches, coal without the required licence from the Lord of the Manor. In 1332, three Ossett men were each fined 6d for not filling in pits in the New Park and in 1339 all the inhabitants of Ossett were required to back fill all coal pits in the township that were worked out. In the 14th century the rolls record that Adam del Dene cut down trees, made waste the land, gardens and university of houston houses, which his mother held as a dower for digging coal. Clearly coal was becoming an important fuel not just for heating homes but as a fuel for industrial use such as the making of iron. Melbourne? Ironstone digging and smelting was an camp, important local industry at around this time and was first carried out in the New Park. In 1332 Adam de Gaukethorpe and William Carpenter were charged with digging an iron mine without a licence in gmat, the bond lands of the Lord of the Manor and were fined 3d each.

John Sonman paid the Lord of the Manor 12d for a licence to dig a mine in of houston creative, Gawthorpe for stones to gmat be used for iron smelting. The first 1:10,560 large scale OS map of Ossett was published in 1851 and from that map, it is possible to identify most of Smithson's pits at Low Laithes. Of Houston Writing Camp? In addition there were several other coal mines in Ossett listed on the map. The following listing is an attempt to identify all the cambridge known coal mines in Ossett. There are many others, not listed here, identified only as 'old coal pit' and shown clearly within the town boundaries of Ossett on historic OS Maps. Some of these may have been shallow bell pits and of houston creative writing camp it is known that when the underground reservoir along Chidswell Lane in Gawthorpe was excavated in 1877, between 200 and deserted farm 300 tons of coal were removed and sold on behalf of the Local Board. The first eight mines listed here were part of the old Joshua Smithson undertaking at creative camp Low Laithes, which had been bought out by Benjamin Roberts after Smithson failed financially. Thesis Services? The pit shafts were geographically separated by university of houston writing camp, some distance, especially those located in the area of Gawthorpe. 1. Engine Pit(No. 1), Low Laithes - 35 yards to the Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850. 2. Bye Pit(No.

2 ), Low Laithes - 141 yards to binding services the Haigh Moor seam and 71 yards to the Gawthorpe seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850. 3. Barron's Pit (No. 6), Low Laithes - 120 yards to the Haigh Moor seam and 50 yards to the Gawthorpe seam, owned by creative writing, J. Roberts from 1850. 4. Barron's Pit (No. Essay Titles? 4 ), Low Laithes - 55 yards to the Gawthorpe seam, owned by creative camp, J. For Organizing Persuasive Speeches? Roberts from 1850. 5. Bull Pit (No. 7), Low Laithes - 140 yards to the Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. University Of Houston Creative? Roberts from 1850. 6. Lower Park Farm, Gawthorpe - 120 yards to the Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850.

7. Lodge Hill, Gawthorpe (Nos. 42 and 43) - 30 and 18 yards respectively to the Top Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850. 8. Persuasive Speeches? New Lodge Colliery, Gawthorpe - owned between 1855-1889 by George and John Haigh and was most probably Lodge Hill (above). In 1874, the manager of the colliery, William Haigh and university writing camp two under-managers, John and Isaac Oates were prosecuted at Dewsbury Petty Sessions for offences brought by the government inspector of mines, Mr. Wardell after a fatal colliery explosion in the pit that led to law essay the death of Burman Lister, which could have been avoided.

FATAL COLLIERY EXPLOSION 1 - On Saturday evening, a hurrier, named Burman Lister, of Ossett Street Side, near Dewsbury, died from the effects of an explosion of firedamp at the Gawthorpe Colliery on of houston camp the previous afternoon. Deceased and a miner named Samuel Waterhouse had completed their day's work and were coming down one of the main roads with corves when the gas fired and both were severely burnt. Waterhouse had on a flannel shirt and he suffered less from the scorching flames. The one Lister wore was of cotton and it was burnt off his back, which along with his arms, breast and face, was terribly scorched. The explosion caused great excitement among the titles miners and the injured men having been brought to the surface, the others were raised without delay. Lister died, as above stated, on Saturday evening. The explosion was caused by gas coming into to contact with a naked light, which was carried by the deceased as he and Waterhouse were walking down the hurrying road. GROSS CARELESSNESS AT A WEST RIDING COLLIERY 2 - Yesterday an adjourned inquest was held at Ossett Street Side, near Dewsbury, on the body of Burman Lister, coal miner, of that village who was killed by an explosion of of houston writing camp gas at Messrs. Haigh's colliery, Gawthorpe on the 4th inst.

Mr. Thesis Services? Wardell, government inspector of mines, watched the proceedings, as also did Mr. Pickard, secretary of the West Riding Miners' Association. Evidence was given that on the 4th inst., about half-past one, the deceased and university of houston writing camp another youth named Waterhouse came along the main air-road with lighted candles, they having ceased work for the day. On arriving at a drift or slit, the deceased went up, taking his naked light with him. An explosion followed and both youths were severely burnt, the deceased fatally.

It transpired at the inquest that a labourer had several weeks ago received instructions to build a wall some distance up the drift, but to leave a hole, a foot square for ventilation. This he did, but about ten days before the accident he filled up the essay hole with dry bricks, not knowing, he told the jury, that he was doing anything wrong. As it was stated that Waterhouse was in a very precarious state and unfit to be examined, the inquiry was further adjourned. THE LATE FATAL COLLIERY EXPLOSION AT GAWTHORPE 3 - Yesterday, the adjourned inquest was held on of houston writing camp the body of Burman Lister, hurrier, who died on September 5th from injuries he received the previous day at Gawthorpe Colliery, through an explosion of techniques persuasive speeches fire-damp. From the evidence, it appeared that the writing deceased and a young man named Waterhouse were coming down the hurrying road and when opposite a disused working they both stopped and Waterhouse began to dress himself, having previously stuck a lighted candle in some clay on the corve.

Lister took the candle up and said he would go to the drift and look at the air pipes, as he could smell something. His companion told him to keep the candle down. The deceased had just entered the drift when the explosion took place and they were both severely burnt. Deserted Farm Poem? The jury recorded a verdict of Accidental Death. COLLIERY PROSECUTIONS AT DEWSBURY 4 - At the creative writing Dewsbury Petty Sessions, yesterday, William Haigh, of West Ardsley, the certified manager of the Gawthorpe Colliery was charged with neglecting to inspect the mine.

John and Isaac Oates, underviewers, were summoned for - the one for poem, neglecting to enter in a book kept for the purpose, the state of the mine and the other with neglecting to university of houston writing camp fence off a drift in which there was an accumulation of inflammable gas and with neglecting to exhibit a danger signal there. Through this neglect an explosion of gas took place in the pit on the 4th of September, resulting in the death of one collier and in techniques for organizing, another being frightfully burnt. Haigh was fined £5, or two months imprisonment; Isaac Oates £3, or three months and John Oates £2, or two months. In the course of the of houston writing camp hearing it transpired that the report book had not had a single entry made in it until three days after the explosion. Burman Lister was just 16 years of age when he died.

Samuel Waterhouse lingered on a few weeks before he also died from the burns he had received in the accident. Thesis Binding Melbourne? The five pound fine that William Haigh, the colliery manager received is the university creative equivalent of about £360 today on the basis of RPI inflation. Less than four months later, another miner would lose his life at digital photography Gawthorpe Colliery as a result of a terrifying fire in university creative writing camp, January 1875: A COLLIERY ON FIRE 8 - Fire was discovered to have broken out on awa essay Friday (8th January 1875) in the colliery at university creative Gawthorpe, near Dewsbury, belonging to Messrs. J. and G. Exercise Essay Titles? Haigh, and it is believed was caused by a hurrier boy accidentally igniting a canvas brattice by his lighted candle. Seventy men and boys were in the mine at the time and great alarm was occasioned, as the flames spread to a quantity of wood and university of houston writing then set fire to the face of the coal.

The miners and hurriers rushed along the ways as the alarm spread and getting to deserted poem the pit eye, were drawn up as quickly as possible. One, however, was left behind and he was subsequently found lying dead at some distance from his working place, apparently having been suffocated. His name was Richard Oldroyd, aged 39, and he leaves a widow and children. One of the miners that had got to of houston creative know that a fire was raging, called to Oldroyd as he ran past his working place, but the deceased was rather deaf, and techniques for organizing speeches it is supposed he did not hear the of houston camp warning cry of his fellow worker, and was not made aware of the danger until he felt the suffocating gas. The body was discovered by an exploring party and in a place where, if he could have gone four yards further, he would have had a stream of awa essay fresh air. The progress of the of houston writing flames was arrested in the course of the day by stoppings being built and there is reason to believe that the fire has been extinguished. In the ' Ossett Observer ' 24th November 1888, the following piece was printed concerning a colliery strike and it gives us an idea of the size of the competition colliery and the attitude of the owners to university of houston their workforce:

The miners employed at Messrs G J Haigh's Gawthorpe Colliery, about 30 in number, recently went on strike for a 10% advance in wages. The advance was conceded by the Yorkshire colliery owners generally, but Messrs. Haigh did not see their way to follow the example and consequently the persuasive strike still continues. Creative Writing Camp? Subscriptions have been gathered and levies received from other collieries in support of the men on strike. The strike was still going on into early December 1888, but after that there was no further word, so it is likely that the men returned to work, maybe in time for Christmas? 9. Wheatley's Colliery , Shepherd Hill, Flushdyke. In 1831, a Wakefield barrister and land speculator, Thomas Foljambe (1775-1851) purchased land at Hagg's Lane, near to Woollin's Roundwood mine, which he rented to another Wakefield man, Samuel Rhodes, for cambridge law essay competition, the purpose of mining for coal. In 1833, Foljambe had built his grand residence Holmefield House in Wakefield. Creative Writing Camp? Rhodes paid Foljambe an annual rental of 6% of the original purchase price and in 1831 Rhodes was selling 10 tons of coal per day, with another 20 tons per for organizing week going to a regular customer. Rhodes also sold 2 barge loads of coal (90 tons) per week, which had to be shipped from the university of houston writing colliery to techniques for organizing the nearest canal in Wakefield. Rhodes died in early 1838 and by 1839, his widow had gone bankrupt.

The colliery was then taken over by Charles Locke, whose family had recently sunk a new pit at nearby Snapethorpe, Wakefield. The colliery was eventually bought by Charles Wheatley (1813-1900) who had been working a colliery at nearby Ossett Common (probably Lights Colliery) in 1836. Wheatley was a Mirfield colliery owner with significant land holdings in of houston writing camp, Ossett, some of which he had inherited from the Haigh family, who were also coal masters. In 1851, Wheatley had 110 men and 140 boys working in his coal mines. The Ossett colliery at Shepherd Hill was likely to be a relatively small undertaking and may even have been a day hole, which was simply a drift mine dug into the side of thesis binding services melbourne a hill. Wheatley was still working the Shepherd Hill colliery in 1854 with a steam engine and his rateable value was £36.

Wheatley's colliery is likely to have closed down in the mid to late 1850s and was not working in1869. Wheatley was by then operating the Hagg Wood and university of houston creative writing Whitley Wood day holes in Dewsbury; the Bradley and Helm coal mines in Huddersfield and the Ledgard Bridge and Calder Day Holes at Mirfield. The latter mine, with an entrance on the bank of the canal close to Greenwood Lock, was driven into essay, the hillside below Sands House, Wheatley's opulent Mirfield residence. Creative Writing Camp? By 1871, Charles Wheatley formed the Mirfield Colliery Company with Robert Barraclough and John Nevin and law essay competition 2013 his mining operation in Ossett was finished. 10. Writing Camp? Mount Pleasant Colliery , Shepherd Hill, Flushdyke was worked in the 1870s. 11. Love Lane Colliery , Love Lane, Pildacre. 12. Greaves Colliery , off Bridle Lane, Gawthorpe. Owned between 1855-1872 by Wilson and Co. but then was called Gawthorpe Colliery and was probably Greaves Colliery, which was owned by Joshua Greaves prior to 1855.

The pit finally closed 1872. 13. Streetside Colliery , behind the Red Lion Public House, Dewsbury Road and was owned first by film digital essay, Abraham Greaves until his death in 1843 and then by Ossett coal masters Joseph Greaves and of houston creative writing camp Joshua Greaves. Techniques Persuasive Speeches? The colliery had four face workers in 1836. 14. Old Roundwood Colliery , was probably first known as John Woollin's Hagg's Lane Colliery and a plan exists of this site dating back to 1812. The original Roundwood colliery was located close to the Ossett and of houston writing Alverthorpe boundaries near to the top of Shepherd Hill at Flushdyke where mining had been carried on back to at least the 14th century. Melbourne? The Woollin family worked Low and university of houston Scale coal there until giving up the essay lease in approximately 1839. The colliery at Roundwood first established in 1847 by Terry, Dawson and university writing camp Greaves was said by cambridge competition 2013, John Oldroyd Greaves to be a very small affair at the top of university creative writing Flushdyke Hill about one mile to the north of the later Roundwood colliery. They had simply taken over the workings of a smaller, older pit, partially worked some years previously.

The older pit was most likely Woollin's pit, closed in 1839. In 1847, Wakefield mining engineer, John Oldroyd Greaves (1824-1916), the son of Ossett coal master Abraham Greaves (1794-1842) founded the film digital photography Old Roundwood colliery with two other investors in the name of Terry, Dawson and Greaves. John Greaves had been articled to John Walker, the Wakefield based mining and civil engineer for five years in the 1840s and, for a short time after qualifying, had been manager of a colliery in Stanley owned by Robert Hudson and Co. The other partners in the concern were Benjamin Terry (1818-1882), who was born in Gawthorpe, the son of Percival Terry and William Anson Smith Dawson of Wakefield. Benjamin Terry became a law pupil at university of houston Haigh's, a Horbury firm of gmat awa essay tips solicitors. After qualifying, Terry joined the firm of Carr, Nettleton and of houston creative camp Terry as a partner and then moved to Bradford in 1844 setting up first in business in his own right and by 1864 as Terry Watson, Solicitors. Cambridge Competition 2013? In 1846, he married Alice Cooper Dawson in Wakefield, who may have been related to his partner William Dawson. Terry entered public life and he served at camp one time as an Tory alderman of Bradford Council. He lived in some style at Barkhill House, Idle and when he died in deserted, 1882, he left an estate worth £40,000 (a considerable sum in those days) plus a generous £500 per university creative year annuity for his widow.

Not much is known about William Anson Smith Dawson, the third partner in the enterprise. In the 1851 census, Dawson is unmarried and living at techniques for organizing persuasive Roundwood, Alverthorpe with a house servant Ann Peace. Of Houston Creative Writing Camp? He is listed as a coal proprietor employing 12 miners, 12 hurriers, 2 banksmen, 1 blacksmith, 1 boy and 1 woman, which may well refer to the operation at awa essay Roundwood colliery. His secondary occupation is that of a farmer of university of houston creative writing camp 19 acres, employing 1 man, 1 lad and door (sic) labourers. He was aged 25 years in essay, 1851, having been born in 1826 at nearby Stanley, a village on the outskirts of Wakefield. However, by May 1953, Dawson had dropped out of the business and he died in Bradford in the summer of 1854, to be replaced by Watson Scatcherd, a Morley lawyer and squire. The three partners each putting up a sum of £500. In 1857, after Scatcherd had died in of houston camp, 1855, the accounts showed that Terry had advanced £1,150, Greaves the film digital photography same and of houston creative camp Scatcherd £950. When Scatcherd died, the business was carried on cambridge as Terry, Greaves and Co.

When Benjamin Terry died in university creative writing, 1882, his two daughters continued in business with Greaves until a limited company was founded until 1908. Exercise? Benjamin Terry (or his daughters) and of houston camp John Greaves never entered into a formal partnership since both men trusted the other implicitly and no legal agreement was ever needed. Perhaps as a result of the death of for organizing Scatcherd, the partners considered selling the university creative writing camp colliery in 1857. At this time, they also owned Manor Colliery, which was located on Ossett Common but was definitely not the colliery on Cross Lane in Wakefield, which co-incidentally, Terry, Greaves and Co. did purchase much later. The Gawthorpe seam, which was the for organizing top portion of the well-known Barnsley seam and of houston camp about three feet thick was mined originally, but this didn't last long. The pit was in profit and balance sheets for Roundwood for 1857 and 1858 reveal profits of £1,702 and £2,032 respectively.

However, if they were to for organizing persuasive continue, some serious decisions had to be made. Instead of selling up, Greaves and of houston Terry decided as early as 1853 to develop Roundwood significantly by sinking two new shafts, a mile to for organizing persuasive speeches the south of the original Flushdyke pit and close to the Wakefield - Ossett boundary. This would be the better-known location of creative camp Roundwood colliery at the top of Queen's Drive where coal would be worked for another 100 years or more. The second significant decision was to establish a railway link to Roundwood and an agreement was made in July 1860 with the 2013 Bradford, Wakefield and Leeds Railway to build a mineral railway link to the Ossett Branch so that coal could be transported from Roundwood to more distant markets. At this time, there were still tolls on the Wakefield - Halifax turnpike, which all traffic going from creative writing Roundwood downhill to Wakefield had to negotiate.

However, in techniques for organizing persuasive speeches, 1867, the firm advertised that it had agreed for tolls on coal beyond Westgate Moor Bar on the turnpike road to be removed. The new railway link to Roundwood was opened in January 1862 and for goods and passengers to a temporary terminal station at university of houston creative writing Flushdyke in April 1862. In 1860, two new shafts were sunk to the levels of the top and low Haigh Moor seams at 140 and 150 yards respectively. These shafts were of the Engine Pit at 9 feet diameter and the Bye Pit at 10 feet in diameter. Both shafts were walled with brick 5 inches thick with four water conduits behind the binding melbourne brickwork. The Engine Pit was sunk five yards below the bottom of the of houston creative writing coal to form a sump and the Bye shaft was widened to essay titles 13ft at the bottom. John Oldroyd Greaves continued with the management of Roundwood colliery but by March 1874, the partners agreed to sell Roundwood colliery to Thomas Stammers Webb of university of houston writing London and thesis melbourne Cardiff.

There had been a period of prosperity in the coal industry prior to university writing camp 1874, but from 1874 there was a period of continued depression. Webb agreed to take a 5-year lease on Roundwood, with power to take on a 31-year lease for farm, £35,000, the university of houston writing vendors agreeing to work the colliery and pay any profits to Webb if he had first paid an tips, initial £1,000 to them. Webb formed a new company, The Consolidated Collieries Co. Ltd. with a proposed capital of £180,000 in £10 shares. The plan was for the company to take over three collieries - the New Forest Colliery in Neath, Glamorgan and university of houston camp the Bush Colliery, near Cardiff were the other two. In the event, the cambridge competition venture never got off the ground because of the writing camp deepening depression in the coal industry during 1876.

By 1885, John Oldroyd Greaves was very ill and wasn't expected to live very long, but he eventually recovered and lived on digital in good health until 1916. In the event, his 17 year-old son Percy Christian Greaves (1868-1957) was forced to leave school and take charge of the family business, which he found in a parlous state. Percy Greaves had been born on Christmas Day 1868 and was educated at Lockers Park School, Hemel Hempstead before going firstly to Wakefield Grammar School and then to Tonbridge School in Kent. Percy Greaves was equal to university camp the difficult task and binding applied his talents energetically to the running of Roundwood colliery. In July 1892, he obtained a first-class certificate as a colliery manager under the Coal Mines Registration Act of 1887. At the time he was living at 69, Westgate, Wakefield with his parents. In 1889, Percy Greaves was responsible for the sinking of the new upcast shaft to a depth of camp 200 yards to deserted farm poem the Silkstone seam.

During the sinking of this new seam, in June 1888, two men were to lose their lives. The 'Ossett Observer' dated June 23rd 1888 gives the following account: On Wednesday last a shocking fatality occurred at university writing camp Roundwood Colliery, Wakefield Road on cambridge competition 2013 the boundary of Ossett. Of Houston Writing Camp? At present the Haigh Moor seam of coal is being worked, at cambridge law essay competition 2013 a depth of 160 yards from the surface; but the proprietors of the colliery, Messrs. Terry and Greaves, are sinking about 190 or 200 yards further, in order to of houston writing reach the Silkstone seam. The new sinking is being made as a continuation of the upcast shaft, which is 12ft in diameter; it has already progressed some 40 yards downward, and digital photography is expected to be completed this year. On Wednesday morning about half a dozen sinkers were at work, and they had come up the shaft to the surface whilst some shots were being fired for blasting purposes. After the shots went off, three of the men got into the ordinary hoppet or bucket, and were lowered down the shaft by the engineman.

In descending they had to pass the mouth of a ventilating furnace and there is some reason to suppose that this may have induced them to of houston writing camp change their position in the hoppet. This would possibly cause some additional oscillation of the hoppet, which almost immediately struck the poem corner of the arch in the Haigh Moor seam. Camp? All three men were thrown out, but one of for organizing persuasive speeches them, named Patrick O'Brien, of Wakefield, managed to clutch the edge of the hoppet. One foot of university of houston another was caught by O'Brien, who was, however, unable to hold it. Law Essay Competition 2013? Two men consequently fell a depth of university of houston camp about 40 yards to the bottom of the newly sunk portion of the shaft, and were doubtless killed instantly. O'Brien, however, reached the bottom in safety. For Organizing Persuasive Speeches? The deceased men were Mathew Harrison, aged 32, married, of Ashton-under-Lyne, and camp George Geary, aged 20, single, of Wakefield. Harrison had only commenced working at 2013 the colliery the previous day.

In November 1897, John Oldroyd Greaves, who by now was no longer involved in the active management of Roundwood colliery made two of his sons, Percy Christian Greaves and John Henry Greaves (born 1871) partners in the family business of land agents, mining engineers and colliery proprietors. Greaves senior had bought the Snapethorpe Hall estate in Wakefield on behalf of the colliery partnership in November 1891. Meanwhile, Percy Greaves, despite his tender years, was able to take the running of the family business in his stride and he soon became one of the leading mining experts in of houston writing camp, northern England. Cambridge? Percy Greaves' obituary that appeared in the The Times newspaper on Friday, 25th October 1957 says this of him: comparatively few days passed when he was not to be seen at the pit-head or down the shaft of one of his own collieries or one of those of the many people who readily consulted him as, perhaps, the best known mining engineer in the north. His pride in his own pits was unbounded. He knew the writing camp men and their problems personally. He was at for organizing persuasive the forefront in the introduction of creative writing new methods, making for safety and efficiency, and it was his proud boast, evoking the cambridge law essay competition sincere admiration of his many friends that, from 1886 until the nationalization of the university writing camp mines (1947), none of the groups of collieries under his control had ever suffered a single strike apart from the national strikes, which affected the whole country. By 1896, the manager of Roundwood was Mr. F. Flint, and competition 2013 the under-manager was Mr. University Of Houston Creative Camp? H. Farrant.

There were 619 underground workers and 129 surface workers. By 1945, ownership of Roundwood was still with Terry, Greaves and deserted farm poem Co., Wakefield, but the colliery was now managed by Mr. H. H. University Of Houston Writing Camp? Burton with two under-managers. Mr. Gmat Awa Essay Tips? H. Newell and Mr. J. Morley. Creative Camp? There were now 521 underground workers and digital photography essay 120 surface workers. Above: Picture of Old Roundwood Colliery from the early 1900s.

The building on the right-hand side of the picture is a brickworks. The brickworks was subsequently closed, but it was proposed to reopen them to produce building bricks for Ossett's council house building programme in the 1920s and 1930s. In the event, this never happened and of houston bricks were sourced elsewhere. In June 1895, the ' Ossett Observer ' published details of services melbourne An Alarming Accident at Ossett Collieries - Two Cages in Collision - Miner fatally injured. Camp? The account, reproduced below gives a good insight into the working conditions at techniques for organizing persuasive speeches Old Roundwood: On Thursday morning, an accident of a serious and unusual nature occurred at the Ossett Roundwood Collieries (Messrs. Terry, Greaves and Co.) There are three seams of of houston camp coal, worked by means of three separate shafts. One of these shafts, about speeches, 350 yards deep, passes through the creative writing Cannel seam at a depth of 240 yards, and goes down to gmat awa essay the Silkstone. About 160 men and boys are employed in the Cannel seam, and among these was Richard Renshaw (35), a married man, residing in of houston creative writing camp, Teal Street, Ossett.

Renshaw was a hanger-on in the Silkstone seam, and about quarter past six o'clock in the morning, he was ascending in one of the essay cages, a two-decker, to creative writing camp the Silkstone landing. Techniques? The cages are guided by thimbles working on wire conductors of 1.5 inches in diameter. University Of Houston Creative Camp? Through some unexplained cause, the ascending cage came into contact with the brickwork at the side of the shaft, and almost immediately afterwards collided with the descending cage. Owing to the velocity with which the cages were travelling, the collision damaged both, and gave a terrible shock to poor Renshaw, who was in binding, the descending cage alone. He eventually reached the writing bottom in a helpless and paralysed condition suffering from spinal injuries. He was taken up another shaft to the surface, and removed to his home, where he died the same evening. Work in the Cannel seam had to be suspended for two days.

At the techniques for organizing persuasive speeches inquest, which was held at university of houston writing the Little Bull Inn, Teal Street, it was concluded that it had never been know for the cages to catch before, but evidently they had caught this time. It was an unforeseen event and nobody could be held responsible, although something could be done to prevent a recurrence. They returned a verdict that the titles unfortunate deceased was accidentally injured. An extension of the university writing camp Ossett borough boundary in 1900 brought Roundwood Colliery, owned by Terry, Greaves and Company Limited into the town. Mining ceased at this pit in April 1966. Above: The biggest colliery in Ossett was Old Roundwood, so named in 1901 to avoid confusion with another Roundwood Colliery that had opened in South Yorkshire, which had suffered financial difficulties. Roundwood was opened in 1847 and finally closed in tips, 1966. Roundwood had 619 underground workers and 129 surface workers and attracted workers from all parts of the area surrounding Wakefield. Many miners from the Barnsley coalfields moved to Roundwood and of houston creative writing camp settled in the Ossett Spa area.

Roundwood Colliery was a large concern and mined the gmat tips Cannel, Haigh Moor, Lupset, and Silkstone (new Hards) seams. It was noted in the 'Ossett Observer' dated 20th March 1948 that the of houston writing camp following accident occurred at exercise Old Roundwood: Twelve miners at Old Roundwood Colliery were injured, including two men with broken legs, when the cage taking them down to the Silkstone Seam for the night shift got out of university writing control for the last 40ft of the descent and crashed into the sump boards. The engine winder had fainted at the controls in the engine house. Like all other British collieries, Roundwood was nationalised in 1947 and became part of the National Coal Board empire. Old Roundwood colliery was finally closed in gmat, April 1966. Above: View of Roundwood Colliery from the of houston creative top of Queens Drive in the 1960s.

After the cambridge competition 2013 pit was demolished, what is now the Holiday Inn was built on part of the old pit site. 15. Thorn Tree Pit , Low Laithes adjacent to the Great Northern (LNER) railway line. The 16th green of Low Laithes golf course is believed to be located on the site of Thorn Tree pit. 16. Dewsbury Lane was opened before 1856 and closed in 1877. Owned between 1856-1870 by W. Hallas and university of houston camp between 1862-1876 by W. Gartside. It was reported that in December 1871, a collier's supper was held in exercise essay, the George Hotel, Ossett for the miners at university of houston creative writing camp Mr.

Gartside's colliery, which is likely to for organizing persuasive speeches have been Dewsbury Lane colliery. The meal was for members of the colliery Sick and of houston creative Accident Club, which was funded by the miners themselves from weekly subscriptions to pay the members during times of sickness. In 1871, there had been no accidents at the colliery and only £134 had been paid out in sickness benefit. The managers of the colliery, Messrs. T. Westwood and J. Wilkinson were praised by the men for gmat tips, their work at the colliery. Thirty-six members of the club were present at the supper, suggesting a fairly small coal mine. 17. Field Lane Colliery , Gawthorpe near to creative the Flying Horse public house.

The Field Lane colliery was worked by gmat awa essay, Joshua Greaves and after his death, in 1861, it was offered for sale in February 1862. The advertisement in 1862 mentioned that the university of houston colliery was powered by a steam engine and that there was a 3ft seam of coal at a depth of 30 yards with three leases - two expiring in 1877 and one in 1881. It appears that when the two leases expired in cambridge law essay competition, 1877 that the colliery was closed down. Some more details about Field Lane Colliery following a particularly suspicious accident resulting in the death of 19 year-old Richard Broad: 5. WANTON OUTRAGE NEAR DEWSBURY - A MAN KILLED: On Thursday night last, an inquest was held at the Shoulder of university of houston writing camp Mutton Inn, Gawthorpe, before Mr. Gmat Awa Essay? Taylor, coroner, on the body of Richard Broad, who met with his death after falling down a pit shaft on the previous Tuesday. Mr. Morton, the university Government inspector of mines, was in gmat awa essay tips, attendance and watched the case, in consequence of the pit rope having been maliciously cut. The evidence went to show that the deceased was employed at Field-lane Colliery, Gawthorpe and had charge of the pumping engine.

At this colliery there are two shafts, one used as a pumping and downcast and the other as as an upcast and drawing shaft. The only apparatus for reaching the bottom of the of houston writing camp former is a windlass and a rope an inch and cambridge law essay competition a quarter in diameter, and when men wish to go to the bottom, they attach a man-loop to the end of the rope. This man-loop consists of university of houston creative a piece of tough and strong wood, about thirty inches long, and near the ends are two holes about an inch and photography a half in diameter. Through these holes are drawn a piece of hempen rope an university of houston writing, inch and a quarter in diameter, and the ends are securely fastened underneath. On the day in question the deceased used this loop, examining it before he did so, and, having placed himself astride, he was lowered by two men to the bottom with a few tools where he repaired the pump clack. Having finished his work, he gave the signal for ascending, and was raised to within half a yard of the farm platform, when the rope of the man-loop gave way at once close to of houston writing both holes, and he was precipitated to the bottom.

He was alive when reached, and was removed home; but he died within a few hours. Broad sustained a fractured thigh, a fractured rib (one portion of the rib was driven into the lung) and a large scalp wound. Dr. Thornton, Church St,, Dewsbury and Mr Greenwood, Surgeon, Ossett attended. The broken rope was examined by exercise essay, the jury and was unanimously pronounced to have been cut. It ought to have borne half a ton without danger. The deceased was a small, spare youth of nineteen years of university of houston camp age.

An open verdict was returned. In the meantime the police are making active inquiries in the matter. Titles? No person was criminated by the evidence offered to the inquest. 18. Ossett , owned by Messrs Haigh - but as yet unidentified. 19. Crownlands Collier y, possibly the university writing camp site of Northfield Colliery, which was owned by Westwood and Co. 20. West Field , owned by Joshua Wilby when it was opened in 1863. The colliery closed in 1908.

In 1896, the deserted farm poem owner was Westwood and Co., Ossett. Manager: J. Simpkin, Under-Manager: J. Wilkinson. In 1896 there were 56 underground workers and 11 surface workers. West Field colliery mined the of houston creative camp Beeston, Middleton and Haigh Moor seams. 21. Healey Lane , was owned by cambridge 2013, Charles Kilner and Henry Slater trading as Hinchcliffe, Kilner and Co., when the pit was first opened 1876. However, their partnership was dissolved in university creative camp, June 1886.

Kilner was later declared bankrupt in June 1888, by which time he was living in the Green, Ossett and was working as a colliery weighman and book-keeper. By 1896 the owners were John Wilby and Edward Mortimer, both of Ossett. The Colliery Manager was owner John Wilby, but there was no under-manager. There were only 18 underground workers and 5 surface workers at the height of the pit's production. The Yorkshire Sheet 247.08 Ossett (SW) Combs 1905 map (O.S. reprint from 1890) by Alan Godfrey clearly shows a pit near the cambridge 2013 bottom of Healey Lane with a day hole linked by tramline to creative a series of buildings, which may have had pit shafts. There are other older mine workings below the house called Green Lea shown on film the map suggesting extensive coal mining operations in the area over the years. The colliery closed in 1899. 22. Ox Close, was owned in university writing camp, 1880 by the Flockton Coal Co. Limited.

Ox Close opened in 1873 and closed in 1881. The pit was sunk between 1873 and 1878. Exercise? The owners between 1873-1875 were Whitworth and Co. and then between 1876-1880, Tolson Whitworth, who formed a limited company in September 1877. The colliery had a lease on two beds of coal: the Joan Bed and the Flockton Thin Bed over an area of 48 acres. 11. The pit was not yet operational in 1877 as this excerpt taken from the Ossett Observer on the 11th August 1877 reporting an university of houston creative camp, accident to a miner shows: On Tuesday evening last, shortly after 5 o'clock, a rather serious accident occurred at the new coal pit being opened out by Messrs.

Whitworth Co. in Runting Lane. A heavy piece of melbourne pump gearing weighing about 4 tons was being lowered down the shaft by means of a capstan and two-inch ropes. It had reached within about eighteen inches or so of the bottom when one of the ropes broke. University Of Houston? Two men who were at the bottom fortunately got out of the way. The half-dozen men who held the capstan bars, feeling the jerk, and being startled, let go, with the exception of digital photography essay one, a miner, named John Grace, who was instantly knocked off his feet and thrown to the ground. University Of Houston Camp? He was found to have sustained a compound fracture of one shoulder , injuries to exercise his arms and back, etc. On his removal to his house at writing camp Ossett Common in a cab he was attended by Mr.

J.G. Wiseman, surgeon, and is, as we hear, progressing as well as can be expected. The cause of the rope giving way is deserted farm poem, not known, as it was considered to be capable of bearing the strain of university of houston creative writing six tons. Ox Close was located in the Runtlings area of Ossett and medieval maps show the presence of Runtinge Pitts in the Ox Close, which is bisected by Ryeroyde Lane . However, Ox Close is not shown on 2013 current maps, although it is thought it was so named at the time of the university of houston writing camp Ossett Inclosure around 1807. 23. Lights Colliery, was located north-east of the old Lights Bridge, which was near the location of the present Two Brewers public house and is shown on the 1851 1:10,560 OS Map. Many of the men who worked here were patrons of the Colliers Arms, later the Little Bull in Ossett Common, which dates back to at least 1830.

The Wakefield Manor Rolls for 1709 refer to a small colliery at Ossett Lights and between 1712 and binding services 1752, the of houston creative writing camp colliery was operated there by Joseph Naylor. Lights or a clearing in the woods was so named because the of the way the woodland pasture was managed. Trees were grown on the same land that was used for rearing stock (usually pigs). The branches of the tips trees were cut and university of houston creative camp used for binding melbourne, fuel, fencing or building. Creative Writing Camp? This process was called pollarding (and is the derivation of the exercise titles English surname Pollard) so that when the tree branches were cut, sunlight would reach the forest floor through the previously dense canopy of of houston writing woodland, hence the name The Lights . Ossett Lights covered an estimated area of 254 acres, but presumably, by the time the colliery was established, much of the woodland had been completely cleared.

24. Manor Colliery, Middle Common, was located between Manor Road and Spa Lane in the area known as Drain Close. The colliery dates back to the 18th century and was owned then by the Naylor family. Later, in thesis binding, 1857, the colliery proprietor was John Mitchell who, according to the 1843 Tithe Map of Ossett rented the land at Drain Close from the Ingham. University Creative Writing? At some stage, Manor Colliery was owned by Terry, Greaves and Co., owners of Roundwood Colliery, probably prior to 1857.

Manor Colliery is almost certainly the site of the Engine shown on Jeffrey's 1775 map. The symbol on the map looks like a windmill, but it seems more likely that it was a steam powered pumping engine at the coal mine. The local press 13 and 14 in 1857 describes a fatal accident at the colliery, which gives us some indication of the cambridge law essay 2013 scale of operations: A MAN KILLED BY FALLING DOWN A COAL PIT SHAFT Mr. Taylor, coroner for the town of Pontefract, held an inquest, on university of houston creative writing camp Saturday last at the Weaver's Arms, Ossett, on the body of Joseph Rushworth, blacksmith, 46 years of age.

The deceased was employed in attending the thesis services melbourne engine of the Manor Colliery, Ossett during the day. (NOTE: Manor Colliery is given as located in Middle Common, Ossett and in the ownership of colliery proprietor John Mitchell in the Leeds Mercury report of the same accident on 22nd December 1857). Last Tuesday evening Rushworth was relieved at the usual time by Luke Veale, the man who performed night duty. Rushworth went to Horbury and returning between ten and of houston writing camp eleven o'clock at night, he went to the coal cabin. Thesis Binding Melbourne? At that time he was tipsy. He remained there a few minutes, when, he got up saying it was too warm for him there, left the cabin and was not seen again. On Friday afternoon last, a miner named Joseph Chappel went down the pumping shaft of the pit to unloose a rope which he had made fast to the bottom a week ago, when he was assisting to change the university writing camp buckets. When he got about forty yards down the shaft, he saw the body of Rushworth suspended by for organizing persuasive speeches, a stay, his head and legs resting on of houston the plank. The body was mutilated, the legs broken, and law essay competition the jaw-bone crushed in. The shaft was only about 30 yards from the writing camp coal cabin and the deceased, being no doubt confused with the drink he had taken, had missed his way and fallen down the pit. Verdict -found dead with fractures.

25. Speeches? Park Lane , Ossett was opened in 1862 and closed 1885. Owners between 1862-1874 were Cliffe and university creative camp Co. Deserted Poem? then between 1876-1885, G J Haigh. The colliery, which had two working shafts, was located to left of Owlers Farm, Flushdyke. 26.

Pildacre Colliery , Ossett was owned originally by of houston camp, Naylor and Co., and opened 1872, but closed in November 1910 after an inrush of water. By 1896 owners were John Naylor and Co., Ossett. Manager: S. Broadbent and Under-Manager: J. Mann. There were 232 underground workers and gmat tips 25 surface workers in 1896. Pildacre mined coal from the Flockton, Joan, Low Haigh Moor, Top Haigh Moor and Haigh Moor seams. The ' Ossett Observer ' for the 25th February 1893 carried the following report about Pildacre Colliery: Messrs. John Naylor and writing Co. Ltd.

The half-yearly meeting of the shareholders of this company was held at essay titles Pildacre Collieries, Ossett, on Monday afternoon last. The directors report for the half year ended December 31st showed a profit of £162 3s 9d. The Chairman, Mr. Edwin Mitchell J.P. in writing camp, moving the adoption of the report, said that the directors had continued the policy of developing and exercise essay titles improving the efficiency of the colliery plant and workings, and were now in a position to produce about university writing camp, 1,500 tons of coal per week from the Joan and Flockton beds. Since the beginning of August last they had incurred considerable expense in opening out the Cannel seam at gmat awa essay Pildacre, which was of a very fine quality and university of houston creative writing satisfactory thickness; next winter they hoped to send out a respectable quantity of thesis melbourne Cannel, the price of university creative writing which was much higher than black coal. They now had over 50 wagons, the property of the company, and another 24 partially paid for. The wages paid were now considerable (between £360 and £370 per week ) and the directors could not spare anything to secure safety in working the collieries. A man's life was of more consequence than a dividend. The Chairman said that there had not been a serious or fatal accident at Pildacre for about seven years, which spoke well for the management. 27. New Low Laithes , owned by the Low Laithes Colliery Co.

Ltd was first opened in gmat tips, 1892 using existing pit shafts, which were widened in 1890 and were probably the old pit shafts from the defunct New Lodge (Gawthorpe) colliery, which had closed in 1889. In September 1890, two local men employed as pit sinkers at New Low Laithes: Michael Glynn (51), Manor Rd., Ossett and John Murray (40), New St., Wakefield, were to university lose their lives whilst working on widening the law essay competition 2013 existing pit shafts from 9ft to 13ft in diameter. 9 They were working on a circular wooden platform 100ft down the pit shaft, which was suspended by university writing camp, heavy-duty iron chains. One of the four chains holding the platform was being re-attached when Glynn slipped, tilting the platform at a precarious angle. Glynn desperately tried to hold on to Murray, but only succeeded in pulling both of film photography them to an instant death as they crashed down 150ft to university writing camp the bottom of the old pit shaft.

Above: Rare picture of awa essay Low Laithes Colliery circa 1920 looking north. University Creative Camp? The house on the horizon is thought to be Low Laithes villa. Above: Another rare picture of Low Laithes Colliery courtesy of Ian Taylor. Cambridge Competition 2013? His grandfather Ernest Hutchinson worked in a clerical capacity at Low Laithes until its closure in 1927, and this picture is from Mr. Hutchinson's photo album. Low Laithes Colliery was located to the west of Low Laithes Farm, and east of the village of Gawthorpe, a few hundred yards along Gawthorpe Lane, which leads to creative camp Kirkhamgate and Bushy Beck. The men from essay titles Gawthorpe who worked at the colliery used the shortest route, which was a footpath, shown on the map below going almost due west towards the village.

Above: Map of the new Low Laithes Colliery off Gawthorpe Lane, Ossett dated 1908. The terminus of the Mineral Railway that ran to university of houston Flushdyke can be seen to the south-east of the colliery. In 1894 the site was shared with a brickworks. In 1896, the essay titles manager was A.B. Blakeley with the under-manager at the time C Copley. There were 155 underground workers and 43 surface workers in 1896, but by 1908 this had increased significantly to 460 underground workers and university of houston writing 133 surface workers showing that the pit had expanded rapidly in thesis binding services, the preceding 12 years. Above: Miners from Low Laithes Colliery, Gawthorpe pictured in 1905 after an university of houston writing camp, underground shift.

The bottles were used for carrying water or cold tea for meal breaks underground. The colliery was affected by the Great Coal Strike of 1893 when the Coal Owners Federation tried to impose a 25% wage cut on miners because of a fall in exercise essay, the price of coal. The men at Low Laithes went out on of houston creative writing camp strike for film essay, several months in university of houston creative writing, the summer and autumn of 1893. At Low Laithes, the management offered a 15% reduction in wages rather than the 25% reduction (of the 40% advanced since 1887), but this was unacceptable to the men's representatives and a rumour that Low Laithes was to be re-opened was quickly denied by the manager. On the thesis binding 17th November 1893, a settlement was arrived at on basis of the old rate of wages being paid until at least the 1st February 1894, with a Conciliation Board to camp follow in at least one year. Subsequently, the miners at Low Laithes returned to awa essay tips work the following week.

Above: Winding Engine at university of houston creative Low Laithes Colliery, Gawthorpe which was used to pull the cage up the pit shaft. Thesis Melbourne? The man operating the controls is thought to be the manager Mr. David Arnold West. In 1908, the colliery was still managed by Mr. A.B. Blakeley, followed in 1915 by Mr.

David Arnold West, a mining engineer born in of houston, 1875 at nearby Birstall. By 1908, the output of the pit was 61,250 tons per annum, all produced by muscle power alone. Low Laithes was served by what was called a 'mineral railway', which ran from Flushdyke to a rail terminus just south of the colliery. The coal from Low Laithes could then be transported via the railway goods yard at Flushdyke to any part of the UK. The coal extracted from Low Laithes was taken at various times from the Silkstone, Beeston, Haigh Moor, Flockton or Cannel seams and there was a ready market for coal of this quality. Above: The winding engine house at Low Laithes Colliery with the water softener and deserted farm steam accumulator circa 1920. The New Low Laithes Colliery, now owned by W. and E.H. Middlebrook, ceased production in May 1927, and the sister colliery at nearby Wrenthorpe also closed at the same time. The effects of the university of houston creative 1926 General Strike were causing severe economic problems at the time and trading was difficult with many coal miners either on shortened working weeks or having already been made redundant. The Ossett Observer in December 1928 noted that the exercise essay titles chances of the Gawthorpe pit re-opening were remote and sadly it never did, despite probably being viable. In the event, the university of houston creative camp site changed hands, re-emerging as the Doric Kerb Works producing concrete drainage ducts.

The Doric works were derelict in the 1960s and it is believed that production ceased completely in the 1950s. 28. Northfield , Ossett opened in 1896 and closed in 1917. The colliery was owned in 1896 by C. Newsome, and in 1899 by Shaw's Linfit Lane Coal Co. By 1917, Northfield was owned by the Northfield Colliery Co. Ltd. Essay? It is most likely that Northfield and writing Crownlands Colliery are the same site. In 1908, there were 61 underground workers and 10 surface workers so this was a relatively small undertaking. The manager in 1908 was Mr.

S. Broadbent. 29. Shaw Cross , Owl Lane on the Ossett - Dewsbury border, was owned by C. B. Crawshaw and Warburton and first opened in 1903 and closed in 1968. In 1896, the manager was G.F. Blacher and the under-manager was P. Winstanley. By the early 1900s, there were 228 underground workers and deserted farm 45 surface workers, but the colliery expanded significantly. Above: Shaw Cross Colliery as seen from of houston writing Owl Lane, Ossett.

The pit baths were on the opposite side of Owl Lane. Above: Miners leaving Shawcross Pit after completing a shift underground circa late 1960s. 30. Storrs Hil l, Ossett, close to the Weavers Arms, was owned by W. Wilcock and was opened in 1901 and closed in exercise essay, 1908. The pit was not working between 1904-1908.

31. Longlands , Ossett was first opened in university of houston creative writing camp, 1910 and abandoned in May 1923. The colliery was owned by the Northfield Colliery Co, Ossett and mined the film photography essay Haigh Moor seam. 32. Greatfield Colliery , was opened in 1913 and closed September 1954.

The pit was initially sunk between 1913-1916 and was owned in 1945 by university of houston creative, the Northfield Colliery Co. Ltd., Ossett with manager: A.W. Thompson and no under manager. In 1945 there were 49 underground workers and 11 surface workers. In 1947, the colliery was nationalised and came under NCB ownership. Above: A group of Ossett coal miners at Greatfield Colliery in the early 1950s. Above: A group of miners at Greatfield Colliery, Ossett circa 1956, which was always referred to as Westwood's Pit.

My thanks to David Maddison who recently contacted me and has identified his father Jack Donald Maddison on the back row, 2nd from the left. Exercise Essay? The miner with the impressive ZZ-Top beard, second from the right on the back row is Harry Bains. 33. Whinny Moor , is listed as an Ossett pit, although geographically it was actually located between Lupset and Wakefield. The colliery was first opened in 1869 and abandoned in June 1913. The owners between 1869-1873 were Hargreaves, Naylor and Co. In 1896, the colliery was owned by John Naylor and Co., who was also the owner of Pildacre Colliery in Ossett. In 1896, the manager of university of houston camp Whinny Moor Colliery was S. Broadbent with the under-manager being J. Hudson. There were 37 underground workers and 7 surface workers. Collieries adjacent to Ossett. Many Ossett and Gawthorpe men worked at the pits just outside the gmat awa essay town boundaries and university of houston writing camp the nearest four pits are as follows:

1. Awa Essay Tips? Chickenley Heath , Dewsbury, was leased by Joshua Greaves in 1854. By 1857 it was noted that the Greaves Brothers had a 40 yard shaft at Chickenley Heath colliery and one man who had worked for them for six years. In 1861, after the death of Joshua Greaves, the lease of coal at Chickenley Heath was assigned to Gawthorpe butcher and farmer Joseph Terry and two others, most probably the Greaves brothers. In July 1862, the local press 10 had a notice that the partnership of university of houston creative camp John Henry Greaves and Charles Howard Greaves, trading as Greaves Brothers and Co., at Chickenley Heath was being dissolved and that from the 31st March 1862, the business would be carried on by John Henry Greaves alone. Chickenley Heath colliery was owned in 1880 by digital, the Chickenley Heath Coal Co., Dewsbury.

In 1896, the manager was Mr. University Of Houston Creative Writing? A.B. Exercise Essay? Blakeley and writing the under-manager was Mr. M. Rayner. There were 122 underground workers and 12 surface workers at this time. 2. For Organizing? Chickenley Wood , Dewsbury, in 1880 the owner was the Chickenley, Wood Coal Co. 3. Chidswell , Dewsbury, In 1880 and 1896, the university creative writing owners were C. Crawshaw and Warburton, Dewsbury. The manager in 1896 was Mr. G.F. Blacher and the under-manager was Mr. P. Winstanley with 248 underground workers and 17 surface workers.

Since the owners, the manager and the under-manager are the same as those who were at gmat Shaw Cross in 1903, it seems likely that Chidswell Colliery was an earlier variant of Shaw Cross, with possibly new pit shafts being sunk at Shaw Cross in 1903. In March 1888, the local press 12 carried a report describing a fatal accident at the pit, which was described then as being located in Leeds Road, Ossett: FATAL EXPLOSION AT OSSETT COLLIERY. An inquest was held at Ossett yesterday by Mr. T. Of Houston Writing? Taylor, coroner, touching the poem death of George Brook (45), colliery labourer, Naylor-street, Ossett, who was killed on Monday at Messrs. Crawshaw and Warburton's collieries, Leeds-road. Mr.

F.N. Wardell, H.M. Inspector of Mines watched the proceedings. The evidence stated that three other men working with the deceased had a narrow escape with their lives and had been severely burnt. Isaac Kilburn, pit sinker deposed that on Monday last he and another man named Waterhouse were working in a staple or ventilating shaft between two seams known as Flockton and Old Hards. They were widening the shaft and stood on a scaffolding fixed therein.

After they had been working for between two and creative camp three hours with naked candles and without noticing anything unusual, gas came up the shaft, and there was a violent explosion. Deserted? The scaffolding was blown away, and Waterhouse and witness, both burnt were left clinging to the ledge of brickwork at the side of the shaft. The deceased and another man, who were working a jack-roll or windlass at the top of the university writing camp shaft were also scorched, and the planking on which they stood was displaced, causing the deceased to fall down the techniques for organizing persuasive shaft. When assistance came, Brook was quite dead. James Pomfret, the Deputy in charge at the time stated that the cannel seam was chiefly worked at the collieries, which employed a large number of men. Next, below this was the Flockton seam, in which the deceased was at the time of the explosion and lowest of all, the university creative camp Old Hards, which was being newly opened out. He examined the workings in the latter seam prior to deserted farm poem the accident and found them free from gas and when he entered them afterwards, he found the ventilation in good order still.

In answer to questions by the Inspector, he said that eastwards of the bottom of the staple shaft was a heading driven, the further progress of which had been checked by a fault. When he examined that part of the writing camp workings on Monday morning, he did not go up to tips the fault, because part of the header was standing nearly up to the roof in creative, water, but he examined the the edge of the water with his safety lamp and found no trace of gas, a good current of air coming over the water. The jury returned a verdict of accidentally killed. He leaves a widow and a large family. 4. Wrenthorpe , Wakefield was first opened in 1838 and poem was closed in 1900 after the death of the university camp owner Mr. W.T. Marriot of techniques speeches Sandal Grange, Wakefield. Before then and university of houston creative writing camp as late as 1885, the colliery was in the ownership of D. Micklethwaite and Company.

In 1896 the manager was Mr. T.W. Embleton and the under-manager was Mr. W. Law Essay Competition 2013? Wood. There were 103 underground workers and of houston creative writing 35 surface workers. In 1905, the colliery was bought by binding services, the Low Laithes Colliery Co. Ltd, who were operating their pit at Gawthorpe. It was re-opened in 1907, and was used as part of the principal Low Laithes colliery with the same manager, but Mr. D.A. West was the under-manager at Wrenthorpe. University Of Houston Creative Writing Camp? In 1908, there were 80 underground workers and 31 surface workers, suggesting a slight decline from ten years previously.

Wrenthorpe colliery had a branch line to the nearby main Leeds-London railway to transport coal to distribution centres and larger customers. Wrenthorpe colliery closed in 1927 at competition the same time as New Low Laithes Colliery as a result of the strike. Above: Wrenthorpe Colliery complete with an Upholsters Shop. The date of the photograph is of houston creative writing, not known but this section of the farm colliery opened in 1857. As an example of the prevailing conditions, there was a report in the ' Ossett Observer ' in June 1912 of a pit deputy being killed at Wrenthorpe pit, part of the university of houston creative writing Low Laithes Colliery: William Henry Hayes (56), colliery deputy of Dewsbury Road, Ossett met his death as a result of an accident in the Wrenthorpe part of Low Laithes colliery. The deceased was well-known in both Earlsheaton and cambridge Chickenley Heath, in university creative camp, which places he had lived for melbourne, a good many years. Ezra Ramsden, of 11 East Parade, Eastborough, Dewsbury, coal miner, said that the accident happened on Friday at 12.30 p.m. In a few more minutes he would have finished the job of filling up a gob. There had been a fall of roof three or four days before in the Silkstone seam, and deceased, who was assisting to remove the dirt, was working about half a yard from the of houston creative writing witness.

Suddenly, a stone fell down on the deceased, who was sitting on his right foot and farm leg and was in of houston writing camp, the act of using his shovel. The end of the stone struck him on the head, and knocked him against a prop which was behind him. He was still upright when witness pulled him out. The stone was not on him. He said Pull me out Ezra and he (witness) said Tha is out. There was no bleeding, but deceased appeared helpless.

He asked him (witness) to lean him against a prop, but he said he was not easy after after that had been done, so he was laid on his back. Deceased asked witness to film essay take him to university of houston creative writing the gate, but witness told him that he could not do that by himself. He would not let witness go for help for some time, and he could not call for help because there was no one near to hear. Eventually witness got the help of techniques for organizing persuasive speeches several men, and together they got him out of the pit on a stretcher. He was quite helpless all the time. The stone that fell would be about three feet six inches long, twenty inches broad, and would not fill a tub. One end hardly fell fourteen inches, because it reared. The roof was a yard high. Tamar Hayes, of Pickersgill Street, Dewsbury Road, Ossett, widow of the deceased said that her husband was an of houston creative, old servant of the company and essay titles had worked at Wrenthorpe for about five years. He left home at about 4.15 a.m. on Friday morning and university of houston creative she heard that he had been hurt at about three in the afternoon.

She was able to see him at Clayton Hospital, Wakefield and although conscious, he could not talk much. She was there when he died on Saturday afternoon. Dr. Essay? Hugh Walker Moir, assistant house surgeon at the Clayton Hospital, said that deceased was admitted on university writing camp the 21st June, and was suffering from paralysis of the legs, arms and body, and from shock. He was quite conscious and quite helpless. The case was hopeless from the commencement. He rallied from the shock, but gradually sank and died at 12.15 on essay titles the following day. The cause of death was fracture of the fourth vertebra of the spine. Mr. D.A. West, the manager of Wrenthorpe colliery, said that the writing camp deceased had been at Wrenthorpe for exercise essay titles, three years and had worked for the company for forty-five years.

He had never worked anywhere else. The Coroner remarked that the deceased was a thoroughly experienced man and not a man likely to work in a reckless way. The evidence pointed to it having been a pure accident, and he suggested a verdict to the effect That deceased was killed by having his spine accidentally fractured by a fall of university of houston creative writing camp stone whilst at work. Farm Poem? The jury agreed. The 1893 Ossett Coal Strike 6. In 1893, the price that mine owners could get for their coal dropped significantly.

Since 1887, coal miners' wages had increased by 40% above the standard rate and now, because profits were being affected, the Coal-owners' Federation called for a reduction in wages from August 1893. The mine owners wanted to pay only 15% above the standard rate, i.e. an effective reduction in wages of 25%. When the Coal-owners' Federation presented their revised pay offer to the Miners' Federation of Great Britain, not surprisingly, the proposal was turned down flat and the Miners' Federation then asked its members to withdraw their labour from the end of university of houston writing July 1893. All of the English Coalfields were affected, with the exception of Durham and Northumberland, where wages had already been reduced under sliding scale agreements. In 1893, there were four working collieries inside the town boundaries: Low Laithes (Gawthorpe), Pildacre, Westfield and exercise Healey Lane. Just outside the Ossett boundary, but always regarded as an university of houston creative, Ossett coal mine, was Roundwood Colliery, which was easily the biggest of the local pits, and on record as employing 619 underground workers, with another 129 surface workers (1896 figures).

The next two largest local collieries were Pildacre with a workforce of 232 underground and 25 surface workers (1896 figures), then Low Laithes, which had about film digital essay, 120 miners in 1893. University Creative Camp? Westfield and Healey Lane Collieries were relatively small by comparison with Westfield having thirty underground workers and Healey Lane only about twelve. Cambridge? Also, many Ossett and Gawthorpe men worked at Shaw Cross colliery, on Owl Lane, just over the town boundary in university of houston creative writing, Dewsbury and for organizing persuasive speeches employing about 232 underground workers and 45 surface workers (1896 figures.) Nearby Chickenley Heath and Chidswell collieries employed about another 350 local men, some of whom must have lived in Ossett. Those miners that were union members were organised by the Yorkshire Miners Association, based in Barnsley. Within the Ossett collieries, Union membership was strongest in the larger collieries, Roundwood, Pildacre and Low Laithes. Work had ceased at Low Laithes and Roundwood by the end of July in university of houston, line with the recommendation made by the Miners Federation, and at Pildacre soon afterwards. At the two smaller Ossett pits, Westfield and Healey Lane, the miners worked on competition 2013 and this was to cause trouble in the following weeks. The strike had a serious effect on the local economy, which was based on the use of coal as a fuel for industry and transport. On Saturday, 12th August, the of houston writing camp Great Northern Railway cancelled the gmat awa essay majority of university its passenger trains, from the following Monday, which ran between Ossett, Leeds, Wakefield and Bradford. The Ossett Observer noted that the short notice that was given had caused the maximum inconvenience to film essay travellers.

Worse was to of houston camp come, and further cancellations followed in September. Before the end of August, the lack of coal had forced some of Ossett's textile mills to introduce part-time working. In September, the mills of for organizing persuasive J T Brook at Town End and Flushdyke; Swallow's Mill on Dewsbury Road, and Giggal Clay's Mill at Healey all had to close. The Ossett Gas Company was also affected by the lack of coal and in November, it increased the university of houston creative writing price of gas from 2s 9d to 3s 0d per 1,000 cubic feet because of the rise in coal prices. Local mill owners tried to keep their businesses going by buying coal from the Durham coalfield and some paid up to triple the normal price. Unfortunately, the thesis services coal deliveries were delayed because the North-Eastern Railway was unable to cope with the increase in demand for coal from the still operational Durham and Northumberland coalfields. A by-product of making gas from coal is coke and a few enterprising Ossett mill owners used coke purchased from the Ossett Gas Company instead of university of houston creative camp coal. Unfortunately, by the end of August all the coke stocks had been used up.

Pildacre Colliery was a wet pit and needed constant pumping to awa essay tips prevent the underground workings from flooding. Creative Writing? Pildacre's manager, Mr. S. Gmat Awa Essay? Broadbent applied to the Yorkshire Miners Association for permission for his men to get coal from the pit to keep the pump engines running. The owners of writing camp Pildacre Colliery were not among those trying to exercise impose a wage reduction on their workers, but nevertheless, showing a certain amount of university writing camp insensitivity, the Miners Association refused the request and gmat awa essay tips Broadbent had to purchase 100 tons of coal from the Durham mines. Pildacre was potentially the worst affected of writing camp all the deserted Ossett mines because of the university of houston camp flooding, but conditions deteriorated in digital, all the other local collieries during the strike. Ossett's two small collieries, Healey Lane and creative Westfield tried to work on through the cambridge law essay dispute.

This caused a certain amount of anger among the university writing striking miners and there were several attempts to intimidate the essay titles men working at these mines, who in any case, were not members of the mineworker's union. At Healey Lane, the police were called on Saturday the 12th and Monday the 14th August in order to prevent a likely breach of the peace by writing camp, a group of pickets. This intimidation had some effect, since on the Monday, only part of the workforce turned up for work. When the men came out techniques for organizing persuasive of the pit, the had to be escorted home by the police amid hooting and cries of 'Baa' and other unfriendly demonstrations by a crowd of men and women . As a result, the men did not return to work on university of houston creative the Tuesday. Binding Melbourne? On Saturday, 2nd September, some of the miners at Healey Road had returned to work, but were once again the subject of a rather hostile demonstration by a crowd of pickets. On Monday 4th September, a group of forty or fifty miners from outside the town gathered at Westfield Colliery, Ossett owned by Henry Westwood and where only a few miners were at work. Two or three of the pickets went to see Henry Westwood to ask him to close the pit. Westwood was not imposing any wage reduction on his men and in fact, he was opposed to the wage reduction proposals. Westwood refused to close the pit on the grounds that depriving Ossett's textile mills of coal would not help the miners, but would inflict hardship on the textile workers, who were unconnected with the strike and would be put out of work.

This did not meet the university creative camp approval of the pickets and one of them suggested that they should fetch the blacklegs out of the pit and throw the corves down the law essay shaft. Sensibly, this proposal was not carried out, but when Westwood's men came up from the shaft and of houston were leaving the pit-yard to go home, some of the pickets started shouting 'Baa' and binding services melbourne one of the ringleaders grabbed a pit deputy and hustled him. Any further disturbance was prevented by the timely appearance of two policemen. On Thursday 7th September 1893 at the height of the coal miners strike, it was reported in the Ossett Observer that a serious encounter took place at Chidswell on university writing camp the Ossett boundary a mob of for organizing persuasive speeches between 2 and of houston writing camp 3,000 men was marching in law essay competition, the direction of Ossett. About forty-five police charged the camp mob, and dispersed it using truncheons. There was a good deal of stone-throwing, and some of the rioters were armed with formidable bludgeons, but they did not make very much of a stand against the police staves ( it was noted that some of the crowd were rather severely punished by the officers' truncheons.) The constables were also armed with cutlasses, but did not resort to cambridge the use of them.

Westfield Colliery in Ossett was the true objective of the Chidswell rioters, but Henry Westwood, the owner of Westfield Colliery had learned of the planned attack earlier in the day and had withdrawn his men from the pit. Only two men were arrested at Chidswell; one was a miner and the other a cloth fuller. They were both sentenced to one-month's imprisonment by the West Riding Court in Dewsbury. Unfortunately, for the local police, the disturbances coincided with the St. Leger races at Doncaster, which annually took some 200 men away from their usual duties in the West Riding.

When Ossett came under threat, there was only university of houston creative writing, one policeman in persuasive, the town. University Of Houston Writing Camp? Following the disturbances, Ossett's police force was strengthened by the addition of a sergeant and three constables, to the usual force of six officers. All of the police were armed with cutlasses and officers were stationed at the town's collieries. At the beginning of the week of disturbances, there was the first of three mass meetings by the town's miners. All three were organised by the local branches of the Yorkshire Miners Association. The first two meetings were held at the football field near Ossett railway station, and the final meeting took place in the Temperance Hall in Illingworth Street. Film Digital Photography Essay? At the first meeting, which was held on the evening of Monday 4th September, a resolution expressing continued support for the strike was passed by the 800 to 1,000 men present. Although one of the speakers, Mr G.R. Simpson, a check-weighman at Roundwood Colliery condemned the rowdyism that had recently taken place at Westfield Colliery and said that some of the unionists were very sorry that there had been an element in Ossett that day which was no credit to the working class . Another of the speakers, the Reverend B. Haddon, a Primitive Methodist minister, hailing from Durham was more forthright. In his opinion this was not a strike but a lock-out and writing that a terrible day of retribution would come for men who out of the blood of the working class were selfishly amassing huge fortunes . The miners next meeting took place on the morning of Thursday 14th September. A large number walked to poem the meeting behind a brass band and the banner of the Chickenley Heath branch of the university of houston camp Yorkshire Miners Association.

At the meeting, which was attended by 2,000 people, a resolution to resist the wage reduction was unanimously passed. The final meeting was held on Wednesday 18th October and the principal speaker, the President of the Yorkshire Miners Association, Edward Cowey (1839-1903), received an enthusiastic reception from the audience. The Ossett Observer noted Cowey's effectiveness as an orator a big man, with a deep voice, and a North-country accent, Mr. Cowey has a rugged eloquence of his own, which evidently exercises a powerful effect on its hearers - exhibiting as it does, deep earnestness and an absence of exercise essay titles affectation. By the time that Cowey visited Ossett, some of the miners' families were suffering hardship. When the dispute began, the Yorkshire Miners Association was able to pay 9 shillings a week to of houston camp each man. The funds were distributed in the local public houses and one collier wrote to exercise essay the Ossett Observer protesting about receiving his pay in a public house and suggested instead that a schoolroom in the Temperance Hall would be more suitable. In the third week of September 1893, the Association's fund ran out.

The last strike pay, amounting to of houston creative camp 7 shillings a week for each man, was issued on Thursday 21st and Friday 22nd September. The non-union miners who were forced out of work by the strike received no strike pay at all. For example, of the 30 'coal getters' at Westfield Colliery, five were non-unionists. In Ossett, the deserted farm poem local leaders of the Yorkshire Miners' Association began organising relief for non-unionists in September. A Relief Committee, headed by Thomas Webster of Roundwood Colliery was set up and collections taken.

In the week ending Saturday 9th September, almost £20 worth of 'necessaries' were distributed to university of houston writing non-unionists. A number of cambridge law essay competition 2013 individuals also tried to university help the families of miners who were suffering from hardship. Among them was the Mayor, Councillor Francis Lumb Fothergill, who visited over 200 such families and also Alderman Wilson. Some help came also from the Ossett Industrial Co-operative Society, which received £10 from the Co-operative Wholesale Society and distributed it in the form of thesis binding services groceries. The congregation at the Primitive Methodist Chapel in Dewsbury Road raised £5 9s 8d in a collection, while the parishioners in North Ossett raised enough funds to provide thirty boys with breakfast at Gawthorpe Church School. A meeting for those groups interested in helping provide relief for the miners was called in the Temperance Hall on Wednesday 11th October 1893 and university of houston this resulted in the formation of a Relief Sub-Committee of the Borough Council and the opening of a subscription list. The Sub-Committee consisted of eight men representing between them the Borough Council, the town's Anglicans, the town's non-Conformists and essay the miners. By Saturday, 14th October, the Sub-Committee had raised £48 1s 6d.

The largest donation of £10 came from the Leeds Mercury Fund, whist Westwood and of houston creative writing camp Company were among four donors of £5 each. The Sub-Committee distributed some 180 relief tickets weekly until Friday 3rd November, when the funds ran out. During the same period, the Sub-Committee also provided two teas for 600 children in the town's schoolrooms, whilst two Leeds gentlemen provided tea for 200 children. A dance and then a concert, both held in the Temperance Hall provided the services Sub-Committee with fresh funds and there was a further distribution of university writing camp relief in the weeks ending Saturday 18th November and Saturday 25th November. Two more free teas for 600 children were provided and Walter Scott, a butcher in techniques for organizing persuasive speeches, Station Road provided tea for 200 children. By the 25th November, the strike had finally come to an end.

It lasted so long because neither side was willing to writing camp compromise. The Coal-owners Federation insisted on exercise essay titles a wage reduction whilst the Miners' Federation was firm that no reduction of wages was acceptable. University Creative? A ballot, held by cambridge competition 2013, the Yorkshire Miners' Association in early September, indicated that most of its members supported the strike. A wage reduction, arbitration and a return to work on university camp the old rate of wages were all rejected by large majorities. However, in Ossett, the feeling was rather different and the Ossett Observer noted that the overwhelming majority of miners in the town wanted to digital photography return to writing camp work at the old rate of wages.

The attitude of the Yorkshire miners changed as their strike fund ran out later in the month. In a second ballot later in September, they accepted a recommendation from the leaders of the Yorkshire Miners' Association to return to work at those collieries where the old rate of pay was offered. Exercise Essay Titles? The Miners' Federation endorsed a return to of houston writing work on gmat tips these terms, but also imposed a levy of one shilling a day on returning miners in order to support those still in dispute. Most of the of houston Yorkshire miners found that their employers were still insisting on a wage reduction and so only a minority returned to work. In Ossett, Healey Lane and Pildacre Collieries were working double shifts at the beginning of October, while Low Laithes and Roundwood remained closed. At Low Laithes, the management offered a 15% reduction in wages rather than the 25% reduction of the 40% advanced since 1887, but this was unacceptable to the men's representatives. In mid-November, a rumour that Low Laithes was to be re-opened was quickly denied by the manager.

The dispute was finally brought to an end by the Prime Minister, William Ewart Gladstone, who appointed the Foreign Secretary, Lord Rosebery as a mediator between the gmat two sides. On the 17th November 1893, a joint conference was held at the Foreign Office, under the presidency of Lord Rosebery between representatives of the Federated Coal-owners and the Miners' Federation. A settlement was arrived at on basis of the old rate of wages being paid until at least the 1st February 1894, with a Conciliation Board to follow in at least one year. Of Houston Camp? In Ossett, the miners at Low Laithes and Roundwood returned to work the following week. With the end of the strike, the town's mills were able to film essay return to full production and cancelled rail services were gradually restored. Unfortunately, the Ossett Observer did not comment on how long it took the miners' families to recover from the financial strain of the dispute. Bradford Observer, Monday, 7th September 1874. Bradford Observer, Tuesday, 15th September 1874. Bradford Observer, Friday, 25th September 1874. Bradford Observer, Tuesday October 13th 1874.

Leeds Mercury , Saturday January 17th 1863. 1893 Ossett Coal Strike - adapted from an essay by David Scriven. Relative value of university creative writing camp UK pound in RPI terms, taken from the web site: http://www.measuringworth.com/calculators/ppoweruk/ York Herald , Monday, January 11th 1875. Leeds Mercury , Thursday, September 25th 1890. Leeds Mercury , Saturday, July 19th 1862. Leeds Mercury , Saturday, September 8th 1877. Leeds Mercury , Thursday, 29th March 1888.

Leeds Mercury , Tuesday, 22nd December 1857. Lancaster Gazette , Saturday, 26th December 1857. My maternal grandfather, Joseph John Smith worked nearly all his life as a coal hewer in the Yorkshire pits. Awa Essay Tips? He was born in university, Beaufort, Ebbw Vale in 1897, but moved to Yorkshire in the 1920s to work at essay titles Sharlston Colliery. University Of Houston Creative? Here, Joe Smith met and married local Horbury girl, Frances Margrave and thesis binding then lost her to cancer in 1936. For a while, in the 1960s, he came to live with his only daughter, Margaret Wilson and university of houston writing family in farm, Kingsway, Ossett. I wish I had talked with him more about his life, but it didn't seem important at the time. My grandfather was a great talker, but he never talked about his experiences in the Welsh and Yorkshire coal mines, where he had worked from the age of 14. His back and upper arms were mottled with bluish-grey tattoo-like markings, which were the scars from cuts and abrasions sustained working bareback, hewing coal in the narrow seams under Wakefield.

The bloody, exposed tissue had then filled with black dust, just like ink from a tattooist's needle, leaving him with a permanent reminder of the decades of underground toil. His lungs were shot from years of university of houston writing camp inhaling the for organizing speeches coal dust, muck and bad air down the mines. I can hear his hacking, wheezing cough now. Joe died aged 68 from diseases and complications brought on by his years of working in that subterranean hell-hole. Miner's Death 1869 - Inquest at creative writing camp the Little Bull, Ossett Common. Mr Taylor, honor and gmat tips county coroner held an university of houston creative writing, inquest at the Little Bull Inn, Ossett Common over the body of a coal miner, Joseph Crabtree, aged 30. His widow stated that he had his back hurt about two years ago and was laid up for a week. On Friday 27th August 1869 he had left home at 5 o'clock in the morning to gmat awa essay tips go to his work at Messrs. Writing Camp? Terry, Greaves and Co., Roundwood Colliery, Soon after 1pm the services same day, he was brought home with his left leg broken. Mr. Kemp from Wakefield attended him and Mr.

Lawson Tait also acted to set his leg. Deceased began to complain of pain in his left side a day or two afterwards, but he seemed to mend until last Thursday when the university creative pain in his side commenced again. Exercise? He died on Wednesday morning about half past two. Mr. University Of Houston Creative? Lawson Tait, Wakefield surgeon said that he visited the deceased about a fortnight ago and found that he had fractured his left leg and thigh. The leg was in position and appeared to be going on well. Cambridge Law Essay Competition 2013? On Thursday witness made a post mortem examination of the body and found the fractures in process of a cure and in university of houston creative camp, a very satisfactory state. The organs were in a normal condition, except the right side of the heart, which was very much distended with dark, fluid blood. The pulmonary artery was entirely stopped with a hard clot of blood. The clot would cause death by exercise, suffocation. It had no direct communication with his injury.

It must have been in existence for several days or possibly weeks. Weakness from university of houston injury or illness would be likely to cause disease. Jacob Page of Alverthorpe, coal miner, a fellow worker of the tips deceased's said that about 11 o'clock in the morning of the 27th August, the camp deceased's hurrier fetched him and he went to his bank, He found the cambridge law essay 2013 deceased sitting about two feet from the face with about 3 or 4 hundredweight of coal and rock on his left leg and helped free the deceased by university of houston creative camp, moving the coal. A row of props were set to thesis binding services melbourne within four feet of the face. The seam of coal is the Haigh Moor, which is about a yard thick, but in university creative, three seams. The deceased told him that he had got the two lower seams and tried to get down the top seam and deserted poem failed, and he had therefore determined to let it stop up until he had got ready for another fall.

Verdict: Died from a clot of blood, accelerated by the accidental fracture of the left leg. From the ' Ossett Observer' 18th September 1869. Fatal Accident to a Hurrier at Roundwood Colliery - 1877. On Tuesday the 2nd inst., a Horbury lad named Wilson Baines was at university of houston creative his work as a hurrier at the Roundwood Colliery, when a mass of stone from the pit roof fell on him inflicting various injuries to his head. The poor boy was taken home unconscious, in which state he remained till half-past one on Sunday afternoon, when he died. Last Tuesday morning, an inquest was held at the King's Arms, the house of awa essay Mr. S. Hall, before Mr. T. Taylor and a respectable jury of whom Mr.

Thomas Mitchell was foreman. The following evidence was adduced:- Charles White, joiner of Northgate said the deceased was his step son and was 15 years old on Friday. He was a hurrier and university of houston creative the son of the late Mr. T. Baines, rag dealer.

He went out to 2013 his work at a quarter after five o'clock, a week since that morning. He had worked in a pit going on for four years. He was brought back soon after twelve o'clock, unable to speak, and remained unconscious till he died on Sunday afternoon. He received frequent attention, both from Messrs. Kemp and Son, surgeons of university of houston creative writing Wakefield and from Mr.

B. Kemp from Horbury. William Peace, hurrier of Flushdyke, Ossett said he was working at Messrs. Terry, Greaves Co.'s Roundwood Colliery, and knew Wilson Baines who hurried on the same road with him. On Tuesday morning deceased was standing in the middle of the horse road, which is about 5ft 6 in techniques for organizing speeches, high, when a piece of the roof came in suddenly. Only one piece came out; it was a lump of of houston camp blue bind and film digital photography essay seemed to catch the deceased on the head, knocking him down. He raised an alarm, and his father came to university of houston creative writing camp the spot. Joseph Peace, coal miner, of exercise essay Flushdyke, said he was getting coal from the face of a bank, when he heard something fall and his lad scream out of houston writing camp O father, do come, and away he ran and found the poem deceased on university creative the floor bleeding, with knees drawn up and 2013 insensible. He was in a new road which he (witness) helped to drive. He had always considered the university writing camp road good; his own boys passed up and down the way 70 or 80 times a day, and he had to go that way himself.

If he had not, he should not have used the road himself or have allowed his boys. Where the gmat awa essay accident occurred, the road was about 8 or 9ft wide. Of Houston Writing Camp? Deceased was bleeding about the head. Farm Poem? The piece of stone which came down would weigh about 5 or 6 stones, and it knocked a prop down in of houston writing, falling. Witness went up to the pit bank immediately to send for a doctor, and the deceased was taken to his home. A verdict of accidental death was returned. From the ' Ossett Observer ' October 13th 1877. Sep 18th 1880: A Chidswell collier with the nickname “Wild Jack” had made a bet that he would “worry a live hedgehog with his teeth, his hands being tied behind him” , also that he would go through other similar performances, in a field behind the Royal Oak, Owl Lane. On Saturday afternoon a crowd of about 200 had gathered, including a number from Batley and other places. A man was also in attendance with a bag containing the hedgehog. Exercise Essay? The police had heard of the affair however, and at writing 5:00pm a sergeant and two plain clothed constables arrived and were greeted with hooting.

No attempt was made to proceed with the exhibition, but it was rumoured that the encounter between the film photography essay man and the hedgehog came off the same evening at a place called “Dog Loitch”. Above: Percy Christian Greaves (1868-1957) long time principal of Roundwood Colliery, Ossett. Greaves took control of the colliery in 1885 at creative writing camp the tender age of 17 years when his father, John Oldroyd Greaves (1824-1916) suffered a heart attack. Percy Greaves was destined for a place at cambridge law essay competition 2013 Cambridge University, but his father's ill health forced him to take over the family business. By 1892, he had qualified with a first-class colliery manager's certificate and he went on to become one of the most eminent mining engineers in the UK. He was respected and very well-liked by the men at Roundwood where there were no strikes (excluding National Strikes) during his ownership. Greaves always strove to university provide the most up-to-date methods for binding, safety and efficiency for his men.

It was noted in creative writing, his obituary (The Times of October 25th 1957) that few days passed when he was not seen at the pit-head or down the shaft of one of his collieries. Percy Greaves lived with his wife and family of four children at film photography Woolgreaves, near Wakefield; a large eleven bedroomed house built in of houston creative camp, the 1830s and for organizing set in 30 acres of university of houston camp grounds. Miners summoned for leaving work - 1888. At the West Riding Court, Dewsbury, George Cawthorne, Richard Foy and John Richardson were summoned for film, unlawfully absenting themselves from their employment at writing Pildacre Colliery, Ossett early in July 1888. Foy did not appear. Mr. T.L. Chadwick appearing for deserted farm, Messrs. John Naylor and Co.

Ltd., the colliery proprietors stated that the defendants on entering their employment signed the usual printed form of contract to give or take 14 days notice on university of houston writing camp leaving. On the dates named, however, they had abstained themselves and law essay were written to by Mr. University Writing? William Noble, the colliery manager, but appeared to have obtained work elsewhere. Awa Essay? Compensation was claimed from each, being 2 shillings per day, a proportion of the of houston creative writing camp standing expenses of the colliery during their absence. Foy was asked to pay £2, Richardson £1 14s and Cawthorne £1 12s. Richardson was allowed two weeks to pay and digital photography essay the others two months. From the ' Ossett Observer' 12th August 1880.

Aug 16th 1890: A day hole is to be opened from the Runtlings Lane colliery of Messrs Westwood Co. to Healey. It will be fitted with an engine plane, so that coal can be sent out that way for the mills at Healey, instead of being drawn up that shaft. The object is to save the expense of carting coal down into the valley. During the coal strike in Ossett in 1893, the textile mills in the town were starved of coal and university of houston creative many had to close. Temperance Mill in Church Street, Ossett was owned by Francis Lumb Fothergill and he came up with a novel approach to keep his mill open. By running the mill boilers on dried sewage sludge, he was able to keep Temperance Mill operating. By the middle of film photography essay September 1893, Fothergill had used 150 tons of sewage sludge and several other mills in the town followed his example. The sludge was available free-of-charge from the borough sewage works and the only cost was transporting it, which must have been an unpleasant job. Another approach was to burn rag dust saturated with old engine oil and John William Smith, the owner of Healey Old Mill, Ossett managed to of houston writing camp keep his mill operating through the strike using this method.

Fire at Roundwood Pit - 1893. The 'Ossett Observer ' noted in gmat tips, March 1893 that a fire had occurred earlier in the year in the Silkstone pit at Roundwood colliery. The owners of the university of houston writing colliery, Terry, Greaves and Co. had not seen fit to contribute the thesis binding melbourne one guinea a year for the services of the Wakefield Fire Brigade, which would have attended the fire earlier so that the disaster would not have been so great. Also on creative camp the 7th September 1893, on the same day as as the riot at Chidswell, at nearby Ackton Hall colliery in Featherstone, two men lost their lives, after soldiers opened fire on a large crowd of people. There had been some destruction of property at the colliery by a group of cambridge law essay rioters and flying pickets intent on causing trouble. By the late afternoon 3 officers and 26 men from the university creative camp 1st Battalion of the South Staffordshire Regiment had been called in, and the local magistrate read the Riot Act. Because the crowd didn't disperse quickly enough, the soldiers were ordered to open fire.

Tragically, by then, the crowd had been swollen with many innocent local bystanders. James Gibbs (22) and James Arthur Duggan (25) were to die of gunshot wounds and six other people were injured. Neither Gibbs or Duggan had been involved in gmat tips, the rioting and the unfortunate sequence of events came to be known as the Featherstone Massacre. Alarming Explosion at Ossett Colliery - 1895. A serious accident occurred in one of the coal seams worked by of houston creative camp, the Low Laithes Colliery Company Limited, at Gawthorpe, Ossett.

The seam in question, the Cannel is regarded as sufficiently safe to be worked with naked lights at neighbouring collieries, but safety lamps are used in gmat awa essay tips, it at Low Laithes. There were considerably fewer persons employed there on creative writing Saturday than on other days of the week. Operations proceeded in the usual fashion until about eleven o'clock, when an explosion occurred. It appears that ripping was done in exercise essay, the main road, to make the latter high enough for the passage of corves to the coal face. A shot had been fired to blow down a portion of the roof, and this left a cavity, in which it is supposed some gas may have collected. University Creative Camp? At all events, when the Deputy in charge Asa Dransfield, of Gawthorpe, fired another shot, gas exploded.

Dransfield and five other miners who were working in that part of the mine were unfortunately burnt. As soon as possible they were drawn to the surface. Dr. Farm? Mill (Messrs. Wiseman and creative writing camp Mill) happened to be in the locality, and was quickly summoned. The colliery surgeon, Mr. Oates, of Dewsbury arrived later. Oil and limewater were applied to the burns of the injured men, which were also bandaged with cotton wool. Assistance in techniques for organizing persuasive, this was rendered by Police-sergeant Wilcock and Police-constable Groves, who are members of the St. John Ambulance Association. Under the direction of Dr.

Mill, five men were removed in cabs to the Dewsbury and District Infirmary, their names being: Joseph Peaker (39), married, no children, of of houston creative Bennett's Buildings, Gawthorpe, Ossett; burnt on right side, back, and for organizing persuasive arms. John Robinson (33), married, two children, of university of houston creative writing camp Commercial Street, Earlsheaton.; burnt on back, shoulder, face, and arms. Fred Squires (27), single, living with his parents at Chickenley Heath, Soothill; burnt on the neck face, and head. Thomas Coulter (20), single, lodging at Sunderland's Buildings, Soothill Lane; burnt on arms, back, and face. Peter Kenney (about 45 or 50), single, of film digital essay Cobden Street, Batley; burnt on back, arms, and face. Asa Dransfield, the deputy, who was badly burnt on his arms, etc. did not go to the Infirmary, but was able to go down the pit upon the arrival of the managing director, Mr. Of Houston Creative Writing? A.B. Blakeley of Dewsbury, and explain how the accident had occurred. It is understood that the explosion was not of film digital essay sufficient violence to do any material damage to the pit workings. Robinson was able to leave the infirmary on Wednesday, and Peaker yesterday.

The other three men are still lying in the Andrew Pickard ward of the university of houston writing camp institution, but it is thought that Kenny will be ready to digital photography essay go out next Tuesday or Wednesday. Squires and Coulter, who were both terribly scorched are not yet out of danger. Squires has his face and head entirely enveloped in bandages, with the exception of university of houston camp small orifices for his eyes, nose and mouth. From the photography essay ' Ossett Observer ' July 13th 1895. Above: The engine in the Power House at Low Laithes Colliery, Gawthorpe which was used to generate electricity. Fatal Accident at Shaw Cross Colliery - 1897. A lad named Joseph Jennings, 14 years of university writing age, son of Allen Jennings, coal miner, Chidswell was fatally injured at Shaw Cross Colliery belonging to Messrs. Cambridge Competition? Crawshaw and Warburton.

The deceased's mother, Mrs. Emma Jennings, said he was a strong active lad and employed as a pony driver. He left home at 5.30 on Wednesday morning to go to the pit, along with his brother Israel, a hurrier at the same pit. He was brought home at about quarter to of houston camp eight the same morning in an injured condition, but he died at 10.30 that night. When the body was laid out, the left side had the skin grazed and one of film photography his hands was crushed. Stuart Hartley of Hanging Heaton said he was employed along with the deceased as a pony driver at Shaw Cross Colliery. He saw the deceased at the pit bottom at university writing about half past six on Wednesday morning. They both travelled on the main horse road to the junction, the road being 6 feet high and 12 feet wide. About seven o'clock, he was coming from the coal face when he saw deceased's pony standing still in persuasive, the road, attached to ten loaded corves, the first being overturned, with the deceased lying under it. Five of the corves were off the rails, and five on, but they were all coupled.

The road appeared all right, and he could not tell how the writing accident had happened unless some coal had fallen into the points and prevented them from working properly. He and another driver named Joseph Henry Wade liberated the deceased, who only deserted farm, said Take me home. Witness had worked on the same road and had found nothing out of order. They found the deceased about five yards from the points. The jury returned a verdict that the creative camp deceased was accidentally injured by titles, the corves. From the ' Ossett Observer ' September 4th 1897. After the coal strike in 1893, Ossett artist Mark Senior received a commission from of houston writing camp a group of local mill owners to paint a portrait of Henry Westwood, the owner of Westfield Colliery in Ossett. Above: 1893 portrait of Ossett mine owner Henry Westwood, J.P. painted by Mark Senior. Westwood had tried hard to competition keep his pit open to supply coal to university of houston writing power the local textile mills in Ossett. During the dispute, not only had Westwood not tried to impose the 25% pay cut on his workers that the Coal-owners' Federation was calling for in response to tips lower coal prices, but also he had not drastically increased his coal prices to take advantage of the coal famine.

In recognition of his services, local mill owners subscribed for creative, his portrait to be painted and it was presented to deserted farm poem him in January 1894. The painting was described in the Ossett Observer as an admirable likeness and was inscribed Presented to Mr. Henry Westwood J.P. by a few friends, as a mark of respect and in grateful recognition of the generous assistance rendered by university of houston creative camp, his firm to the trade of Ossett during the memorable coal strike of 1893. Westwood's business partner, in Westwood and Co. at Westfield Colliery, William Wray, was presented with an inscribed gold watch. Oct 2nd 1909: An interesting discovery was made in the Low Laithes pit at Gawthorpe on Sunday when a bye-worker named Joe Edwards discovered a bottle, containing tea, in a worked-out part of the mine. Edwards, along with four other men, was making his way up No.2 rise towards the “73 gate” when they stopped for a rest in what is known as “Ned Littlewood’s Place“. It was while resting that Joe noticed the bottle, covered with dust, lying on one side of the road. He picked it up and photography essay it immediately occurred to him that it was the bottle taken down by university, a miner named Horace Moorhouse, who had his back broken in that spot nearly two years ago. For Organizing Speeches? Near at university of houston writing hand they also found Moorehouse’s “snap“. Although it is two years ago since the accident occurred, the bottle was intact.

Shale had fallen from the roof around the bottle but had not touched it. The man to whom it belonged, though helpless, is stated to be in farm poem, excellent health and university of houston camp spirits, apart from his injured back. Colliery Death at thesis services Low Laithes 1921. Alexander Isaacs (40), a colliery contractor was severely injured in an explosion following a misfired shot whilst working in the Low Laithes Colliery Co Ltd at university of houston camp Wrenthorpe (Wakefield). Titles? The accident happened on the 9th February 1921 and of houston creative writing Isaacs was taken to tips Clayton Hospital in Wakefield where he later died from his injuries on the 21st February 1921. Redfern Kaye, the underground manager at Whitwood Colliery, near Castleford agreed to allow a group of students from Leeds University to go underground on February 16th 1926. His daughters Gladys and Mary went with him. University Writing? The shaft was inspected in the afternoon and the group went down the Speedwell shaft at 6pm, Redfern Kaye leading the way and Bill Hughes at the back of the group. Tips? Mary was in front of him.

The roof caved in and Mary was trapped under a huge timber roof support. Creative? She was killed outright. This led to a ban on deserted women going underground at West Yorkshire collieries for many years. Aug 14th 1926: While searching for coal during the strike, workers have unearthed in fields near the boundary beck, near Tufty Farm, what appears to be old coal stores. University Of Houston? In field after field on the bottom side it was found that underneath about a foot of soil was a layer of small coal, varying in depth from one to two feet, and partitioned off every four or so by a narrow barrier of solid clay. At some time or other beyond the memory of the persuasive oldest inhabitant, the turf and subsoil have been removed, clay walls constructed at creative camp intervals of cambridge four feet, the intervening space filled with coal, and the soil turf then restored. The theory put forward is that long ago well over 100 years ago, it is thought coal was worked extensively in this locality, and as it was used mostly for domestic purposes, the small coal, or slack, was practically valueless, and was disposed of in this way, either to level up undulating land, or to avoid the of houston creative writing camp creation of unsightly spoil heaps.

This would entail much labour, but labour was cheap in those days. The clay partitions could serve to either stop the small coal being washed away, or to prevent the spread of fire in the case of spontaneous combustion. In some places intersecting clay barriers are found, giving the appearance of a huge honeycomb. Similar operations are being carried out at Low Park Farm, where the formation of the dumps is the techniques same. Here the coal is being got between two and two and a half feet thick. An 18th century coin has been found here amongst the coal, and may give some indication of the age of the university writing camp dumps. May 25 1946: Opencast coal workings between Storrs Hill and Healey, in six months, have transformed 52 acres of agricultural land into a region of quarries and huge mounds. Producing 700 tons of coal per week, over 20,000 tons have been taken since work commenced last October. It is estimated that 400,000 tons will have been taken before work finishes, probably at the end of the year. The site is between Storrs Hill Road and Healey gasworks.

Two coal seams, each 3 feet thick, are being worked. They outcrop about 100 feet from each other, on the Ossett side of the LMS railway. Techniques? Excavations have been made a short distance inwards, where coal is twenty to thirty feet below the surface. During the last six months the Upper Haigh seam has been almost exhausted, and Lower Haigh has been started on from the Storrs Hill end. Between thirty and forty men are employed there by Messrs Otty Brothers of Leeds.

Old underground pit workings have been exposed by the work. A field on the Horbury side of Storrs Hill has already been worked, and is ready to university of houston camp be restored.

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Canadian Peacekeeping Essays and university of houston writing camp, Research Papers. Rwanda solidified our commitment to ensuring peace is techniques persuasive speeches established and maintained. This mission relied heavily on the help of Canadian forces . directly on and off the battle field. Peace keeping is the preservation of international peace and security by deployment of military forces. The development of this will be more evident, when it shows how Canada became a more peacekeeping nation over the 20th century due to our role in the Paris Peace Conference, Suez Crisis and Battle of Rwanda. Efforts to. Egypt , Lester B. Pearson , Louis St. University? Laurent 1328 Words | 4 Pages. Canadian Identity Essay Canada is known worldwide for speeches, our people’s resilience to nature, our acceptance of many different cultures, our . universal healthcare, and our contributions to world peace.

I believe for university writing camp, these reasons Canada is one of the greatest nations on cambridge competition, Earth. Firstly, Canadian citizens are among the university of houston hardiest people on earth when it comes to resisting Mother Nature. Canada is battered each year with ice storms, hurricanes’ and windstorms, yet we Canadians grit our teeth and fight. Canada , Lester B. Pearson , Medicine 792 Words | 3 Pages. CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION Since its inception in 1945, the United Nations has been involved in peacekeeping operations and . conflict resolutions in the international system. According to Article 1 of the Charter of the essay United Nations, the university creative writing UN is expected “to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by lawful means, and in conformity.

Cold War , Korean War , Peacekeeping 1924 Words | 6 Pages. Canadian Peacekeeping: Afghanistan. Peace keeping essay: Afghanistan The Country Afghanistan is the most significant to binding services, Canadian peacekeeping . Afghanistan is . Of Houston Camp? very significant to farm poem, our Canadian peacekeeping because we have been involved with this peacekeeping for university creative camp, years now. It has come to binding services melbourne, the point where there is long term, immediate and widespread impact on us and Afghanistan. By going to Afghanistan and keeping peace, many events will influence us for an extended period of time.

Families lives change from this peace keeping and. Canada , Hamid Karzai , Kosovo 502 Words | 2 Pages. 4th SPECPOL, Peacekeeping with Middle- East Terrorists I. University? Background of Topic It is evident that in these times of hostility with Middle . Eastern nations, there is a threat of terrorist attacks, but as many of photography essay us know, it’s better to focus on a solution instead of a problem. Peacekeeping with Middle Eastern Terrorists has been a goal of the West and nations all over the world for nearly twenty-five years. University Of Houston Creative Writing Camp? Ever since political instability erupted in the Mideast, diplomats from all over the world. Asia , Middle East , Peacekeeping 946 Words | 4 Pages. EU UN Cooperation in gmat, Peacekeeping and P. ?EU-UN Cooperation in Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding A study of field and university of houston camp, headquarter cases in Bosnia and Herzegovina and farm, the Democratic . Republic of Congo Table of Contents List of Acronyms/Abbreviations DRC Democratic Republic of Congo EU European Union EUPM EU Police Mission (in Bosnia and Herzegovina) IFOR Implementation Force ( in Bosnia and university, Herzegovina ) IPTF UN International Police Task Force MONUC UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Democratic Republic of the Congo , European Union , Italy 1277 Words | 7 Pages. United Nations Peacekeeping Operation in Cyprus (1974 – present) United Nations Peacekeeping Operation in Cyprus (1974 – present) 1. What is peacekeeping ? 2. Cyprus – historical background of . Cambridge Law Essay Competition 2013? conflict 3. UN intervention 4. UN peacekeeping operation history in Cyprus 5. The future of UN presence in Cyprus 6. Conclusion 1. United Nations Peacekeeping Operations The United Nations, founded after World War II in 1945, with the objective to stop wars between countries and provide a platform for dialogue, is the most representative inter-governmental organization. Canada , Cyprus , European Union 1454 Words | 5 Pages. Cosmopolitan Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding in Sierra Leone: What Can Africa Contribute? David Curran and Tom Woodhouse.

Cosmopolitan peacekeeping and peacebuilding in Sierra Leone: what can Africa contribute? David Curran and Tom Woodhouse Kofi Annan called . for a reform in the UN General Assembly in regards to global politics. Annans process of reform was called ‘thinking anew’. University Writing? In spite of tips Annans process of ‘thinking anew‘, more than 300 recommendations for reform have been filed. Debates at the theoretical level has developed, which places an emphasis on reconceptualizing security. Norms on security have changed.

Canada , Conflict , European Union 996 Words | 3 Pages. History. His journey into politics began when he joined a new government department in 1927, the Department of creative writing camp External Affairs. During his twenty-year . Law Essay Competition? career in the department, Pearson served in the Canadian High Commission in Britain, the Canadian Embassy in the United States and served as the Canadian Ambassador to the United States as well as leading Canada into joining NATO and attending the conference that created the United Nations in 1945. In 1948, newly elected to Parliament as a Liberal. Canada , Canada Pension Plan , Lester B. University Of Houston Creative Writing Camp? Pearson 1188 Words | 4 Pages. Impact of thesis a complex 1990's peacekeeping operation. Case of Somalia. Impact of a complex 1990's peacekeeping operation. University Of Houston Creative? Case of Somalia. Peacekeeping has no one definition and has been . evolving since the beginning of its existence, from the services end of 1940’s.

The end of Cold War opened up the of houston creative writing doors for UN to take steps towards collective actions that had been handicapped for decades due to the ideological and self-interest differences of great powers. As a result, the number of peacekeeping operations and similar interventions increased significantly during the. Canada , Italy , Multinational Force and Observers 1969 Words | 6 Pages. Canada's Contributions Toward World Peace. government’s occupation of Afghanistan politically, militarily, and through its oil infrastructure in secret. Canada’s participation in NORAD, NATO, and UN . peacekeeping missions has decreased since the 1970‘s, when compared to involvement levels of the United States and techniques for organizing, other Western nations. However, this military draw down has not reduced the Canadian Government’s military expenditures. University Of Houston Creative Writing Camp? While many of Canada’s citizens feel its government is thesis binding melbourne different from the United States, we can never forget the political. Canada , European Union , Federal government of the United States 1219 Words | 4 Pages.

Peacekeeping in Canada The Canadian military as peacekeepers is a very prominent notion of the majority of . Canadians . It is university writing what distinguishes Canada most strongly from the United States, and what has become an important aspect of film photography their foreign policy. Peacekeeping , since the university of houston creative conclusion of the titles Cold War, however, is a myth. This essay will explore the of houston creative writing history of peacekeeping , its use as a tool during the Cold War, and Canada's very prominent role in its development and use. Peacekeeping , in. Canada , Cold War , Peace 2736 Words | 8 Pages. A Review of: “Sovereignty and Standby: the 1964 Conference on Un Peacekeeping Forces” A REVIEW OF: “SOVEREIGNTY AND STANDBY: THE 1964 CONFERENCE ON UN PEACEKEEPING FORCES” John Macfarlane’s article Sovereignty and Standby: . The 1964 Conference on UN Peacekeeping Forces details a 1964 meeting of poem 23 UN member-nations in Ottawa, Canada. The purpose behind the meeting was a focus-group discussion regarding the university creative creation of either a standby force of military peacekeepers or some form of permanent military force, consisting of titles contributed military units from participating countries. Canada , Department of Peacekeeping Operations , European Union 1296 Words | 4 Pages. Lester B. Pearson and the Suez Canal Crisis. Canada had no direct ties to the Suez crisis, in of houston writing camp, terms of control or economic interest.

However, Canadian Secretary of State for Foreign . Affairs, Lester B. Pearson, persuaded the film digital photography essay UN General Assembly to send in the United Nations Emergency Force. Even though Lester B. Pearson dismayed the Commonwealth with his measures for peace, Canada was recognized for starting the university of houston writing camp first ever United Nations Peacekeeping mission. In the 1950s the Middle East was affected by four different conflicts; each one separate. Cold War , Egypt , Gamal Abdel Nasser 1434 Words | 4 Pages. Position paper: Should internationalism be embraced? Position Paper The source presented talks about the Canadian government’s upcoming actions as it deals with the country’s economic . affairs. Speeches? It can be inferred that the of houston camp author feels that economic prosperity is the most important sign of progress and a good quality of life for Canadians , as jobs and economic growth can lead to “long-term prosperity” that will benefit every citizen of the country. An example of this envisioned economic prosperity is the Harper government’s economic action plan. Canada , Economics , International relations 1081 Words | 3 Pages. The Legendary Canadian Many great people and many great things shape history to what it is today.

An example would be Adolf Hitler. Hitler was . a great man but that does not mean what he did was essentially a great thing. Hitler helped in shaping the deserted farm world’s history by causing World War 2. He was trying to university of houston writing camp, shape the future as well because he wanted Germans to for organizing, be the superior race. University Creative? However there are good people who did good things to gmat awa essay, shape history. Creative? One specific person that comes to farm poem, mind is Lester. Canada , Lester B. Pearson , Multinational Force and Observers 1167 Words | 3 Pages. Over the of houston creative camp years, there have been many Great Canadians . Cambridge Competition 2013? Whether they have had numerous amazing accomplishments, or only one very grave one, they . are defined as a huge role in the country. Many Great Canadians have changed Canada in university creative writing camp, a good way, or have done things for the citizens. Lester B. Pearson’s efforts and essay, accomplishments as Prime Minister helped improve Canada. He helped create Canada’s reputation as peacekeepers.

When he felt Canadians needed it, he brought Universal Health Care into Canada. Health care , Lester B. Pearson , Louis St. Laurent 1001 Words | 3 Pages. Lester B Pearson and the Suez Canal. prevented another world war from occurring with the university writing decisions he made during the Suez Canal Crisis. Pearson prevented the war from occurring by his overall . personality, his achievements before the essay Suez Crisis, and him forming the United Nation Peacekeeping Force. Camp? His overall personality helped him mentally prepare for and keep him calm during the Suez Canal Crisis. Pearson had a deep personal reserve that people found difficult to penetrate (Bothwell).

It would be hard to persuade him into doing. Cold War , Lester B. Pearson , Louis St. Exercise Titles? Laurent 870 Words | 3 Pages. Lester B. Pearson, as he showed the world that Canada is a very peaceful and independent country. The final one was the Canadian Constitution . of 1982, as Canada showed that we are an of houston writing independent and multicultural country.

Three 20th century events that defined Canada as a nation were Canada’s participation in the battle of Vimy Ridge, the actions of Lester B. Pearson, and the Canadian Constitution Act of for organizing speeches 1982. University Of Houston Writing? One event that defined Canada as a nation was Canada’s participation in thesis services, the battle. Canada , Constitution of Canada , Lester B. University Of Houston? Pearson 941 Words | 3 Pages. keeping Tasks Patrolling Unarmed monitoring Maintain a physical presence “Dextraze in the Congo” How peace keeping is techniques for organizing kept in 1950’s Consent . Impartiality Non-threating behaviour UNEF in Egypt The 1960’s The rise and decline of peacekeeping A government priority as it falters in university, practice 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy – create a quarantine Behind the scenes October First time military resources were used despite the gmat awa essay prime minister Fight over how to creative writing camp, use missiles . 1903 , 1912 , 1913 458 Words | 4 Pages. the Suez Canal Zone o This prompted the UN to call for an emergency session to discuss the state of film photography affairs UN Initiative: . Creative Camp? Peacekeeping : • Once the essay titles UN had realized that this conflict was going to happen, and with backing from other nations, they called together an emergency session, to discuss their intervention in the conflict • Canadian Affairs minister, Lester B. Pearson, was in perfect position to creative writing, carve out a middle ground between two extreme positions o His diplomatic.

Canada , Egypt , Gamal Abdel Nasser 1112 Words | 4 Pages. cur- rent and strident debates have centered on peacekeeping , a term that appears nowhere in the U.N. charter but has always been the competition . organization’s foremost priority. The term “ peacekeeping ” was first used to describe the university camp activities of the first U.N. observer mission in 1948, in which U.N. personnel were sent to the Middle East to prevent hostilities between the newly created state of Israel and its Arab neighbors. The first lightly armed peacekeeping mission was conducted in 1956 along the Suez Canal. Canada , European Union , Peacekeeping 2256 Words | 6 Pages. four days without stopping in order to present a resolution on November 3rd, 1956. Calling for a UN police force, the resolution from Pearson included a . plan for setting up a United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) which would become the UN’s first peacekeeping force to secure peace in the region. Under Pearson’s collaboration with the Secretary-General, all shooting stopped at midnight on November 6th; by the 15th the persuasive speeches first UN troops arrived in the Canal Zone. University Writing? The resolution provided peace which many.

Cold War , Egypt , Lester B. Pearson 1522 Words | 5 Pages. ?ROBUST PEACEKEEPING Introduction 1. Law Essay? The UN Capstone Doctrine, in its Glossary of terms, defines ‘Robust Peacekeeping ’ as, . University Writing Camp? “the use of force by thesis binding a United Nations peacekeeping operation at the tactical level, with the authorization of the Security Council, to of houston creative camp, defend its mandate against spoilers whose activities pose a threat to civilians or risk undermining the gmat awa essay tips peace process”. 2. A ‘Concept Note on Robust Peacekeeping ’ issued in 2009 by the DPKO Office of Military Affairs offers an interim definition. Department of Peacekeeping Operations , European Union , Military operations other than war 1174 Words | 4 Pages. In several instances, the university camp UN has proven itself credible to its peace-keeping and film photography, philanthropic mandate, settling international strife and promoting . socioeconomic good, even to the extent of university creative writing winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988 for its effective peacekeeping force (NobelPrize.org). The UN generally does this by for organizing persuasive speeches their work in keeping good relations between nations on of houston, a day by day basis, building up a sort of war immunity. Various treaties, negotiations, and organizations have been promoted and supported. League of Nations , Peacekeeping , Rwandan Genocide 1880 Words | 5 Pages. see whether they support these solutions. The solutions are 1) shoot on sight ,2) deployment of UN peacekeeping troops in Somalia.

More than . Film Digital Photography Essay? half agree to university creative, the shoot on sight solution and more than one third of the respondent have shown support to the deployment of UN Peacekeeping troops in Somalia. Overall, the techniques persuasive speeches majority agree to camp, the solutions. However the respondent show more support in peacekeeping activities in Somalia than shoot on sight order. Moreover, from the data collected, more of the. Gulf of Aden , Islamic Courts Union , Peacekeeping 1121 Words | 6 Pages. Nations The last of the three main ways that Australia contributes to the United Nations is in peace operations. Australia has a large contribution in the . Peace and security operations of the UN as mentioned before. Part of the United Nations role in peacekeeping is essay it invites member states to contribute soldiers or people with other special skills to work in an area of the world that is troubled or where outbreaks of conflict may happen in the future.

The United Nations aims to of houston creative camp, stop war before it even. Canada , Multinational Force and Observers , Peace 922 Words | 3 Pages. International court of justice, Economic and social council, Security Council, secretariat and thesis, the trainee council. All have different, yet major roles in . striving to make the UN a success. 4. The Security Council is the council in charge of the peacekeeping side of the of houston creative camp United Nations. The Security Council contained 15 countries in 1995. The countries were Argentina, Botswana, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Honduras, Indonesia, Italy, Nigeria, Oman, Russian Federation, Rwanda, UK and the U. European Union , Peace , Peacekeeping 772 Words | 3 Pages.

Unamir (United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda) discuss, in depth, the, United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) that took place in Rwanda in 1994. This essay will provide; an explanation of . why Rwanda was in need of a UN peacekeeping forces by covering the events leading up to thesis, the 1994 genocide, an university writing camp explanation of the role Australia played in the peacekeeping mission by covering the assistance Australia provided and gmat awa essay, an outline of the of houston writing situation in the country now, and how the UN’s involvement assisted in this situation by outlining the countries. Hutu , Juvenal Habyarimana , Paul Kagame 1399 Words | 5 Pages. United Nations who already had UN peacekeeping forces stationed in Rwanda. The United Nations have also recognized this atrocity as UN failure. . Another example would be the second Congo war. The United Nations had failed to send humanitarian aid as well as intervene which led to the death of over cambridge competition 2013 3 million people in less than 5 years. In 1995, the creative writing UN again fails to get involved in the Srebrenica Massacre and tips, defend the Bosnians. It could have permitted the peacekeeping forces to actually keep the peace. European Union , Peacekeeping , Republic of China 1651 Words | 4 Pages. its power in the UN, aside from the university of houston writing camp US to keep this organization vital. France and Great Britain as members of the P-5 hold veto power, continue to be . significant donors and major actors in the UN.

They have played key roles in post Cold War UN peacekeeping and enforcement operations by providing troops in the Gulf War and Afghanistan. Law Essay Competition? Since 1990, each had a responsibility for a subcontracted enforcement operation, Great Britain in Sierra Leone and of houston writing, France in techniques for organizing persuasive speeches, Rwanda. This explains what kind of power. Cold War , European Union , Peacekeeping 1325 Words | 4 Pages. 1. Education Institutes,! 2. Hospitals,!

3. University Of Houston Creative Writing? Roads;! Emphasizes that militaristic action can only be taken through Security Council consent, and that . disobedience will result in such consequences but not limited to:! 1. Economic Sanctions! 2. UN Peacekeeping Force Involvement if necessary;! Requests the UN to services, form a new department named as The Department of Economic Sanctions (DoES) that is university camp tasked with the following but not limited to:! 1. Discussing the film digital initiation of unified economic sanctions, and. Middle East , Military operations other than war , Multinational Force and Observers 716 Words | 3 Pages. Hiv/ Aids as a Global Security Threat: an Overview. of HIV among the militaries in university of houston creative writing camp, troop-contributing countries may make it more difficult to staff peacekeeping missions [3]. High rates of HIV in . the binding melbourne South African and Nigerian militaries in of houston creative, particular, which are major contributors of peacekeeping troops, may imperil African-led responses to regional crises such as that in techniques persuasive, Sudan.

Countries may also be less willing to contribute personnel for peacekeeping operations if soldiers risk returning from the mission infected with HIV [3]. 3. Consequently. AIDS , Armed forces , HIV 1592 Words | 5 Pages. Outline Plan: I have chosen the siege at Jadotville which took place in creative, the Congo in exercise essay, September 1961 as the subject of this study. I have chosen this . subject because I am an African living in Ireland and this event involved Irish soldiers on university of houston camp, peacekeeping duty in Africa. The aim of this study is to persuasive speeches, describe the events that took place in Jadotville and also the subsequent treatment by the Irish authorities of these brave men. I intend to do this by giving a detailed description of the events that. Artillery , Irish Army , Military operations other than war 1210 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter 7:International Organizaton, Law, and writing camp, Human Rights. though they are great powers that contribute substantial UN dues and make large contributions to deserted, UN programs and peacekeeping operations.

Any . overhaul of the university of houston writing Security Council would require a change in techniques for organizing, the UN Charter, and a change in membership would reduce the power of the university of houston creative camp current five permanent members, any of which could veto the change, making any change very difficult. Peacekeeping Forces. International relations , Peacekeeping , United Nations 791 Words | 3 Pages. time of need. That I’m sorry. In another reading, a story called “Cri De Coeur” (Heart Cry), by Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire, compassion is used in a . different way.

Lieutenant General Romeo Dallaire who was commander of a United Nations peacekeeping force in Rwanda during the for organizing 1994 genocide that took place and claimed over writing 500, 000 East African lives. Mr. Dallaire explains seeing a child wandering across the road, in a particularly dangerous part of the country that had been known to deserted farm poem, be open. Boy , Compassion , Man 2020 Words | 5 Pages. Social and Psychological Sources of Power in university creative writing, Bangladesh. others. Being internationally responsible and eager to participate in multilateral peacekeeping missions is an important part of farm social and . Of Houston Creative? psychological sources of power of Bangladeshi self-image. This friendly attitude is confirmed by the actions of Bangladeshi governments. Nearly 10,000 Bangladeshi military personnel are deployed overseas on peacekeeping operations, making it a large contributor to the UN peacekeeping forces. Under UN auspices, Bangladeshi troops have served or are serving in Somalia.

Bangladesh , Bangladesh Liberation War , East Pakistan 1788 Words | 5 Pages. militia and deserted, government soldiers announced a curfew and put up roadblocks around the capital. The Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) and the Hutu militia known as the . Interahamwe then went from camp house to house killing Tutsis and moderate Hutu politicians. U.N peacekeeping forces known as the UNAMIR (United Nations Assistance Mission in techniques, Rwanda) stood by as the slaughter went on as they were forbidden to intervene, because it would breach their monitoring mandate. The next day on April 7th , 1994 ten Belgian soldiers. Arusha Accords , Hutu , Juvenal Habyarimana 1759 Words | 5 Pages. The UN is now an outdated body, discuss. in which challenges increasingly have a transnational if not global dimension, such weak intergovernmentalism may no longer be appropriate.

This was . illustrated with the Rwandan genocide of 1994 and by the difficulties in the UN carrying out its peacekeeping role. University Camp? Another example can be seen in essay, the recent case of Syria. Although the West would ideally intervene, under humanitarian intervention. Within the UN security council, Russia and China would use their power of of houston writing camp veto since they resent Western. Peacekeeping , People's Republic of China , United Kingdom 1599 Words | 5 Pages. FORCES Peacekeeping , as defined by essay the United Nations, is a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace. . Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development. India is a charter member of the United Nations and participates in all of its specialized agencies. India is regular contributor to United Nations peacekeeping missions. Diplomacy , Human rights , Peace 921 Words | 4 Pages. Internationalism: Nation and World. involvement of global organizations, treaties and agreements made by of houston creative nation states.

An example peacekeeping carried out by film digital the United Nations. . In order to be involved and benefit from of houston creative camp peacekeeping efforts, a nation-state must be a member of the United Nations which can only be done if they act through international means. Film? An evident example that presents us with the benefits of being a part of peacekeeping efforts is seen through the Suez Canal crisis. The canal was owned by the British and at the. European Union , Nation , Nation state 1021 Words | 3 Pages. themselves to disarmament and gave power of intervention, by university of houston writing force, to the UN against anyone who broke the agreement. The peace-making principle was . effectively put into place. Peacekeeping in this instance would have been most effective though the deployment of a UN presence in the field.

In this principle of peacekeeping military personnel is deployed into an area of conflict to try and minimize or contain the conflict and this was most applicable during the ceasefire .During this period the film photography UN. Boutros Boutros-Ghali , Mohamed Farrah Aidid , Peace 1456 Words | 4 Pages. The United Nations was more successful than the League of Nations in maintaining world peace by comparing with the scale and powerfulness of creative writing camp members, structure and measures in solving conflicts. Geneva, Switzerland. In the exercise essay other side, even before the of houston creative camp WW2, the Allies decided to form a new international peace keeping org to replace LN. In 1942, the . Law Essay Competition? 20 Allied nations agreed with the plan for setting up a more comprehensive and permanent peacekeeping body. University Writing Camp? During the wartime period, the Allies discussed about it, and about to the end of 1945 50 nations joined the UN. It was aimed at exercise, maintaining the world peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations according to the principles.

Gulf War , Peace , Peacekeeping 957 Words | 3 Pages. the united nations success or failure. achieved little progress in early and of houston camp, mid-1992 brokering a ceasefire among the warring clans and subclans. General Mohamed Farah Aideed rejected the . deployment of peacekeepers until fall. In lieu of this, the secretary-general followed standard peacekeeping procedures: no blue helmets would be deployed unless all parties consented. The result was that the civil war in farm poem, Somalia continued unabated, humanitarian assistance could not be delivered, thousands of Somalis died of disease and starvation. Peacekeeping , Rwandan Genocide , Srebrenica massacre 1486 Words | 5 Pages. Latest Reports: Future Of The Malaysian Defense Industry 2014, Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast. Attractiveness and creative writing, Emerging Opportunities 3.1. Defense Market Size Historical and Forecast 3.1.1.

The Malaysian defense budget is expected to reach US$6.5 . Techniques Persuasive Speeches? billion by 2019, at a CAGR of 6.07% 3.1.2. Modernization of the of houston creative camp armed forces, participation in UN peacekeeping operations, and territorial disputes are the major drivers of the Malaysian defense industry 3.1.3. Defense budget as a percentage of binding services melbourne GDP will remain at an average of 1.4% over of houston writing camp the forecast period 3.2. Analysis of Defense Budget Allocation 3. Arithmetic mean , Arms industry , Capital expenditure 813 Words | 4 Pages.

How Efficient Is the United Nations Security Council in Promoting Global Security (with Specific Reference to Darfur and exercise, Iraq)? would allow UN peacekeeping troops to enter (Majendie 2006). The Economist Magazine (Mission Impossible, 2007) showed that ethnic wars and . religious violence are not by any means uncommon phenomena. In fact, they argue that following the Cold War, the writing camp UN, with no standing army, little equipment, military or peacekeeping experience and training had to grapple with these uncomfortable realities and today the UN Security Council needs much more resources in order to accomplish peacekeeping (Spiegel et. George W. Bush , Human rights , Peacekeeping 2767 Words | 7 Pages. International Organizations: the binding services melbourne United Nations. contributors to the UN in 2011. University Of Houston Creative Writing? As of 1 January 2011, the top providers of asessed financial contributions to the United Nations peacekeeping . Film Photography Essay? operations were: the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, China, Canada, Spain and the Republic of Korea (www.UN.org, 2011).

A RAND Corp studied revealed that the university of houston writing camp UN successfully accomplishes two out of three peacekeeping efforts, and compared to the UN nation-building effort to the United States and found that seven out of gmat tips ten UN cases are. Canada , European Union , Peacekeeping 1465 Words | 5 Pages. weapons, and establishing a high level of consent and authority for the follow-on mission. As a result, the INTERFET mission was conceptualised as a peace . support operation because the military forces had to university of houston creative writing, be able to competition, move between traditional peacekeeping tasks (in order to facilitate conflict resolution and lay the groundwork for the interim administration) and peace enforcement tasks (in response to specific breaches of the university of houston peace by the militias). INTERFET’s task was complicated by the fact . East Timor , Humanitarian aid , Indonesia 1621 Words | 5 Pages. massacres of the deserted farm poem kind which began in Rwanda after the plane crash which killed the Presidents of Rwanda and Burundi.

However, the Inquiry has found that the . fundamental capacity problems of UNAMIR led to the terrible and humiliating situation of a UN peacekeeping force almost paralyzed in the face of a wave of some of the worst brutality humankind has seen in this century. Despite the failures of university of houston creative writing camp UNAMIR, it should be said that United Nations personnel within UNAMIR and in the programs and agencies also. Genocide , Hutu , Peacekeeping 1553 Words | 5 Pages. decision making; rational, bureaucratic, garbage can and political will be discussed. The review will also look into the geo-political relations. Dallaire’s . assessment was to make a decision whether the UN should commit in law essay competition 2013, sending a full-fledged peacekeeping force to Rwanda. University Of Houston Creative Camp? Dallaire required a long period of time to come out with his decision as it required him to do a fact finding mission. Cray, David ; Mallory, Geoffrey R. ; Butler, Richard J. ; Hickson, David J. ; Wilson, David C. Techniques? (1998) indicated.

Decision making , Flipism , Genocide 1768 Words | 7 Pages. The Un Us Mishandling of the university writing Rwandan Genocide. and United Nations pulled out. Their negligent attitude towards world conflicts restricts this organization from achieving its goals. Most people know all . Melbourne? too well of the university creative writing genocide between the Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda and the U.N.’s role in “ peacekeeping ,” but to understand the full picture one would need to visit the origins of this conflict. After World War I Belgium received Rwanda as a colony. Under the Belgian’s colonial rule over Rwanda, the minority Tutsi ethnic group was favored over. Genocide , Hutu , Peacekeeping 1367 Words | 4 Pages. community with the power to prevent the genocide did not and the Rwandan government not only gmat awa essay, failed to protect its people but also aided in of houston creative camp, the killings. The . most moving part of the film for me unquestionably was when the commander of the U.N. peacekeeping force in Rwanda, Gen.

Romeo Dallaire says he remains haunted by his inability to stop the killing. Rwanda will never leave me: it's in the pores of my body. …We saw lots of them dying, and services melbourne, lots of those eyes still haunt me -- angry eyes, innocent. Democratic Party , European Union , Genocide 769 Words | 3 Pages. international territory.The Norwegian Foreign Minister, Trygve Lie, was elected as the university camp first UN Secretary-General. . COLD WAR ERA Though the UN's primary mandate was PEACEKEEPING , the division between the US and farm, USSR often paralysed the of houston camp organization, generally allowing it to intervene only in conflicts distant from the COLD WAR.(A notable exception was a Security Council resolution in thesis binding services, 1950 authorizing a US-led coalition. European Union , Human rights , Peacekeeping 1797 Words | 7 Pages. Political Unrest in Bangladesh Its Impact on Economy. for their role in the 2005 murder of two judges. Bangladesh is a world peace Keeper!

Bangladesh is university creative writing generally a force for moderation in international . forums, and it is also a long-time leader in international peacekeeping operations. It is the second-largest contributor to UN peacekeeping operations, with 10,481 troops and police active in digital essay, November 2009. Of Houston Creative Writing? Its activities in international organizations, with other governments, and digital photography essay, with its regional partners to promote human rights, democracy, and creative writing, free. Bangladesh , Bangladesh Awami League , Dhaka 1164 Words | 4 Pages. debate and negotiation, as well as through UN-sponsored fact-finding missions, mediators, and truce observers. UN Peacekeeping forces, . Farm? comprised of troops and equipment supplied by member nations, have usually been able to writing, limit or prevent conflict, although sometimes not. Some conflicts, however, have proven to persuasive, be beyond the capacity of the UN to influence. Key to the success of university creative UN peacekeeping efforts is the willingness of the parties to a conflict to come to terms peacefully through a viable political. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty , Peacekeeping , United Kingdom 1273 Words | 4 Pages. developing countries, and more than 30 per cent volunteering within their own countries.

UN Volunteers help to organize and run local and deserted poem, national elections . and support a large number of peacekeeping and humanitarian projects. UN Volunteers comprise one third of all international civilians working in UN peacekeeping operations. UNV also operates the Online Volunteering service, which connects development organizations directly with thousands of online volunteers who can provide services and advice. Peacekeeping , United Nations , United Nations Volunteers 1026 Words | 2 Pages. was done in order to guarantee that an extremity of conflict like WWII would never occur again.

51 countries with a commitment to maintaining peace . world-wide founded the organization, replacing the League of Nations. The UN is well known for its peacekeeping , peace building, prevention of of houston creative writing conflicts and involvement in humanitarian efforts. Law Essay 2013? The four main purposes of the United Nations are; to keep peace across the world, to develop friendly relationships among nations while promoting social progress;. Haiti , Human rights , Peace 2421 Words | 7 Pages. problem for social justice (i.e. what ought to be done). Of Houston Creative Writing? In particular, protection of the global environment should . Film Photography Essay? be an issue with less political controversy (as compared to, for example, Japan’s participation in university of houston creative, the UN Peacekeeping Operations). Services? But in reality, each country’s effort on environmental affairs is dependent on the interplay of various international / domestic factors and writing camp, economic gains. As a result, it would continue to be a difficult . Economics , Economy of Japan , European Union 692 Words | 2 Pages. International Relations Case Study UN. from international security, in doing so 'when the Security Council was not able to act, the general assembly also played a key part in initiating or . providing guidance for peacekeeping operations.' (N. et al. 1996) Strengths and weaknesses The United Nations has had a lot of strengths in dealing with the issue of world peacekeeping and order.

One of its primary strengths, has been to digital essay, revel where the university of houston writing League of Nations failed; the attainment of Near-Universal Membership. It has accomplished this due. Cold War , League of gmat awa essay Nations , Peacekeeping 2207 Words | 8 Pages. EMILIO AGUINALDO, Quezon City – The Armed Forces of the university writing camp Philippines (AFP) marks another milestone in its commitment to international peace by deserted farm poem deploying the . first all-Navy “Fleet Marine” contingent to conduct peacekeeping operations in Haiti. It is also the first group to have undergone Peacekeeping Operations Training at university of houston writing, the AFP Peace Keeping Operations Center (AFPPKOC) headquarters in Camp O’Donnell, Tarlac – the cambridge home of AFP’s peacekeepers. The send-off ceremony for the 14th Philippine Contingent.

Armed forces , Army , Military 1507 Words | 4 Pages.