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Essay On Asthma; Symptoms and depression, Medication. At Essay Write we offer custom writing services to students at an affordable student friendly prices. You may read various sample research papers and case studies, theses and dissertations, essays and reviews. However, if you like a particular research paper or essay and would like to order a similar one on your custom specific topic – do not hesitate to ask us so that we can help write your essay online. Its as simple as, placing an order on dissertation outline chapter our website.
We will have your paper completed from scratch by our professional PhD and dealing, Master's degree holding writers. Switch over to the Essay Write homepage to get started. Advantages of working with Essay-write. Asthma is a long-term illness of respiratory tract involving inflammation and constriction of the airways. Asthma causes a recurrence wheezing, shortness of breath and coughing. Coughing occurs mainly in the morning and early in the night (Arshad Babu, 2009). Asthma as the illness affects people of all ages and starts early from childhood. Airways play a critical role in carrying air into and out of the lungs. Inflammation of the airways due to asthma makes them sensitive to many substances including inhaled dust and fur. Severe reaction involving the tightening of the muscles on the airways occur due to the above named trigger factors (Arshad Babu, 2009). In the United States alone, 7.8 percent of the population is asthmatic with the disease afflicting people of all races, genders and socioeconomic status.
The disease occurs disproportionately among ethnic and racial populations. Despite the disease being chronic, death from asthma is rare though the propensity increases with age. Many people are unaware of asthma especially in situations when the symptoms are not severe. The severity of the symptoms makes the disease serious. The patient coughs in the morning and early in business plan the night or during exercise. Apart from coughing, the individual experiences troubled breathing in the presence of trigger factors. Troubled breathing is also known as shortness of breath. Individuals experience tightness in the chest and a characteristic wheezing (whistling) sound.
Sometimes a cough persists and would not go away (Arshad Babu, 2009). The problem of breathing is coupled to excessive production of mucus. In severe cases, asthma is associated with hypoxia necessitating oxygen to be given in dealing a clinical setting. Chapter! Most of the dealing depression, symptoms can appear in isolation ranging to mild to severe cases (Frandsen, Pennington, Abrams, 2014). Symptoms of asthma happen every time the outline 1, airways are blocked and irritated. Medications used in the treatment of asthma targets various factors influencing the dealing depression, appearance of the symptoms. Autacoids play a significant role in the symptoms development with a profound effect on the smooth muscles (Frandsen, Pennington, Abrams, 2014). An example of autacoid is histamine, angiotensin and prostaglandin. With the inflammation of the air pathways in buying a proposal the respiratory system, the individual experiences bronchoconstriction inducing the development of depression, symptoms. Leukotrienes are inflammatory mediators that lead to airway edema and over secretion of mucus. Furthermore, they initiate the contraction of smooth muscles.
The most important leukotriene for asthma fall in catering the classes LC4, LD4 and LE4 (Frandsen, Pennington, Abrams, 2014). Medications that block these mediators play a significant role in preventing asthmatic symptoms. Cyclooxygenase remains the main enzyme for eicosanoid production. Eicosanoids are arachidonate metabolites which include prostaglandin, thromboxane and prostacyclin (Barnes, 2009). Inflammation result from eicosanoids with COX being the first enzyme involved in the syntheses of prostanoids; prostacyclins, prostaglandin and thromboxanes each having varying degrees of the dealing, inflammatory response (Barnes, 2009). Most of the medication used in the treatment of asthma induces inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenases to reduce the production of a book, eicosanoids. Dealing Depression! The NSAID class of animals, drugs play a role in the treatment of asthma by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (Barnes, 2009). As noted earlier, trigger factors such as pollen grains, dust and animal fur induces asthmatic attack. Histamine plays a significant role in the response towards the presence of allergens in the body.
The mammalian cells including those of the respiratory system produces histamine (Barnes, 2009). H1 receptor responds to elevated levels of histamine in the cells and exist in endothelium and muscle cells. Inhalation of the trigger factors induces quick response characterized by hypersecretion of mucus, contraction of smooth muscles in the airways and dealing, sneezing. Medications in the class of antihistamines such as diphenhydramine prevents the association of histamine with its receptors in the cells (Barnes, 2009). All medication used in the treatment of a house write, asthma use the dealing depression, common rationale of inhibitory effects to the triggering events leading to musical a cascade of reactions. Drug therapy is the dealing, approach that finds applause in treatment and dissertation outline chapter 1, management of depression, asthma. Leukotriene inhibitors serve the same purpose just like NSAIDS because of their antipyretic effects (Arshad Babu, 2009). They interfere with vasoconstrictive effects induced by leukotriene. In comparison to corticosteroids, they have less bronchial reactivity and airway inflammation. Used to treat asthma in children since they can be taken as chewable tablets or oral syrups.
They are effective as an antihistamine in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (Arshad Babu, 2009). They have minimal side effects and are tolerated in most patients. Corticosteroids form another class for the treatment of chapter, asthma with the useful role in preventing asthmatic attack and chronic asthma. They have immunomodulatory functions and the mode of administration i.e. inhalation prevents the unwanted systemic side effects (Arshad Babu, 2009). They find use when the dealing depression, leukotriene inhibitors have minimal effects in the body. A House A Proposal! The drugs act by enhancing the depression, beta-adrenergic response thus relieving the muscle spasm. They have reverse role in mucosal edema, decreasing vasoconstriction and inhibiting the secretion of lukotrienes. Animals! Bronchodilators play a significant role in the treatment of asthma.
Constriction of the bronchial tubes is one of the symptoms of dealing depression, asthma (Barnes, 2009). Bronchodilators are drugs that make the muscles relax and thus dilate. With the relaxation of smooth muscles, breathing revert to normal. Beta 2-agonists and anticholinergic are common bronchodilators for asthma treatment. In the methods, treatment of asthma, short-acting beta 2 agonist helps in acute attack and bronchoconstriction while the long-acting beta2 agonists are used or the dealing, long term treatment of asthma symptoms (Frandsen, Pennington, Abrams, 2014).
These drugs adjunct the anti-inflammatory therapy with the common drugs used including the leukotriene inhibitors and corticosteroids. They find relevance for to patients who do not have a positive response to other drugs. Arshad, S. H., Babu, K. Musical! S. (2009). Asthma. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Barnes, P. J. (2009). Asthma and dealing, COPD: Basic mechanisms and clinical management. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press.
Frandsen, G., Pennington, S. S., Abrams, A. C. Catering Business Plan! (2014). Depression! Abrams' clinical drug therapy: Rationales for nursing practice. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams Wilkins.
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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and dealing presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the term to include statistical approaches to methods study library and its services. However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr.
Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Depression? Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'. Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the buying a house write a proposal terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the term was coined as bibliometrics by dealing depression Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the dissertation term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to dealing depression throw light on the process of written communication and the nature and course of development of a discipline (in so far as this is essay, displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of written communication'.
Raising (1962), in depression his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and dissertation outline 1 periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by depression Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to business plan misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and depression other media of communication'. Musical Essays? According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of dealing depression recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'. British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and 1 statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to dealing depression Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics.
Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of a body of literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is writing review, communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and dealing their authorship'. Schrader (1981), has also tried to buying a house write define the term in depression a more simplified manner and stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of various definitions of bibliometrics and hairspray musical proposed an depression alternative definition for a house bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and dealing depression statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by methods dissertation Egghe (2000), as 'development and application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by dealing depression bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of research dissertation all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of using citation studies. 3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in depression the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science.
According to Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to ethical treatment animals books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and depression technological literature (Bellis 2009). The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is a methodology used in the social sciences for studying the content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws.
According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for making inferences by review objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages. Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of depression variables that may be measured or the buying write a proposal context in which the dealing messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books'. Content analysis uses citations in research methods scholarly works to depression establish links to musical essays other works or other researchers.
Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of dealing depression bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the writing a book scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of dealing library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. In fact, in many research fields use of bibliometric methods is carried out to explore the impact of their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of writing review UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item.
Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. Dealing? These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and a house Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. Dealing Depression? He pointed out that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and schools of thought; and related data about the business plan academia. Some more pragmatic applications of this information includes the planning of retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in a discipline (Half life) , and dealing comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is catering business, expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to analyze the impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for depression different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and a house related policies etc. 3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are.
1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of dealing depression a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words. Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out catering that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of dealing depression periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and dissertation chapter zones containing the same number of articles as the dealing nucleus when the number of dissertation outline chapter 1 periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2.
Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on depression the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is buying a house, n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of depression 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third.
Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Essays? Bradford's Law is depression, not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an catering abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g.
Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for depression the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of a book review discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and dealing depression the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to allow the a house write reader to determine independently whether the referenced material supports the author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is depression, Reference:- Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to treatment essay bear. A large number of words derived from this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the dealing original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. Essays? A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of depression origin, whether it is research dissertation, knowledge, matter or energy. Because of its meaning, the word reference is depression, used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used.
References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an dissertation outline chapter 1 energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the dealing depression scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of research papers, particularly in ethical treatment science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications. Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in the literature of the subject'. Dealing Depression? Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the writing review acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Dealing Depression? Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to cite the author from which data is used.
The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for developing libraries properly. Plan? Citation analysis is the area of bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers. 2. Giving credit for dealing depression related works (Homage to Press.)
3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Dissertation Chapter? Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the depression work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Substantiating claims.
9. Alerting to forthcoming work. 10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and essays classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14. Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims)
15. Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from depression, these points references appended in the research study is valid indicator of its significance. Treatment? The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and depression there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of methods Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for dealing depression the use of writing a book information by the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of dealing cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the a book whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and dealing deals with study of relationship of cited and citing document and dissertation outline such studies are essential to dealing depression track the research methods dissertation scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established.
Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the dealing author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996).
3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is a method used to catering business plan establish a subject similarity between two documents. If papers A and B are both cited by dealing depression paper C, they may be said to outline be related to depression one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:-
Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in a way it is the buying a house write a proposal mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and depression B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is. 3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the ethical treatment secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management.
Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the depression structure of a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection. Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and business plan co-citation analysis can be used to map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. Dealing Depression? A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for research methods dissertation developing the terminology. These themes are based on depression the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose.
Application of bibliometric research identified by Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature. - Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the a book review efficiency of information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and evaluating library collections. 3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base.
The method helps analysis status and strength is in: ' Methods are objective and dealing repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of write a proposal potential practical value. ' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in data that are collected unobtrusively, from the published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of depression bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications.
3.8 Application of Bradford's Law in Library and Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries. The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items;
3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of sources is about the a house same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns. ' Calculation of cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is depression, used to solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of research methods dissertation hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of dealing depression journals, high to low, by the number of hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in hairspray musical essays selecting and maintaining collections of the dealing most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of special libraries' From the various studies it is analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Identify the quantum and structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period.
2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the source and hairspray country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries. 5. Analyze the authorship pattern of depression literature on a particular subject published from hairspray musical essays, various countries. 6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and dealing depression study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of coverage and analyze the ethical animals essay trend in the language of publication.
9. Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject. 12. Identify the dealing variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Research Dissertation? Analyze the trend among the various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:-
The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to dealing articles published in science and social science journals. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those of lower ones. The impact factor was devised by business plan Eugene Garfield, the founder of the dealing Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for a proposal those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the impact factor of a journal is the dealing depression average number of animals citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and dealing 2007 received 3 citations each on research methods average in 2008.
The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the depression total number of citable items published by that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is business, used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for depression subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in using it journals for credits. New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in hairspray essays this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and the number of articles published in the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Depression? Annuals and dissertation outline other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in dealing a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to animals calculate it for any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor.
The JCR shows rankings of journals by depression impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. The terminology used later and becomes popular is research, Infometrics which covers: The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools.
Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others. It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of their work on Google scholar. A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is likely to dealing depression produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of animals essay different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of Science but the smaller citation collections tend to be more accurate. In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of depression quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the chapter fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.
Scientometrics and webometrics are the dealing latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and writing of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to depression the editor and dissertation book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative features and characteristics of science and scientific research. Dealing Depression? Emphasis is placed on investigations in which the development and mechanism of science are studied by dissertation statistical mathematical methods.
The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the dealing latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of knowledge over time.
Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of measuring the impact of treatment essay scholarly publications. If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the author. The number of citations to dealing that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to cite the ethical animals essay material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the depression original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it.
3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics. The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the quantitative aspect of any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the information about web (web site). That's why the musical essays above phrase is dealing, used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of webometrics is the study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of catering business information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and dealing depression Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by Almind and dissertation Ingwersen (1997).
A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the dealing development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the hairspray essays information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science. Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and dealing depression web mining. One relatively straightforward measure is the ethical essay Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by dealing Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in the site that are accessible to the crawler.
However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables. Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is writing a book review, one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is devoted entirely to this discipline. Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the dealing depression efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and buying a house write a proposal assesses the impact of cyber age on dealing depression society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to other works. It is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and studies reference to and from essay, documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is dealing depression, expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is reinforced by the studies (Lal and Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about plan knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources.
It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and dealing usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and methods books (Garfield, 1983). This chapter satisfy the objective set for the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. This chapter elaborates the detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Dealing Depression? Journal of the American Society for research methods Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics.
Scarecrow Press, p.417. Depression? ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of dissertation chapter sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of dealing depression Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and musical essays Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C.
Sources of information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution. British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7. ' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the American society for dealing depression information science, 38, p.127-129.
' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9. ' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000).
A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319'343. ' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. Buying Write A Proposal? ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and dealing depression application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities.
Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. Hairspray Essays? accessed on 12.04.2011. ' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. Dealing Depression? (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study.
Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to all, Google. Located at http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies. Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of plan bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and dealing Fernstrom, K. (2009).
The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and catering plan http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on dealing depression 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and plan citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden. Located at http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012.
' Hulme, E.W. (1923), Statistical Bibliography in depression Relation to the Growth of research Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. Depression? p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525. ' Lotka A J (1926), the outline frequency distribution of scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. Dealing Depression? 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol.
16, p. Animals? 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol. 16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and dealing et.
Al. (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337. ' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and catering business plan Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461. ' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of dealing depression library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6.
Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on plan 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and dealing depression Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in information science and plan libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256. ' Swapna Kumar Patra and dealing Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223.
' Van Raan, A.F.J. (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the social dimension of science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. K. Treatment Animals? (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages.
4.1 Introduction 104. 4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and dealing depression Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of ethical animals essay Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114.
4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116.
4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119. 4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and varies from streams or branches of knowledge. Higher education is imparted by universities and in colleges having equal facilities.
Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in depression different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in a house all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education. Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out it in his study that the depression main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries.
There is treatment animals, no formal education system for depression academic and special libraries. Write? In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused. Wilson (2012), in depression his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in catering business plan USA and conducted a survey of dealing research productivity and ethical animals LIS educators during the period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of LIS education in USA and depression stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to catering plan syllabus and examination conducted by library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Depression? Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the musical syllabi was reviewed by author from 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA.
This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in depression LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in such a way to catering business plan deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and information sources services, management, research in LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of dealing LIS education in India.
The progress from certificate courses to animals essay research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in dealing depression India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and India is no exception. Ethical Essay? There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and dealing depression more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. Buying A House Write? The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at dealing depression the national level. Such developments at these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in essays turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently.
In order to feed the growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of dealing depression specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the growing dimensions of library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. These activities, no doubt, assist in research methods dissertation defining the spectrum of studies for dealing librarianship. The basic tenet of LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of writing review time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in dealing India is not deep rooted.
In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and catering plan error method. It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of laws of library science, and establishment library schools and research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research. This is dealing, evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is hairspray, characterized by a period of dealing intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification.
The root of the hairspray library and dealing information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in a book review 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for dealing depression his thesis 'Facet Analysis and dissertation Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr. S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in dealing the history of education for librarianship began in the mid-1800s as librarians around the a book review world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in all libraries. The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and consequently, the dealing depression library education programme had been started at hairspray musical several places much before Independence. The history of the education of depression library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the essays starting of a short term training programme in library science in the Baroda State, under the dealing patronage of writing review Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the depression services of an American librarian Mr. W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr.
Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. Methods Dissertation? In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University. This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in dealing Library Science. Research? This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of Delhi was the first university to dealing establish a full-fledged Department of Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to 1 the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in Library Science (M.Lib.Sc).
Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of depression Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to hairspray essays increase. After Independence the stimulus for dealing depression the growth and ethical animals essay development of depression libraries and library science education has come from the progress in and extension of education, scientific research and writing a book review programmes of dealing depression socio-economic development which started in 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of writing a book these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and dealing depression research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957. 4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and dissertation outline chapter 1 developed into depression, a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. LIS courses at outline bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels. The list is shown in appendix. Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education.
Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. With the realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to dealing research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education:- The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in research methods dissertation different types of libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society. It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in depression different positions. In other words, education for library and information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the research methods dissertation quality of the faculty.
The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of dealing information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of electronic resources, tools and media; and help to know the latest developments in the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:- Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Dissertation? Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. Dealing Depression? These programme further leads to M.Phil. and writing a book review PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib. Sc.):-
Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of dealing six months to one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners.
But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on buying a proposal technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in dealing depression USA in dissertation outline 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). Dealing? In 1889 the programme moved to research methods the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and the publication of Training for depression Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in treatment essay 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to dealing two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses.
The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course. This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and catering business Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and depression Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of a house a proposal Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation.
The course offered by the DRTC and NISCAIR have upper age on the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for further advanced research in LIS. The basic eligibility for admission for depression this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for plan superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to depression better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and treatment animals essay Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the dealing depression completion of outline chapter 1 MLISc or M.Phil.
The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to dealing depression develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to catering plan identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and dealing find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in the planning, organization and implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):- In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. Outline? In subsequent years, the depression training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the writing a book American librarian Mr.
William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden. 1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Dealing Depression? Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in buying the year 1915.
This happens to be the depression first university course in India. 1? Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at Vijayawada in dealing depression 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:- In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at a house write Bangalore under the dealing 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of writing a book review Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:-
A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr.
K. M. Asudulah in dealing depression 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of dissertation Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in dealing depression 1942. University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in essay 1943.
A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in dealing depression 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to research dissertation the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to depression establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. Business? It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of dealing depression Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and buying write Vikram University.
In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of dealing depression UGC in introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and dissertation outline chapter Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. Dealing? INSDOC conducted a short term course for methods dissertation Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and dealing Reprography leading to 'Associateship in methods Documentation and Reprography'.
In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'. On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on depression the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and ethical technology. The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of dealing depression a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Lib. I. Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities.
4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in write a proposal LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in depression Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by hairspray musical choice and dealing not by chance. It will again help the research students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India:- Only few departments and dealing associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and research Information Science (DLIS). The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the dealing depression prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and review Information Science is dealing depression, 10+2+3 years of education from buying a house write, any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for depression the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration.
The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in business plan imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to dealing depression develop at least some degree of dissertation outline specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the dealing depression broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system.
Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of business books and librarianship to dealing depression give students a background in the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:- Technology is entering in writing a book a very big way in every sector and in LIS where it has been used extensively to store and depression retrieve information in research different forms and structures. Depression? This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of writing a book review almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services.
4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to dealing undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the a proposal LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission.
4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the dealing limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and dissertation Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of dealing depression a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:- The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on a problem of plan librarianship, done within the dealing depression library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and musical research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of dealing depression subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. Ethical Animals Essay? R. Dealing? Ranganathan's Effort:-
The era of LIS research in India started with S. Review? R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to depression some of the fundamental and writing review theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the dealing area of research in different library schools all over the world. Plan? The library and academic community of dealing depression those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Some of his worth notable contributions are.
a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the dissertation 1 first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Dealing? Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of methods M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr.
S. R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. Dealing? B. Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and buying a house Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the dealing guidance of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. Ethical Treatment? In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Depression? Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and research methods dissertation Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and dealing Training Centre at Bangalore. Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:-
The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. for making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowships to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:- In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. A House A Proposal? B. B. Shukla. It claimed to be the dealing first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of hairspray essays different countries to analyse the trends in LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in depression LIS research at global level based on the analysis.
The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an a house a proposal assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and international trends in LIS research and dealing depression recorded the development in research. The countries covered in business plan the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in various prominent countries of the dealing world. The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and plan retrieval (87) 2. Library and depression information services (77) 3. Review? Information seeking behavior (8)
4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of dealing 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Methods? Though these are common during the period the depression trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in universities. Information science research took leading position in a proposal European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and history were more prominent (74). In China principals in depression LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in write China were : ' Library management and depression administration. In China during the period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas.
A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics. It was found that research at essay international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the dealing depression different methods in which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and a house write information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of libraries, Publishing and book industries.
2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of 2001 centre for information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in LIS domain. They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the survey was focused on dealing depression core areas in writing a book LIS. The centre reported that in dealing depression LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research. Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to buying a house write theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications.
Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and depression services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and methods dissertation experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in dealing which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in business plan the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends. Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and dealing he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the treatment animals essay period 1975-1984 using questionnaire.
The purpose of the author in conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in depression his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research. The areas isolated by him are : 1. Library management. 2. Information retrieval. 5. Public library. 6. Animals? Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Dealing? Library finance. 9. Collection development. 10. Information services.
15. Citation studies. 16. Plan? Special libraries. 17. Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Dealing? Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. Hairspray Musical? National library. 23. Library security.
The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to dealing other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and a proposal uses in dealing depression library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and ethical treatment animals prognosis' conducted a survey of research in LIS covering the period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to dealing depression find out trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in research. Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and hairspray musical indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. Dealing? New technologies.
3. Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Buying Write A Proposal? Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on dealing depression the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends.
3. New user needs. 4. New type of services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. A House? Use of internet.
5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of dealing depression research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in developed countries are: 1. Information retrieval. 2. Information skill. 4. Professional development. 7. LIS education. 8. Catering Business Plan? User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001. Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were,
1. Electronic information. 2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. Dealing? LIS education. 5. Business information.
Electronic resources and information services based on digital media is the need of the time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Digital library development. 3. ICT and hairspray essays school library. 4. Depression? Use of ethical treatment electronic resources. 5. Community building. 6. Depression? Controlled vocabulary.
7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of library and essay information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of dealing editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in write a proposal his article narrated the status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the dealing views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from research methods dissertation, university of Karachi. In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. Depression? During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for research program and only one i.e.
M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'. In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of ethical essay Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to dealing depression Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the media practitioners in Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and archival record in ethical animals directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'. The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and dealing information sources etc. Essays? It is review that university of Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and dealing 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971. First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005.
The topics were funding model in library and research collection management in libraries, at depression present till 2009, three students have submitted the hairspray essays thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in dealing 2001 first degree awarded in outline chapter 1 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of Balochistan only dealing depression one candidate having registered in 2003. University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage. It is buying a house write a proposal, thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. Dealing? From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in hairspray musical essays a twice year. Dealing Depression? During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the ethical animals essay real contribution of Pakistan. The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in dealing which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality.
The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in research dissertation the profession. Depression? From the review of India the same picture is reported except the buying a proposal ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in dealing depression Indian Universities: The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of dissertation University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and depression research institutions are offering PhD programs in LIS.
Many researchers made an effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr. Research Methods Dissertation? S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at the University of Delhi. The University of Delhi awarded the dealing first de jure degree in library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of plan faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of depression reviving and review furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh.
Under his guidance, the dealing depression second de jure (de jure means devoting something and a house someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and dealing depression gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the catering business plan lack of facilities or adherence to dealing depression standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010). Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from 1957 to 2008 in essays LIS discipline and analyzed in dealing depression proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about outline 1 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on depression an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in hairspray essays Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of dealing depression research degrees awarded in Indian universities. The trends resulted from the ethical treatment data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to 2008 and dealing during 1950 to 1979 only methods dissertation 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and found that research activity in Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at 4th position.
The library and information science deals with all aspects of dealing depression information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on. The library and buying information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of dealing some other subjects. Dr. S. R. Hairspray Musical? Ranganathan is a pioneer in the field of Library and Information Science in the world and depression India in particular.
He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD. Review? The research trends indicated the growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. Dealing? DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. 27(2) March, p.5-11. ' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. Treatment? 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012.
' Burke R M and others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. Dealing? 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and information science research literature in hairspray Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India. Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and dealing depression Information Studies. Vol.
57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and buying a house write a proposal research area for developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Dealing Depression? Vakkari. 1993. The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73.
' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. IFLA General Conference in hairspray musical Copenhagen, 1997. Depression? Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012. ' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. Treatment Animals? 10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to depression describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in essays India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012.
' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and depression Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on ethical Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on depression 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175. ' Rochester Maxine K (1995), Library and information science research in Australia 1985-1994. Hairspray? A content analysis of research articles in the Australian Academic and Research Libraries 26, p. 163-170.
' Rochester Maxine K and dealing depression Vakkari Pertti (2003), International library and information science research: A comparison of national trends, IFLA professional reports, Nr. Methods Dissertation? 82. ' Samdani R A and dealing depression Bhatti R (2011), doctoral research in LIS by ethical treatment animals Pakistani professionals: An analysis, Library philosophy and practice, accessed on http://inillibunl.edu/lpp accessed at 25.02.2012. ' Sumsion John (1994) strategic research areas and possible research models for UK public libraries, Library Review, Vol. 43(4), p 7-26. ' Tsuji Keita, Yoshida Yuko and Miva M (2006) Survey on faculty of Library and dealing depression Information Science education in Japan, Graduate school of library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 2-3, Kasuga, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8550. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to ethical animals essay help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in dealing depression our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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35+ Creative Ways to dealing List Job Skills on Your Resume. The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of dissertation outline 1 candidates for any given career is far-reaching. To stand out in such an environment, job seekers need to focus on accentuating their experiences and backgrounds on their resumes. A degree from a prestigious university or an impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on hiring managers, but the dealing real test of a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the position in question.
Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and animals, relevant knowledge are substantiated by the keywords they choose to use. Dealing! Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by [the majority] of companies today to research dissertation obtain the right candidates, Weiner said. While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for dealing depression, staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of a proposal those skills in action. Dealing Depression! [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from review Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an explanation of those skills. If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into your explanation of job duties and how those specific skills played an important part. The challenge is greater for those who have been laid off or who have been out of depression work for an extended period of time. For these professionals, the hairspray essays task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Ford R. Myers, a career coach, speaker and dealing depression, author of the book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from paid and unpaid past experiences.
Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and dissertation, broader picture of who they are hiring, as well as the dealing interests, values and experiences that the catering business plan candidate brings to the table. Based on depression the advice of a book review our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to depression express them. Jobs require teamwork. There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. The specific required skills will vary based on your position. Catering Plan! A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience. On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and dealing depression, asks for feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and works well with others; thrives in a book review, a collaborative environment. If the dealing job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to dissertation 1 show off your top-notch planning abilities. Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed.
Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for by outlining your involvement in, and results from, current and previous projects. On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to depression solve problems; handles details; coordinates and completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to express them on a resume. Review! Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to depression think about what it is you do as a leader and how you guide your employees toward success. To give employers a better idea of what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the size of the team and the scope of the projects you manage. On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is one of the chapter most ubiquitous and in-demand skills for depression, jobs in a variety of fields. Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and better engage other employees and customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of strategy at research methods, social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for new internal-brand ambassadors. Dealing! Zonozi noted that, for positions that directly involve work on corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and catering business, metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and overall engagement.
Even for nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by referencing specific networks and dealing, social media management programs you regularly use. On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and analyzes campaign results; identifies and connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and executes content strategies; drives engagement and chapter, leads; enhances brand image through social presence. Additional reporting by dealing, Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at a newspaper and in the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at ethical treatment animals essay, Business News Daily.
Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and dealing depression, loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.
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essay on genesis 22 Fourteen years ago I applied for depression admission to Dallas Theological Seminary. As I was filling out my application, there were some questions which I had to a house write a proposal, answer. One concerned an area of dealing biblical interpretation over which many Christians disagree. I well remember saying on my application that while I personally agreed with the essay seminary’s position, I did not see it proven by the passage cited in depression, its support. Nothing was said about this matter for over three years. So far as I was concerned, it was all forgotten. Just before my final year in seminary I was called into the dean’s office for a little discussion. To my amazement the matter of the difference between my position and the school’s was brought up.
You might be interested to know that my position changed little, even through years of business study and after learning a little about the original languages of the Bible. Somewhat reassured by my answers, the depression seminary allowed me to continue my educational program and graduate the next year. The point of hairspray musical essays my illustration is that while this difference of interpretation was allowed to depression, persist, there was a time when it would become an important issue. I find that God often does this same thing. He may allow a particular problem to continue for some time, but sooner or later the problem will become an issue of import and one that must be resolved. Such was the case with Abraham. At the very outset of research methods his relationship with God he was given a clear command concerning his family: Now the LORD said to Abram, “Go forth from your country, And from your relatives And from your father’s house , To the land which I will show you” (Genesis 12:1; emphasis added). We know, however, that it took years for Abram to be separated from his father; and when it did occur, it was the result of death rather than of deliberate obedience. Next it was Lot from dealing, whom Abram was reluctant to research dissertation, separate. Dealing. In chapter 21 there was the painful act of sending away Ishmael, a son deeply loved by Abraham.
In chapter 22 Abraham has come to his ultimate test. Abraham was an elderly man, and Sarah was soon to treatment animals essay, die. Abraham’s love was now focused upon Isaac, who after chapter 21 is his only son (22:2). Dealing. God has brought Abraham to the point where he must give priority to either his faith or his family. The greatest test of his faith now confronts Abraham in Genesis 22. We are not told the exact time of the ultimate test in Abraham’s life, only that it came after the events of buying a house a proposal chapter 21. Personally, I believe that it was at least ten years later, which would make Isaac a young man of at least the age of Ishmael when he was sent away. This would give ample time for depression the affections of Abraham for his first son to have been transferred to his second, Isaac.
Isaac is thus accurately called his “only son” and the son whom Abraham loved (verse 2). Contrary to the connotation of the term “tempted” employed by catering business plan the King James translators in verse 2, God tested Abraham to demonstrate his faith in tangible terms. We know from depression, Scripture that while God tests men to prove their godly character as saints, He never solicits them to sin (cf. 1. James 1:12-18). Thus, in James 2 the apostle can point to this event in Abraham’s life as an dealing, evidence of a living faith: Was not Abraham our father justified by business plan works, when he offered up Isaac his son on dealing the altar? (James 2:21) 197.
God’s command to Abraham must have caught him totally unprepared: And He said, “Take now your son, your only son, whom you love, Isaac, and outline 1, go to the land of Moriah; and offer him there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains of which I will tell you” (Genesis 22:2). The greatest difficulty I find in this chapter is not the conduct of Abraham but the command of God. How can a God of wisdom, mercy, justice, and love command Abraham to offer up his only son as a sacrifice? Infant sacrifice was practiced by the Canaanites, but it was condemned by God (cf. Leviticus 18:21; Deuteronomy 12:31). Depression. Furthermore, such a sacrifice would have had no real value: Does the catering business Lord take delight in dealing depression, thousands of rams, In ten thousand rivers of oil?
Shall I present my first-born for my rebellious acts, The fruit of my body for the sin of my soul? (Micah 6:7) To point out that God stopped Abraham short of carrying out the command does not solve the problem. A House A Proposal. How could God have given the order in depression, the first place if it were immoral? To hold that God could ever command His children to do wrong, even as a test, is to open the door to all kinds of difficulties. Several factors must be considered to understand this test in treatment, a proper light. Depression. First of all, we must admit a strong bias in the matter.
We who are parents are repulsed by the thought of sacrificing our children upon an altar. We thus project our abhorrence upon God and suppose that He could never consider such a thing either. Secondly, we view this command from the buying a house write vantage point of the culture of the day, which did practice child sacrifice. If the pagans did it and dealing, God condemned their practice, it must be wrong in plan, any context. We are forced to the conclusion that the sacrifice of Isaac could not have been wrong, whether only dealing depression, attempted or accomplished, because God is incapable of evil (James 1:13ff; I John 1:5). Much more than this, it could not be wrong to catering business plan, sacrifice an dealing depression, only son because God actually did sacrifice His only begotten Son: All of us like sheep have gone astray, Each of hairspray musical essays us has turned to his own way; But the Lord has caused the iniquity of depression us all To fall on Him. But the dissertation Lord was pleased to crush Him, putting Him to grief; If He would render Himself as a guilt offering, He will see His offspring, He will prolong His days, And the dealing depression good pleasure of the Lord will prosper in His hand (Isaiah 53:6,10). For God so loved the world, that He gave His only dissertation outline 1, begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish, but have eternal life (John 3:16; cf. Matthew 26:39,42; Luke 22:22; John 3:17; Acts 2:23; II Corinthians 5:21; Revelation 13:8).
In this sense, God did not require Abraham to do anything that He Himself would not do. Indeed, the command to Abraham was intended to foreshadow what He would do centuries later on the cross of Calvary. Only by understanding the typological significance of the “sacrifice of Isaac” can we grasp the fact that God’s command was holy and just and pure. Abraham’s willingness to give up his only son humanly illustrated the love of dealing God for man, which caused Him to give His only begotten Son. The agony of heart experienced by Abraham reflected the catering business heart of the Father at the suffering of His Son. The obedience of Isaac typified the submission of the Son to the will of the depression Father (cf. Matthew 26:39,42).
God halted the a proposal sacrifice of Isaac for two reasons. Dealing Depression. First, such a sacrifice would have no benefit for others. The lamb must be “without blemish,” without sin, innocent (cf. Research Dissertation. Isaiah 53:9). Dealing. This is the truth which Micah implied (6:7). Second, Abraham’s faith was amply evidenced by the fact that he was fully intending to carry out the will of dissertation 1 God. We have no question in our mind that had God not intervened, Isaac would have been sacrificed. In attitude Isaac had already been sacrificed, so the act was unnecessary. A second difficulty pertains to the silence of Abraham. One of my friends put it well: “How come Abraham interceded with God for dealing Sodom, but not for his son Isaac?” We must remember that the Scriptures are selective in what they report, choosing to dissertation 1, omit what is not essential to the development of the argument of the dealing depression passage (cf. John 20:30-31; 21:25).
In this chapter of essays Genesis, for example, we know that God was to indicate the particular place to “sacrifice” Isaac (verse 2) and that Abraham went to this spot (verse 9), but we are not told when God revealed this to him. I believe that Moses, under the superintending guidance of the depression Holy Spirit, omitted Abraham’s initial reaction to God’s command in order to highlight his ultimate response—obedience. Personally (although there is no Scripture to support my conjecture), I believe that Abraham argued and pled with God for the life of his son, but God chose not to record this point in Abraham’s life because it would have had little to buying a house write a proposal, inspire us. I know that many of us would not want God to report our first reactions to unpleasant situations either; it is our final response that matters (cf. Matthew 21:28-31). This helps me as I read the depression evaluation of Old Testament saints in the New Testament. Except for the words of Peter I would never have considered Lot to be a righteous man (II Peter 2:7-8). Musical Essays. In Hebrews 11 and depression, Romans 4 Abraham is portrayed as a man without failure or fault, yet the book of a book Genesis clearly reports these weaknesses. Dealing Depression. The reason, I believe, is methods dissertation that the dealing depression New Testament writers are viewing these saints as God does. Because of Christ’s sacrificial death on the cross of Calvary, the sins of the saints are not only forgiven but also forgotten. The wood, hay, and stubble of sin is consumed, leaving only the dissertation gold, silver, and precious stones (I Corinthians 3:10-15).
The sins of the saints are not glossed over; they are covered by the blood of Christ. When these sins are recorded, it is only for our admonition and instruction (I Corinthians 10:1ff, especially verse 11). Regardless of the dealing struggles which are not reported, Abraham arose early to begin the longest journey of plan his life: So Abraham rose early in the morning and dealing, saddled his donkey, and took two of his young men with him and Isaac his son; and he split wood for writing a book review the burnt offering, and arose and went to the place of which God had told him (Genesis 22:3). I have said previously that while the early hour may reflect the resolve of Abraham to do God’s will, it may contain some human factors also. First, I would imagine that sleep completely evaded Abraham on that night, especially after God had clearly commanded the dealing depression sacrifice of Isaac. Some people rise early because all hope of business sleep is gone. Then, too, I would not have wanted to face Sarah with my plans for the coming days. Depression. While Abraham was resigned to do God’s will, Sarah is not informed of this test (at least so far as the Scriptures record).
After a heart-breaking three-day journey the mountain of sacrifice was in view. At this point Abraham left his servants behind and went on alone with Isaac: And Abraham said to his young men, “Stay here with the donkey, and I and the lad will go yonder; and we will worship and return to you.” And Abraham took the wood of the ethical essay burnt offering and laid it on Isaac his son, and he took in his hand the fire and the knife. So the two of them walked on together (Genesis 22:5-6). In the midst of great anguish of soul there is a beautiful expression of hope and dealing, faith in verse 5: “Stay here with the donkey while I and the boy go over there. We will worship and then we will come back to you” (NIV; emphasis added). I do not believe these words were idly spoken but that they reflected a deep inner trust in God and His promises.
The God Who had commanded the sacrifice of Isaac had also promised to ethical, produce a nation through him (17:15-19; 21:12). As the dealing two went on alone climbing the mountain to writing review, the place of depression sacrifice, Isaac put a question to his father which must have broken his heart: “Behold, the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?” (verse 7) The answer was painfully evident to Abraham, and dissertation, yet there is in his answer not only dealing depression, a deliberate vagueness but also an element of hope: “God will provide for Himself the lamb for write the burnt offering, my son” (verse 8). At every step Abraham must have hoped for dealing depression some change of plans, some alternative course of action. The place was reached, the altar built, and the wood arranged. At last there was nothing left but to bind Isaac and place him upon the wood and plunge the catering business plan knife into his heart. Only when the knife was lifted high, glistening in the sun, did God restrain Abraham from offering up his son: But the dealing angel of the Lord called to him from heaven, and buying a house, said, “Abraham, Abraham!” And he said, “Here I am.” And he said, “Do not stretch out your hand against the lad, and do nothing to dealing, him; for now I know that you fear God, since you have not withheld your son, your only son, from Me” (Genesis 22:11-12).
At the treatment point of depression death it was evident that Abraham was willing to forsake all, even his son, his only son, for musical God. While God knew the heart of depression Abraham, Abraham’s reverence was now evident from hairspray essays, experiential knowledge. Also at the point of total obedience came the provision of God. God did not halt the act of sacrifice; He provided a ram as a substitute for Isaac: Then Abraham raised his eyes and looked, and behold, behind him a ram caught in the thicket by his horns; and Abraham went and took the depression ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in the place of his son (verse 13). From this experience it was seen that Abraham’s faith that God would provide a sacrificial offering (verse 8) was honored and that God does indeed provide: And Abraham called the name of that place The Lord will Provide, as it is said to catering business plan, this day, “In the mount of the Lord it will be provided” (verse 14). In addition to depression, God’s intervention to prevent Abraham’s sacrifice of his son, there was the confirmation of God’s promises to Abraham through his son: “… By Myself I have sworn,” declares the Lord, “because you have done this thing, and musical essays, have not withheld your son, your only son, indeed I will greatly bless you, and I will greatly multiply your seed as the depression stars of the heavens, and as the sand which is on the seashore; and your seed shall possess the gate of their enemies. And in your seed all the research dissertation nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed My voice” (Genesis 22:16-18). There is dealing little in this divine confirmation that is new, 198 although there is one striking change. In previous instances these promises were made unconditionally (cf.
12:1-3; 15:13-16, 18-21). Now the essays blessings are promised Abraham because he had obeyed God in this test (22:16,18). The change is not as dramatic as it might first appear, however. In chapter 17 God reaffirmed His promises, beginning with these words: “I am God Almighty; Walk before Me, and be blameless. And I will establish My covenant … ” (verses 1-2). Furthermore, Abraham was instructed to “keep My covenant” (17:9,10,11). Then in chapter 18 we read: … Abraham will surely become a great and mighty nation, and in him all the nations of the earth will be blessed? For I have chosen him, in order that he may command his children and his household after him to keep the way of the Lord by doing righteousness and justice; in dealing, order that the Lord may bring upon Abraham what He has spoken about him (18:18-19). We must realize that God’s choice of essays Abraham included not only the end God purposed (blessings) but also the means (faith and obedience).
After his ultimate test on Mount Moriah God can say that the blessings are a result of the obedience which stems from faith. Dealing. This same sequence is business evident in the New Testament: For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of depression yourselves, it is the gift of write a proposal God; not as a result of works, that no one should boast. For we are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus for depression good works, which God prepared beforehand, that we should walk in them (Ephesians 2:8-10). And we know that God causes all things to work together for good to those who love God, to those who are called according to His purpose. For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to become conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the first-born among many brethren; and whom He predestined, these He also called; and whom He called, these He also justified; and whom He justified, these He also glorified (Romans 8:28-30). The work of God begins with a promise which must be accepted by faith.
Ultimately this faith, if it is genuine, will be demonstrated by good works (cf. James 2). Chapter 1. The promises of God are sure to every believer because God is depression sovereign at every step—from faith to obedience to blessing. This incident in Abraham’s life had several results for the patriarch. (1) It dealt with a problem that had plagued him all of his life—unhealthy attachment to family. It was here that Abraham had to choose between Isaac and God for his first loyalty. His obedience finally put this problem to rest. (2) His obedience to the revealed will of God justified his profession of faith: Even so faith, if it has no works, is dead, being by research dissertation itself. But someone may well say, “You have faith, and I have works; show me your faith without the works, and dealing, I will show you my faith by my works.” You believe that God is one. You do well; the musical demons also believe, and shudder.
But are you willing to recognize, you foolish fellow, that faith without works is useless? Was not Abraham our father justified by works, when he offered up Isaac his son on the altar? You see that faith was working with his works, and as a result of the works, faith was perfected; and dealing, the Scripture was fulfilled which says, “AND ABRAHAM BELIEVED GOD, AND IT WAS RECKONED TO HIM AS RIGHTEOUSNESS,” and he was called the friend of God (James 2:17-23). James is not disagreeing with Paul here. He would agree that a man is saved by faith, apart from methods, works (cf. Romans 4), but James insists that a saving faith is a working faith. A faith which is professed but not practiced is a dead faith.
While Abraham was justified before God by dealing depression believing the promise of God (Genesis 15:6; Romans 4:3), he was justified before men by his obedience (Genesis 22, James 2). A House. God could look on Abraham’s heart and know that his faith was genuine; we must look at his obedience to see that his profession was genuine. (3) Abraham’s obedience resulted in spiritual growth and deeper insight into the person and promises of God. No experience in Abraham’s life made the person and work of Christ more evident. This is why our Lord could say to the Jews of His day: “Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day; and he saw it, and was glad” (John 8:56). Times of dealing testing are also times of growth in the lives of believers today.
(4) Abraham’s trial on Mount Moriah prepared him for the future. It is no surprise that the next chapter (23) deals with the death of Sarah. What we need to fathom is the fact that God used the offering of Isaac to prepare Abraham for ethical essay the death of his wife. We know from Abraham’s words (22:5) and from their interpretation by the writer to the Hebrews (11:19) that Abraham’s faith evidenced on Mount Moriah was a faith in the God Who could raise men and women from the dead (cf. also Romans 4:19). While he did not face death until chapter 23, he dealt with it in chapter 22. God’s tests are often preparatory for greater things ahead (cf. Matthew 4:1-11).
Besides dealing with Abraham, God used this incident on Mount Moriah to dealing depression, instruct the nation Israel, who received this book and writing a book review, the other four books of the dealing depression Law from the pen of Moses. For those who had just received the Law with its complex sacrificial system, this event in the life of dissertation outline 1 Abraham gave a much deeper understanding of the significance of sacrifice. They should perceive that sacrifice was substitutionary. The animal died in place of dealing depression man just as the ram was provided in Isaac’s stead. But they should also perceive that ultimately a Son, an only Son, must come to pay the price for writing a book review sin, which no animal can possibly do. Against the backdrop of the sacrifice on Mount Moriah the dealing whole sacrificial system of the methods Law was seen to have a deeper, fuller significance. This incident in depression, the life of dissertation chapter 1 Abraham was also intended for our edification and instruction (I Corinthians 10:6,11). Let me suggest several ways that we should learn from the life of Abraham as it is depicted in Genesis 22. (1) This event is a beautiful foreshadow, a type, of the death of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Abraham represents God the Father, Who, out of love for mankind, gave His only Son as a sacrifice for sinners (John 3:16). Isaac is a type of Christ, Who submits to the will of His Father. Dealing Depression. Isaac bore the wood as our Lord bore His cross (Genesis 22:6; John 19:17). It was three days from the time Abraham left to sacrifice his son until they returned together. After three days Abraham received his son back (Hebrews 11:19). After three days our Lord arose from the dead (John 20; I Corinthians 15:4). Even beyond all this, Isaac was “sacrificed” at the place where our Lord would give His life centuries later, on Mount Moriah outside Jerusalem. We know from II Chronicles 3:1 that this was the a book review place where the Lord appeared to David and where Solomon built the temple.
And so it was that Abraham took his son to a mount near Jerusalem to offer his son, even the dealing depression same place (or nearly so) where our Lord was to die in years to come. What a beautiful illustration of the infinite wisdom of business plan God and of the inspiration of God’s holy Scriptures. (2) This passage also reminds us of the importance of obedience for the Christian. It was because Abraham obeyed God that the promised blessings were confirmed once again at the climax of our passage (verses 15-18). Depression. While man’s works never save him, saving faith must inevitably be manifested in good works (Ephesians 2:8-10). Trust and buying write a proposal, obey is the way of the Christian. (3) We see also that the Christian life is paradoxical. It would seem that it is self-contradictory. Abraham gained his son by giving him up to God.
We get ahead in God’s eyes by putting ourselves behind others (Matthew 23:11; Philippians 2:5ff). We lead by serving; we save our lives by losing them (Matthew 16:25). God’s ways are not man’s ways. (4) The Christian life is not lived without reason or rationality. I greatly fear that many have read this account in Abraham’s life and concluded that God tests us by directing us to do that which is totally unreasonable. The danger is that we will tend to assume that whatever does not make sense is likely to be the will of God. Many critics have suggested that Christians are those who take their hats and their heads off when they enter the church. This is not so.
On the other hand, we must acknowledge that what Abraham was commanded to do seemed to be unreasonable. Through Isaac Abraham was to be the father of depression multitudes. How could this be so if Isaac were dead? Putting a son to death must have seemed totally beyond the character of God. Was God not asking Abraham to act on faith without reason? Notice what the writer to the Hebrews says: By faith Abraham, when he was tested, offered up Isaac; and he who had received the promises was offering up his only begotten son; it was he to whom it was said, “IN ISAAC YOUR SEED SHALL BE CALLED.” He considered that God is able to raise men even from the dead; from which he also received him back as a type (Hebrews 11:17-19; emphasis added). The Greek word here, logizomai , clearly expresses the fact that Abraham acted upon reason. 199 This was no blind “leap of faith,” as it is sometimes represented.
Faith always acts upon facts and reason. My point is simply this. The world likes to believe that they act upon reason while Christians act without thinking. That is wholly false. The truth is research dissertation there are two kinds of reasoning: worldly reasoning and godly reasoning. Peter, when he rebuked our Lord for talking of depression His sacrificial death, was thinking humanly: But He turned and 1, said to Peter, “Get behind Me, Satan! You are a stumbling block to Me; for you are not setting your mind on God’s interests, but man’s” (Matthew 16:23). There are two mind sets: the godly mind and the worldly mind: For those who are according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who are according to the Spirit, the dealing depression things of the Spirit.
For the methods mind set on dealing depression the flesh is death, but the mind set on treatment the Spirit is life and peace, because the depression mind set on the flesh is hostile toward God; for a book review it does not subject itself to the law of God, for it is dealing depression not even able to do so (Romans 8:5-7). The appeal of Paul in outline 1, Romans 12 is dealing depression addressed to catering business, both our emotions and dealing depression, our minds: I urge you therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living and 1, holy sacrifice, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service of worship. And do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of dealing your mind, that you may prove what the research methods will of God is, that which is depression good and methods, acceptable and depression, perfect. For through the grace given to chapter, me I say to every man among you not to think more highly of himself than he ought to dealing depression, think; but to think so as to have sound judgment, as God has allotted to each a measure of faith (Romans 12:1-3). The sacrifice we are called to give to God is that of our living bodies, and it is our logical or rational (Greek, logicos ) act of write a proposal worship.
This is accomplished by the renewing of our minds (verse 2). Depression. Man’s whole being has been affected by the fall: emotions, intellect, and will. All of these must therefore undergo a radical transformation for a house write us to be conformed to the likeness of our Lord Jesus Christ. In Romans 12:3 we are told to think, think, think. This is the use of depression our new minds. Christianity is rational, but of a vastly different kind than that of the world. Christian reasoning is based upon the presuppositional belief that there is dissertation outline a God, Who is both our creator and redeemer (Hebrews 11:1ff). Christian reasoning is based upon the belief that God’s Word is absolutely true and reliable. God had promised a son through Sarah through whom the blessings were to be given. Abraham believed God in dealing, this (Genesis 15:6). Research Methods Dissertation. God also commanded Abraham to sacrifice this son.
Abraham believed God and obeyed Him even though human reasoning would question the wisdom of it. Abraham’s reasoning was also based upon his experience with God over the years. God had continually proven to be his provider and protector. God’s sovereign power had repeatedly been demonstrated, even among the heathen such as Pharaoh and Abimelech. While Abraham and Sarah were “as good as dead” so far as bearing children were concerned, God gave them the promised child (Romans 4:19-21). Abraham did not understand why he was told to sacrifice his son nor how God would accomplish His promises if Abraham obeyed, but he did know Who had commanded it. He did know that God was holy, just, and pure. He did know that God was able to raise the dead. On the basis of these certainties Abraham obeyed God, contrary to depression, human wisdom, but squarely based upon godly reason.
Godly reason has reasons. A Book. We may not know how or why, but we do know Who and what. Dealing. That is enough! (5) There is a beautiful principle taught in our text: “… In the mount of the catering business Lord it will be provided” (verse 14). In verse 8 Abraham assured his son that God would provide a lamb, and dealing, so He did (verse 13). The principle is not that God will provide at a certain place, but under a certain condition. At the point of dissertation faith and obedience, at the point of helplessness and dependence, God will provide. Often, I believe, we do not see God’s provision because we are not at a point of despair. I remember the story of two sailors who alone survived a shipwreck. They were adrift at dealing sea on a makeshift raft. Musical. After all hope of rescue was lost, one asked the other if they should pray.
Both agreed, and one had just begun to cry to God for help when the other interrupted, “Hold it, don’t commit yourself, I think I see a sail.” God sometimes must bring us to the point where we find Abraham on Mount Moriah—totally depending upon God for deliverance. It is there that we must acknowledge that God has provided. This is the point men and women must come to in order to be saved. They must see themselves as lost sinners, deserving of God’s eternal wrath.
They must forsake any faith in dealing depression, themselves and essays, any work they might do to win God’s favor. They must look only to dealing, God to provide the forgiveness of animals sins and dealing, righteousness required for salvation. God’s provision has been made by the death of His sinless Son, Jesus Christ, on Calvary 2000 years ago. If you have reached the point of despair, my friend, I want you to business plan, know it is dealing depression also the research methods dissertation point of help and dealing, salvation. Cast all your hope upon the Christ of Calvary, and you will surely find salvation. (6) Finally, this passage has been used for a tragic evil, the sacrifice of our sons and writing a book review, daughters on the pretext of obeying a divine command. God has never instructed His saints to sacrifice their families for any ministry or any calling. Depression. We must put God first, this is true (Matthew 10:37), but obedience to God necessitates provision and instruction of our families (cf. I Timothy 5:8; Ephesians 6:4; I Timothy 3:4-5, 12). Many parents, like Abraham, view their future as wrapped up in business plan, their children.
They wish to manipulate their lives so as to live out depression, their hopes and dreams in them. We must give our children to the Lord and submit them, as ourselves, to His keeping and care. Then will we, and they, find God’s blessing. I must sadly admit that the outline 1 problem of dealing Abraham is surely foreign to outline 1, our world today. How little we must worry about undue attachment to our children in this day when abortion is rampant, and mothers and fathers are forsaking their families for a freer lifestyle. In this we see the depression prophecy of chapter 1 conditions for dealing the end times being fulfilled in our midst: But realize this, that in research dissertation, the last days difficult times will come.
For men will be lovers of self, lovers of money, boastful, arrogant, revilers, disobedient to parents, ungrateful, unholy, unloving, irreconcilable, malicious gossips, without self-control, brutal, haters of good, treacherous, reckless, conceited, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God; holding to a form of dealing godliness, although they have denied its power; and avoid such men as these (II Timothy 3:1-5). In verse 3 the first word, “unloving,” means literally “without love of kindred.” These are days when the write natural paternal affections are becoming rare. Surely the Lord’s return is near. May God enable us to depression, love our children so much that we commit them to God’s will for their lives. 197 In this chapter James is not debating Paul’s theology but is methods stressing a complementary truth: While works cannot save, only a faith that works does save. The justification of which James speaks in chapter 2 is depression not before God but before men. The faith a man has in his heart justifies him before God, but the hairspray essays faith a man demonstrates by his life justifies his claim to be saved before men. 198 Stigers’ remarks, however, are worthy of repetition: “The phrase ‘gates of their enemies’ (v. 17) is of far-reaching significance as to depression, the future of God’s redemptive program.
The other elements of the oath-promise, the innumerable descendants and the blessing to come upon the nations, are the same as those found in 12:1-3; however, the ethical treatment animals phrase ‘a land I will shew/give thee’ is now replaced by ‘possess the gate of their enemies.’ This enlarges the meaning of the promise of the depression land: that of assuming the place and power of the previous peoples. But the promise is not localized in any way; any enemy of any time is ethical animals essay designated, unless Israel shall deny her God (cf. Ps. 89:30-33). The phrase connotes the ultimate victory of holiness over all things, shared in by God’s people.” Harold Stigers, A Commentary on Genesis (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976), pp. Dealing Depression. 190-191.
199 “Hence, logizomai means: (a) reckon, credit, rank with, calculate; (b) consider, deliberate, grasp, draw a logical conclusion, decide.” J. Hairspray. Eichler, “ Logizomai ,” The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1978), III, pp. 822-823.
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Self taught freelance graphic designer and photographer. He loves collecting and showcasing good fonts and typefaces at his blog Fonts Collector.