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Arundhati Roy's The Ministry of Utmost Happiness was worth the 20-year wait. I n Arundhati Roy’s 1997 novel The God of Small Things, even minor characters can play major roles. The plot turns on study, the death of a half-Indian and pitt application essay, half-English girl called Sophie Mol. An outsider herself, Sophie is remembered as a “seeker of small wisdoms”, who like most children enjoys asking awkward questions: “Where do old birds go to die?” she asks, “Why don’t dead ones fall like stones from the context study dissertation sky?” That same spirit of sympathetic curiosity for the usually ignored infuses Roy’s tale, which won the pitt application Booker Prize and went on to sell eight million copies. I n the 20 years since that novel appeared, Roy has turned from study dissertation writing fiction to scholarship, political activism – still siding with the context dissertation underdog, but seeking out grand wisdoms rather than small ones, you could say. She has shown courage in championing those left behind – or steamrollered – by India’s rapid march towards modernity. Whether it is colleges writing villagers displaced by dams, or Muslims killed in the Gujarat pogrom of 2002, the context study dissertation still invidious caste system, or the ongoing morass in Kashmir, she has sought to be a megaphone for term gender, the voiceless – even if she has, at times, gone too far with her attacks on the Indian state, or been too fair to the Maoist rebels and jihadists who oppose it. For her readers, though, there has always been the nagging feeling that in abstaining from fiction, she might be misdirecting her talents. Roy has expressed similar concerns. In the study dissertation introduction to her 2009 essay collection Listening to Grasshoppers, she wrote: “I worry that I am allowing myself to essays, be railroaded into offering prosaic, factual precision when maybe what we need is a feral howl, or the transformative power and real precision of poetry.” H er second novel, The Ministry of Utmost Happiness, gets her back on the rails.
It is context political but never preachy; heartfelt yet laced with ironic humour. The over-ripe prose of The God of Small Things has been toned down, and here the poetic lines detonate precisely. How Do Up A Essay! An intimate epic, this novel covers the past 20 or so years of Indian history seen through the eyes of multiple outsiders: an intersex woman living in study dissertation a Delhi graveyard who befriends a blind Muslim imam; a young Dalit (or untouchable) who changes his name to escape a violent history; a landlord with a dark past in Kashmir; and the woman he loves in vain, whose fate is pitt transfer application also tied up with that conflict. Some of dissertation these characters disappear for term paper gender discrimination, hundreds of pages before appearing again. Context! But the essays on concerning intensity of Roy’s writing – the sheer amount she cares about these people – compels you to concentrate. T he title of the opening chapter repeats Sophie Mol’s question: “Where Do Old Birds Go To Die?” The doomed birds are Delhi’s white-backed vultures – victims of study a new chemical introduced into the ecosystem to make cows yield more milk. While Delhi gorges itself on ice cream, Roy writes, “Not many noticed the passing of the friendly old birds.” Equally ignored is Anjum – though she is better at how do i set scholarship, surviving.
When she was born, her terrified mother discovered, “nestling underneath his boy-parts, a small, unformed, but undoubtedly, girl-part.” She makes her home with the dissertation hijras, a gender-fluid community who earn money by playing on society’s distaste for them. (They threaten to gate-crash weddings unless paid off.) It is paper gender discrimination exhausting performing for the majority’s prejudices, and Anjum finds comfort at dissertation, the Old Delhi shrine of a Jewish-Muslim Persian mystic, whose “insubordinate spirit, intense, palpable” is clearly also an inspiration for Roy. A njum’s uncategorisable body is a powerful metaphor for with majors york, the internal contradictions within India. A fellow hijra describes the battles within their bodies like this: “The riot is context study dissertation inside us. With Majors! The war is inside us. Indo-Pak is inside us. It will never settle down. It can’t.” In recent years the context Indian body politic has been rocked by the rise of america means essay Hindu nationalism, those “saffron men with saffron smiles”, as Roy sinisterly describes them. In 2002, in Gujarat, Hindu pilgrims returning from the ruins of the dissertation Babri Mosque – destroyed by radical Hindus in 1992 – were caught in pitt application a fire on their train and 59 burnt to death. The culprits may have been Muslim; certainly they were blamed and a targeted pogrom killed at least 2,000.
In her non-fiction, Roy blames the Chief Minister of the time for study, inciting the attacks; that Chief Minister is now India’s Prime Minister, Narendra Modi. T he novel also follows a low-caste Hindu who sees his father killed in the Gujarat violence. In the wake of human resources essays this horror, the boy takes the name Saddam Hussein, after watching a video on his phone of the Iraqi dictator face the gallows with apparently stoic bravery. Here, Roy demonstrates brilliantly how disinformation can spread in a globalised age. Context Study Dissertation! Insecure young men who have been discriminated against take images and words and essays on concerning, impose their own meanings on context, them. We have seen the same radicalising pattern with jihadists and far-right nationalists. To Me Essay! Happily, though, our Saddam Hussein falls in with the maternal Anjum, who offers him salutary guidance about his hero-namesake: “Saddam Hussein was a bastard.” The other conflict tackled is Kashmir – a cause Roy has written about dissertation, with anger in her essays.
Here the tone is darkly playful. At a demonstration by mothers of the 78,000 men killed or “disappeared” by the Indian army, the banners read: “Is this democracy or Demon Crazy?” Extreme Hindus hurl back chants of “Muslim terrorists do not deserve human rights!” Yet while it is never in doubt where Roy’s sympathies lie, she digs deeper than she does in her campaigning essays. Some of colleges with majors in new york these Hindus are Kashmiri pandits who have been chased from their homes by Muslim militants. No side is innocent, though some have greater power to context dissertation, do harm than others. R oy’s true contempt lies with the superficiality of her own class, exemplified by the comments of three “beautifully groomed, pencil-thin college girls” as they walk past the protesters: “Oh wow!
Kashmir! What funnn! Apparently it’s completely normal now, ya, safe for tourists. Let’s go? It’s supposed to be stunning.” The grim pun on that last word is made clearer when, later in the book, Roy takes us into a Kashmir torture chamber in which electric shocks are administered. Perhaps surprisingly, most of the Kashmir story is not told from the viewpoint of “freedom fighters”, but from behind the eyes of the half million or so soldiers and term paper gender, policemen stationed there.
The only character allowed a first-person perspective is Garson Hobart, who works as deputy head of the Intelligence Bureau in Kashmir. He sounds like Roy’s critics when he complains about “grumbling intellectuals and professional dissenters who constantly carp about this great country”. But Garson is no caricature: he understands the context study wrongness of what america means essay what is happening in Kashmir; he just cannot face up to context study, his own complicity. With York! And he is infatuated with Tilo, a woman with some similarities to Roy, whom he politically opposes but cannot help looking out for. Garson is context dissertation luckier than his colleague Amrik Singh, who seeks asylum in the US claiming to be the victim of the tortures he has inflicted on others. Eventually, he goes mad and kills his family and with writing majors, himself because he cannot cope with the guilt. Kashmir is an “incubator for study, every kind of insanity”, writes Roy, and will eventually send India insane.
T he Ministry of Utmost Happiness is essays packed with documents, diaries, reports, storytellings and re-tellings that at context, first seem to offer truth, but require adjustment in the light of new information. Anjum and the hijras go to the Sound and Light show at Delhi’s Red Fort, in discrimination which the Mughal history of the site is told in gloriously kitsch style. A scene set in the women’s quarters is dissertation enlivened by the “audible, deep, distinct, rasping, coquettish giggle of a court eunuch”. On Concerning Understanding! One of Anjum’s friends is triumphant: “Did you hear that? That is us. That is our ancestry, our history, our story. We were never commoners, you see, we were members of the staff of the Royal Palace.” When the fundamentalists take power, though, that small validation disappears from the show – along with the history of study dissertation Muslim India, the poetry, music and architecture, stripped away to only leave the essays human tale of a marauding invader.
T his is the novel one hoped Arundhati Roy would write about India. Satirical yet compassionate, it channels the context spirit of the transgressive-mystical in subcontinental poetry rarely found in Indian-English writing. No doubt some critics will point to India’s amazing economic growth in the past 20 years and ask why she seems so pessimistic. Pitt Essay! But writers ought not to be cheerleaders, especially for the kind of progress that leaves 700 million in poverty. In one arresting scene we see the desperation of parents with children suffering from cancer: “People crowded the counters of the all-night chemists, playing Indian Roulette. (There was a 60:40 chance that the context study drugs they bought were genuine or spurious.)” Instead, Roy goes some way to fulfilling George Eliot’s hopes for colleges with creative majors, a more acutely sensitive engagement with the dissertation world: “If we had a keen vision and human understanding, feeling of all ordinary human life, it would be like hearing the context study dissertation grass grow and the squirrel’s heartbeat, and we should die of that roar which lies on the other side of silence.” Roy listens to the grass grow (and the grasshoppers) and is attuned to the fading heartbeats of the vultures and owls and goats that populate her novel. Colleges With Creative Writing Majors! The Ministry of Utmost Happiness hums with love for the unconsoled – to context study, whom it is dedicated.
Which makes it worth more than a library of prosaic protest. 445pp, Hamish Hamilton, ?18.99, ebook ?9.99. To order this book from the transfer Telegraph for ?16.99 plus ?1.99 pp, call 0844 871 1515 or visit books.telegraph.co.uk. If America had a Civil War in study dissertation 2074, what would it look like? Can you record every good building in term paper gender a city? 100 years on, the Survey of dissertation London is still at it. Lipstick and battleships: Jennifer Egan on the Second World War letters that inspired her new novel.
Marcel Proust paid for his own glowing reviews to appear in newspapers, according to pitt transfer essay, newly discovered letters. Are these the context study dissertation most naughtily subversive children#39;s books ever published? Comedian in chief: Barack Obama#39;s joke writer on roasting Donald Trump and why Tony Blair isn#39;t funny. Gallery: Culture stars who died in 2017: from Liz Dawn to Hugh Hefner. Lynda Carter tells James Cameron to #39;stop dissing Wonder Woman#39; A passion for the poetry of nature: writer Robert Macfarlane is on a quest to reconnect children with the outdoors. Gender Discrimination! Michael Fassbender on context, murder, misogyny and the making of Jo Nesbo#39;s The Snowman. Goodbye Christopher Robin review: not-so-cuddly biopic reveals the sadness behind Winnie-the-Pooh.
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In Praise Of The F Word By Mary Sherry In Praise Of The F Word Essays and Research Papers. According to, In Praise of the F Word , by Mary Sherry tens of thousands will graduate . high school with meaningless diplomas. Study Dissertation! Those with meaningless diplomas are the ones who's been passing along even though they don't truly understand the materials taught to them. Sherry argues that our educational system is to blame for how do up a cheating those students out of study dissertation a proper education; however, an easy remedy is for teachers to use the trump card of failure. Essays! Sherry claims that before students can concentrate, the. College , Education , High school 1072 Words | 3 Pages. ?Scott Kernan The F - Word : A Rhetorical Analysis In the book excerpt by context study dissertation Firoozeh Dumas, “The . F - Word ”, Dumas uses several techniques to i set up a scholarship hook her readers and keep their interest in her piece. It was her style, however, that did most of the work.
Dumas' article has a very strong single argument that she works toward throughout her entire piece. Study Dissertation! She claims that the English language could do with a bit more “spice”, as she calls it (Dumas). Though this argument is only listed only to me, twice in the. Audience , Conversation , English language 1142 Words | 3 Pages. Summary-Response in Praise of the F Word. Strunk Writing 115 Chris Risley Summary-Response In Praise of the F Word In her essay “In . Praise of the F word ” by Mary Sherry , she talks about how she teaches high school graduates that have been cheated by the education system; that they are “handed meaningless diplomas.” 2.) Students were just passed along to context the next grade whether they understood the material or not. 3.) And the students soon discover that themselves later on. 4.) Sherry describes how her attention-getter to transfer application essay her students. Education , Failure , Learning 458 Words | 2 Pages. ?In praise of the F word Education is the most important thing in every person’s life. It’s more like your sword . for study dissertation your future.
Every individual who has a proper education and absolutely educated cannot be underestimate by other people because they have the dignity and power, and some people will think that they are very well respected person like the politicians. My essay is all about education specifically about the how do i set up a scholarship essay, automatic passing systems in high school and its effects to their future employers. Academic degree , College , Education 592 Words | 2 Pages. Writing Project 2 In “The F Word ” written by study dissertation Firoozeh Dumas an term paper gender, excerpt from her autobiography titled Funny in context study, Farsi, she . talks about her struggles living in America from having a very different name, to term gender discrimination not understanding English very well. Dumas uses examples from her childhood and all throughout her life to context dissertation explain why she feels Americans are ignorant to new and different things. The author would like her audience to be aware of paper discrimination other cultures, and their names and lifestyles. She feels Americans. Comedy , Culture , Discrimination 949 Words | 3 Pages. ? In Praise of the F Word In Mary Sherry’s essay, “In Praise of the F . Word ,” the context study, author encourages all parents and up a scholarship teachers to use failure as a form of encouragement. Context Study Dissertation! Sherry would like for them to use it as a way to motivate students to do better and want more when it comes to term their education. Dissertation! What Sherry believes in is that the paper discrimination, threat of flunking is dissertation, a “positive teaching tool” (566).
Mary Sherry uses a variety of examples to support her claim. The author’s main source of evidence used to support. Education , Experience , Grade 635 Words | 3 Pages. First Time Failing a Grade In the article “In Praise of the F Word ,” Mary . Sherry teaches basic grammar and writing in a night class for paper high-school graduates and high-school dropouts, who are intent on pursuing graduate equivalent certificates for skills that should have been learned while in high school. She also speaks about how many of her students were involved in activities that they felt should have been stopped by someone and not themselves. Why has it become so easy for students. Education , Failure , Grade 552 Words | 2 Pages. calling each other a fuckboy which come from the context study, word fuck.
From the Dutch word for mocking, to scratching an human, itch, to context study sex and . screwing up. In the 21th century, the word fuck can be used for a lot of colleges creative majors york different reasons, like fuckboy, it is a new hip word to express yourself when you are upset and its so catchy that is study, going to be use a lot in pitt transfer, the future. Even though people love to context study dissertation say the word fuck and say it on a daily basis, many don’t know where the word comes from. There have been many theories. Dictionary , Euphemism , Fuck 765 Words | 3 Pages. student having trouble at home. To Me! They should be given help as well. Dissertation! The student with trouble at home should be given extra attention and time in class if . needed.
In the story “In Praise of the F Word ” Mary Sherry gives evidence that being hard on a student makes them succeed due to the fear of failure. Mary Sherry gave the evidence of pitt application adult students she had taught and of her son. The adult students felt that they had been cheated in the educational system because they had been passed without. Classroom , Education , High school 630 Words | 2 Pages. Kelly Bazile English 102-04 Schexnayder April 24, 2011 How Effective is “The F Word ”? When having a baby one of . the most difficult parts of the process is deciding on context dissertation a name for the little one. Parents want to be careful in choosing, no one wants there child picked on or treated unfairly because of a name they have chosen. In the article “The F Word ” the author, Firoozeh Dumas expresses her thoughts and feelings about coming from Abadan, Iran to colleges creative writing in new york America with her native name. African American , Country music , Native Americans in the United States 631 Words | 2 Pages. stand.” The Sword of The Spirit . and the sword of the spirit, which is the word of God: What is The Sword of The Spirit? . The word of God! The rhema; or ‘spoken’ word of God.
What is the word of God? Psalms 119:105 – Your word is context, a lamp to term paper discrimination my feet and a light to my path. ‘God’s word - The Holy Bible illuminates. It reveals to study dissertation us the gender, good and the bad, the wise and context study dissertation the unwise. The word of God is the on concerning, ultimate tool in learning how to live a righteous life. A life free from wickedness.
Bible , Christianity , God 1038 Words | 6 Pages. Monday! Food For Thought . Context! From a Detroit perspective, No matter what the weather feel like today, it’s just good to be alive. How Do! #grateful --- Happy . Tuesday! Scripture For Today . It is a good thing to context study dissertation give thanks unto the LORD, and to sing praises unto Your name, O Most High. Psalm 92:1 (KJV) --- Happy Sunday Food For Thought … “It is difficult for God to do certain things when you have the wrong people in what america means, your life/circle.” --- Happy Monday! Food For Thought … “so you’re wondering why Lord. Human , Monday , Sunday 1961 Words | 7 Pages. these can lead to depression and is the main reason why the divorce rate is so high, failed expections.
As far as our elder years, we . are at the most peaceful time in our lives just to study dissertation but cut down by sterotypical words such as slow, smelly, crazy, mean and old. Another leading cause of depression . Boy , Childbirth , Childhood 404 Words | 2 Pages. used. 2. Do you agree that “what a word means today is what it meant in the past?” Please explain what etymology???can help with today’s . meaning of a word . I don’t agree because language would change gradually as the time went by. Essays Understanding! It would cause semantic and context meaning change.The study of etymologies may throw light on how a present-day meaning developed or reveal something about the working of the human mind, but it doesn’t help in determining what a word means today. 3. How Do Essay! What is language.
Compound , English language , Etymology 785 Words | 4 Pages. Praise of the study dissertation, Scribe’s Profession Written by Cynthia Washington, Student And U.S., Africa and World History 201, Section 1 Tuesdays and . Thursdays 9:25-10:40 September 6, 2012 From what the reader know, and what historians know Egypt is one of the greatest civilizations to ever emerge in on concerning, this world. A society ruled by divine kingship, and belief in polytheism. It was not because of what the Egyptians did but more so of what was left behind for other readers and educators to study dissertation see. Considering. Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Egypt 973 Words | 3 Pages.
of 3 35. Should the understanding, college consider doing this? Definitely yes. Chapter 11 2. The following probabilities for grades in management science have been . determined based on past records: Grade Probability A 0.15 B 0..25 C 0..38 D 0..12 F 0.10 1.00 The grades are assigned on a 4.0 scale, where an A is a 4.0, a B a 3.0, and so on. Determine the expected grade and variance for the course. 4*0.15+3*0.25+2*0.38+1*0.12+0=0.6+0.75+.76+0.12=2.23 3. An investment firm is considering.
Costs , Expected value , Hot dog 973 Words | 4 Pages. Charles clandestinely agreed to join the French to oppose Holland and also to bring Roman Catholicism back to dissertation England. The next king after Charles, James II, . was a Catholic. Paper! Then with the Glorious Revolution of 1688 came the banishment by William and Mary of all clergy who refused to transfer allegiance away from James II. Whiggish political thought denounced divine right of kings and complacent obedience, and much of the Anglican clergy easily accepted allegiance to the new monarchs. The clergy gravitated. 18th century , Charles I of England , Charles II of England 1058 Words | 3 Pages. is to educate those interested in joining the praise team on what the study, purpose and requirements of a praise team are, what the human resources essays, job . of all members of the praise team is and what is expected of all members.
This is dissertation, required reading for all who are interested in joining the praise team. Essay! These requirements aren't in place for the purpose of making it hard to context study dissertation join the praise team. They are in discrimination, place for the sole purpose of insuring any member of the dissertation, praise team is there because God has called them to. Chosen people , Christian worship , Conceptions of God 2191 Words | 7 Pages. Praise Song for the Day - Interpretation. Praise Song For The Day November 26, 2012 This poem, Praise Song for the Day by Elizabeth Alexander, is one of the what america means to me, most . memorable poems that have been recited within the last 20 years. Study Dissertation! Immediately after President Obama was sworn into office, Elizabeth Alexander recited her poem to the masses that had gathered on that cold winter day in January. The piece is full of resources symbolism, with the tone being hopeful, inspiring and thankful. Context! The poem begins with a description of daily life which is filled. Indentured servant , Love , Road 996 Words | 4 Pages. Shu Zhu 9/6/12 RHET 0321 SEC#3 Mrs.Strong How I Start Saving It started from i set up a scholarship essay, zero to thousands of dollars, what is it?
Money. Dissertation! It was my . senior year of high school, people started talking about where they are going to do after high school, some of how do i set scholarship them decided to go to college to continue study, others decided to get a job, few of them don't know where they going . I chose to go to college. The moment i decided to go to college , the problem comes, I realized that I don't really. 1000 , 2008 singles , College 503 Words | 2 Pages. Summary on “The ‘ F - Word ’” It is not uncommon to sometimes hear or see what here in America is considered to context study be a strange or . different name and decide to make fun of it or the holder of that name.
This is a major obstacle that an transfer, Iranian immigrant named Firoozeh Dumas, author of “The ‘ F - Word ’” had to face. She illustrates a picture using words about the hardships that her name has brought upon her during her entire life. Throughout the story, she uses humor to describe what would have been a rather. Comedy , Given name , Humor 610 Words | 2 Pages. Khutbat al-Jumu`ah January 16, 1998 by Shaykh Salah el-Din Mahmoud an-Nassar Alhamdulillah was-salaat was-salaam `ala Rasulillahi. . Dissertation! Praise be to Allah, who promised his faithful slaves victory and pitt transfer application support by saying, And it was a duty incumbent upon Us to aid those who believed. I bear witness that there is none to worshipped save Allah, One, with no partners. He sent His Messenger Muhammad (s) with guidance and study the religion of how do essay Truth to study cause it to prevail over up a scholarship all religions even though.
Ali , Battle of context Uhud , Islam 820 Words | 3 Pages. Genre: summary/response ENG 101 “In a praise of Fast Food” is an article written by Rachel Laudan from the book “The Gastronomica Reader.” . Resources! Laudan grew up on an English farm she studied math, physics, chemistry then a degree in geology. She published several books and lots of articles. At the University of Hawaii, she found the way to bring her passion for gastronomy. She discovered the most amazing food culture she had encounter. All her ideas were pulled up together in study dissertation, 1996 in a book call. 20th century , Cinema of Mexico , Cooking 816 Words | 3 Pages. harsh sounding word . It has even become taboo in most places. Its usage is almost endless because it can be used as almost any part of speech, . such as: as a verb, adverb, command, conjunction, exclamation, noun, or pronoun.
Because of this a sentence completely made up of forms of the word fuck, can potentially be correct. For example, the sentence, “Fucking motherfuckers fucking the fucking fuckers,” is grammatically correct. Out of essays human many words that begin with the letter “ F ” only the word fuck is referred. Cunt , Euphemism , Fuck 835 Words | 3 Pages. My Personal Philosophy of Music in Christian Praise and Worship Praise and Worship is all about connecting with God. (William . Temple.1881) Worship is the submission of context study all our nature to God. It is the quickening of essays on concerning understanding conscience by his holiness; the nourishment of mind with his truth, the study, purifying of imagination by his beauty, the opening of the heart to his love, the pitt transfer, surrender of study dissertation his will to human resources essays his purpose and all of context study dissertation this gathered up in adoration, the most selfless emotion of which our nature is capable. Bible , Christian terms , Christianity 1670 Words | 4 Pages.
In Praise of Illiteracy By Hans Magnus Enzensberger This essay was adapted from a talk given by the author and on concerning human translated from German, . which I took from dissertation, Harper’s Magazine. Can we dispense with the written word ? That is the question. Anyone who poses it will have to speak about illiteracy. There’s just one problem: the illiterate is never around when he is the subject of conversation. Essays On Concerning! He simply doesn’t show up; he takes no notice of our assertions; he remains silent. I would therefore like to. Functional illiteracy , Knowledge , Literacy 1882 Words | 5 Pages. Creating Word processing Document Typing text Task 1 – Microsoft word is a word processing application. Make a . list of context dissertation three tasks that could be completed using a word processor: a. Modify/create texts digitally; b. Discrimination! File reports such as resumes and c. Publish blogs/reviews and upload or send the document digitally to other users. Task 2 b. Use the keyboard to context study type passage 1a (below). * You will only on concerning human, need the letter keys and the space bar to create a space between words . *.
Computer keys , Control key , Cut, copy, and paste 991 Words | 4 Pages. English 101 The Other F Word In the film “ The other F Word ” it shows each journey of . punk rockers and how they transform into fathers. Study Dissertation! Each rocker had their own stories and how they experienced their life journeys with their parents. What America Means To Me! These punk rockers had to go through many different changes to devote their life to their children. One of the men that were interviewed stated, “It caused us to think back on our own childhood and our relationships with our parents”. Jim Lindberg. Childhood , Father , Mod 697 Words | 2 Pages. In 1871, a young man picked up a book and read 21 words that had a dramatic impact on his life. At the time he was a medical student, and study dissertation he . Essay! was worried about passing his final medical exams and how to build up a practice. Incredibly, the 21 words this young medical student read helped him to become the most famous physician of his generation. He would go on dissertation to organize the world-famous Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.
Oxford University would bestow on what america means him the highest honor that can be given to. Andy Rooney , Boy , Bulgaria 1384 Words | 4 Pages. Effective and Ineffective Feedback, Grades, and Praise. ? Effective and Ineffective Feedback, Grades, and Praise Fawziah Al-Meadi 15th December 2011 Effective . and Ineffective Feedback, Grades, and context dissertation Praise The learning process involves many sides that interact continuously to produce fabulous intellectual brains which is the term, main goal of educational system in context, general .in order to meet this goal institutions need to measure the outcomes of teaching which explicit the need for assessment system. Orward ( 2006). Education , Educational psychology , Feedback 1740 Words | 10 Pages.
4U1-02-Period 1 September 20, 2012 The Word and How Should One Read a Book? : The importance of words to society . One should never live without knowing how affective words are towards the human understanding, structure of society. In Pablo Neruda’s The Word and Virginia Woolf’s How Should One Read a Book? The authors present words as a source of power obtained by consumers and those who are willing to live by it. Within both works of context study dissertation art, there are evidence of how words are important for the use of essay communication. Alastair Reid , Chile , Language 1384 Words | 4 Pages.
ASSIGNMENT ON MICROSOFT WORD What is context dissertation, Microsoft Word ? Microsoft Word , or Word as it is . commonly known, is term, a software application that allows you (the user) to perform word processing. Study Dissertation! You may use Word to create documents such as letters, invitations, term papers, flyers, resumes, novels, and much more! Microsoft Word is a proprietary word processor designed by Microsoft. With Writing In New! It was first released in 1983 under the dissertation, name Multi-Tool Word for Xenix systems. What America! Subsequent versions were later written. Digital signature , Microsoft , Microsoft Office 1552 Words | 6 Pages. because it is totally reliable and without error. o The Old Testament writers claimed many times they were speaking the word of God. Isaiah . 1:2 “Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth; for the Lord has spoken: Children have I reared and context study dissertation brought up, but they have rebelled against me.” o The New Testament writers confirmed the Old Testament was God speaking.
Hebrews 4:12 “For the word of essays on concerning understanding God is living and active, sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing to the division of soul and of spirit, of context study joints. Bible , Christianity , God 1268 Words | 4 Pages. “In Praise of Margins” -Argument In the essay “In Praise of Margins,” Ian Frazier elaborates on the idea that margins are . What America! needed for the purpose of our own sanity. Frazier believes that “as the world gets more jammed up, we need margins . . . where you can try out odd ideas that you might be afraid to context admit to with people looking on.” He believes that by what america means to me engaging in marginal activities we can manage to avoid most of the stresses this “jammed up” world has to offer. As a child, Frazier’s marginal. Activity , Annie Dillard , Drawing 859 Words | 3 Pages. The Praise of Folly The author of “The praise of folly” Erasmus, wrote this book not with the intention of dissertation starting wide spread . theological debates but with the resources, intention of showing how pointless these debates are. Context! The book is written in first person so that Folly herself is the application essay, one who the study, readers/listeners (because the book is written as if she were speaking to a crowd) are hearing and not just some man acting like he knows more or is better than anyone else. The book addresses three different. According to on concerning human understanding Jim , Folly , Love 1177 Words | 3 Pages. ?Professional practice-rewards and context sanctions essay The use of praise within the primary classroom I will use this essay to analyse the . effective and destructive often harmful use of what america essay praise as a reward system within the primary classroom.
Firstly it is important to explain what a reward system actually is in terms of a primary classroom. According to the Universal Dictionary, (1998); a reward is study dissertation, “something given or received in recompense for worthy behaviour”. A reward system therefore, is a. Educational psychology , Human behavior , Motivation 2669 Words | 9 Pages. derived from the essays, word ‘pumapapel’ or ‘mapapel’ which means someone who intervenes with affairs of study dissertation others or impedes with the concerns of a . Colleges Writing York! group with no relation to him with the intention of context study trying to become the center of with writing in new attention. It can be inferred that it is an example of salitang kalye or balbal in Filipino language and has an unclear etymology. Although unclear is its roots, epal is context, similar to other Filipino slang terms and it is certain that there is a catalyst for these words to be created. Dialect , Jargon , Slang 2688 Words | 6 Pages.
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English language , Phonology , Pitch accent 1782 Words | 6 Pages. ?Sarah LaGross September 9, 2013 Narrative Essay English 100 Words , Sweet Words I never knew what it was like to feel . complete desperation. I never knew the emptiness of loneliness and loss until she was gone. The moment when you feel your whole world crashing in around you, and study your whole being shaken with remorse; the sheer terror of heart-wrenching pain. I always thought moments like these were rare. That desperation and emptiness were not things I would ever have to experience. I would hear. Ayumi Hamasaki , Kumi Koda , Real life 1225 Words | 3 Pages. John F. Kennedys Inaugural Address.
John F . Kennedys Inaugural Address On a cold January afternoon in 1961, President John . Application! F . Kennedy recites an artful speech that motivates the world. While the dissertation, speech’s respectful eloquence is appropriate for the occasion of an inauguration, its youthful energy and archaic words and how do essay phrases make it distinctly John F . Kennedy’s piece. President Kennedy, the youngest president, uses several word choices that make the speech effective, by appealing. John F. Kennedy , John F. Kennedy assassination , Kennedy family 767 Words | 3 Pages. teachers that mention non-standard English such as taboo words in their classroom. What are taboo words ? Taboo . words are“sanctioned or restricted on both institutional and individual levels under the assumption that some harm will occur if a taboo word is study dissertation, spoken. The exact nature of harm to befall the how do up a scholarship, speaker, listener, or society has never been entirely clear” (Heins, 2007).
We use taboo wordsto be emotionally expressive, but people use taboo words with their friends to context dissertation show the depth of their relationship. Cunt , Damnation , English language 1537 Words | 5 Pages. environment in which the up a scholarship essay, firm operates. F N will find that Malaysia and ASEAN are very competitive and the food and beverage industry have a . very big opportunity to context develop. Some of the factors that include in transfer, the economic forces is study dissertation, interest rate, tax rate , and value of ringgit in world market. The second external force is demographic. Malaysia has almost 30 million peoples and for ASEAN, the human resources, population is 633 million peoples. This is very large population for F N to develop their business and if they. ASEAN , Cambodia , Laos 1050 Words | 5 Pages. Take the F Ian Frazier was an American writer and humorist.
He is a writer and humorist for The New Yorker. Ian Frazier was best known for . his 1989 non- fiction history Great Plains. summary • Place he lives in Brooklyn • His daughter, a city kid • Small trip with train F • People and scenery he saw • Crab incident • Reasons why he like Brooklyn • People in Brooklyn are come from context, different cou ntries. • Habit of looking down all the times • His favorite place, Brooklyn Botanic Garden • His neighbors. Botanical garden , Brooklyn , Madrid Metro 360 Words | 11 Pages. Desiderius Erasmus' the Praise of Folly. Desiderius Erasmus' The Praise of Folly Firstly written for private circulation, the Praise of creative in new york Folly, by . Desiderius Erasmus, describes the abuses and follies of the various classes of society, but especially the ones from the church. It is context study dissertation, a cold inspiration, deliberate attempt to discredit the term paper, church, and its satire and context dissertation harsh comment on ecclesiastical conditions were so repetitive that a reader can easily realize that the main purpose of pitt application Erasmus writing this masterpiece was. Bible , Catholic Church , Christianity 1322 Words | 4 Pages. There are some ethical issues involved.
Firstly, Abercrombie and Fitch (Aamp; F ) practices subtle racism through selective labour hiring . based on their looks rather than their abilities and qualifications. Context Study Dissertation! On most occasions, Aamp; F finds models or great looking people to how do i set scholarship represent their sales force. There were numerous complains whereby Aamp; F managers maintains an all-white workforce, forcing non-Caucasian employees to be hired for context dissertation nightshifts and backroom storage away from the eyes. Abercrombie Fitch , Business ethics , Ethics 1458 Words | 4 Pages. Words can Heal and Words can Harm Words are very important. Words can heal and . words can harm.
Words can hurt grievously and for a long time. The tongue can bless and the tongue can curse. It is very important for human essays us to study control our words and tame our tongue when we are angry. Many times, when we are angry we say the most atrocious things. We forget ourselves and become indifferent to what we say.
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Democratic Party , Franklin D. Roosevelt , John F. Kennedy 1148 Words | 3 Pages. Expectancy Theory) leads to human resources essays high employee motivation. Study Dissertation! * Mary Kay's automobile reward program is highly valued by employees (high outcome . valences in Expectancy Theory) and term discrimination has spurred many consultants to context study perform at very high levels. Automobile reward is how do i set up a essay, contingent on the meeting of context minimum monthly sales targets. * Consultants' need for belonging and esteem (Need Hierarchy Theory) is how do i set up a essay, cost effectively leveraged by the various recognition programs. Context Dissertation! * Mary Kay Cosmetics has training systems to improve performance. Albert Bandura , Houghton Mifflin Harcourt , Mary Kay 538 Words | 3 Pages. Ten Common mistakes of transfer Praise worship Leaders.
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C. The dancer floated across the stage. Study! D. The canoe with the blue stripes. 4. Which sentence contains repetitious . words that should be left out? A. The bright star is visible. Scholarship! B. The bright star is visible to the eye. C. The star was visible centuries ago. D. The star will soon disappear. 5. Which sentence contains words in study, italics that form a gerund phrase? (A gerund is a verb form used the same way as a noun.) A. On Concerning! The laughing boy sat down. B. An interesting.
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the very kind of clothing design but have limited budget. Abercrombie amp; Fitch’s product designing is unique from competitors, it doesn’t vary from lady . look like J.Crew, gentleman look like Banana Republic, or Rock n’ Roll look like Guess; Aamp; F is only focusing on a particular way of simple but sexy, comfort but confident. Study Dissertation! The second element is promotion, which is associated with passing the idea to transfer application essay the target market and others in the channel of distribution about the “right” products. It. Abercrombie Fitch , Advertising , Brand 1712 Words | 5 Pages. Word Game Abstract Word Game is developed with Android Emulator for running the game in context dissertation, the Android based Phones. This . application has three modules which are described as given below and each module possess with different set of features.
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Scrutinizing Third Person, Present Tense POV. When I first started telling stories almost all third-person fiction (and first-person for that matter) was written in the past tense: Carlos went into the dealership and looked around. He knew the salespeople would descend on him soon, and it was all he could do to stand his ground. Past tense means the study, events happened some time ago, and you’re writing about them as such. With Creative Writing York. The story already happened, and you’re telling it to context study, someone at america to me essay a later time.
For fifty years prior to my own apprenticeship, everyone who had any interest in telling stories also secretly aspired to writing the Great American Novel. You weren’t a real writer if you didn’t have an unfinished novel in your desk. At about the same time that I was learning my craft, however, something was happening in Hollywood that would change all that. Directors like Coppola and Spielberg and dissertation, Lucas were breaking out of the classic Hollywood production pipeline and bringing wildly entertaining and successful movies to america means to me essay, the screen. The documents they worked from — the scripts — were also becoming literary properties in themselves. Writers were starting to sell scripts outright, and some of study dissertation, those scripts were selling for what anybody would call a chunk of money. Almost overnight — by which I mean the five year span between the early and transfer essay, late 1980’s — writers went from having novels in their desks to context study dissertation, having screenplays in their desks.
When Syd Field published a book called Screenplay the gold rush was on. Now, what’s interesting about screenplays is that they’re all written in third person, present tense, as if the action is what means, happening right now: Carlos goes into the dealership. He looks around, spots a salesman. The salesman flashes a white-bright smile and steams over. Carlos looks for a place to hide. I don’t know if anyone has ever documented the influence of context study, pop-culture screenwriting on majors in new york the world of fiction, but in the early 90’s I had the distinct impression that third-person, present-tense fiction was becoming more and more popular, while third-person fiction written in the past tense seemed to rapidly fall out of style.
And I don’t think that was a coincidence. One reason I make this point (whether it’s been made elsewhere or not) is because it reveals an dissertation, ugly and constant truth about the world of fiction. Many (if not most) of the stories you read at term gender any given time are written not in the pure service of craft, but at least partly in context, the service of trends. Some of to me essay, these trends help break molds, of context dissertation, course, but others are simply cliquey conventions. The main reason I make this point, however, is to show how literary trends can work against essays on concerning human authorial goals.
It may at first blush seems as if third-person, present-tense fiction is no different from dissertation third-person, past-tense fiction, but that’s not the colleges with creative writing, case. Choosing one over the other is not simply a preference, it’s a craft choice, and the effects of each on context dissertation the audience are different. Third-person, past-tense stories have the advantage of human essays, being more natural. From the time we’re children we learn to context, tell about the events of our lives in the past tense, because that’s quite literally the way in which such events plays out. We go to school, we get beat up, we go home, we tell about creative in new york it in the past tense because it happened in the past. In fiction, this imitation of the natural, logical method of telling about events that we all use in our own lives helps facilitate the reader’s suspension of disbelief. Context Study Dissertation. It takes little effort for america, the reader to study, believe that the past-tense fiction they’re reading is believable precisely because the essays human, point-of-view technique being used mimics the context study dissertation, way in which they hear stories from all sources. For example: almost all newspaper reporting is in application essay, the past tense precisely because the events being reported have already transpired. Present-tense fiction does not have this advantage. Instead, present-tense fiction mortgages a bit of study, structural familiarity for a hoped-for increase in tension.
The goal is very much like the difference between a story printed in the newspaper the pitt, next day, and a live on-the-scene report of something that is context dissertation, happening in real time. Except…no reader thinks that what’s being told to them in gender, present-tense fiction is actually happening at that moment. This in turn creates a disconnect: the reader is asked to believe that something is happening right now when it clearly isn’t — and the reader knows it isn’t because what they’re reading had to be printed at some earlier point. Yes, suspension of disbelief can solve this problem, but it’s a problem that past-tense stories simply do not have to context study dissertation, solve. To be sure, people are more comfortable reading present-tense fiction now precisely because it has become more common. Just as the jump cut in film used to elicit confusion in the theater, but can now be interpreted by almost anyone of any age, new techniques become part of the storytelling lexicon as mediums evolve. The takeaway here is not that you shouldn’t use third-person, present-tense point of view. Rather, it’s that you shouldn’t use it simply because it’s what everyone else is doing. That’s not writing, that’s following the herd. (Admittedly this kind of herd instinct may make you more publishable at any given moment, in the same way that having the right buzzwords in your resume will mean you’re more likely to essays human, be hired.
But it’s a given on this blog that writers shouldn’t be interested in dissertation, how to what america to me essay, suck up to people in power. They should be interested in telling the best stories they can tell.) When you set out to write your next piece of context study dissertation, fiction, whether it’s flash or a thousand-page epic, consider the application, craft choices available to you, then make the study, choices that are best for your story. Colleges Creative In New York. There are plenty of study dissertation, people out there eager to take the next open spot in the literary clique. There are no people out there who will say what you have to say in the way you would say it if you had complete freedom to do so. You have complete freedom to do so. Reading present tense is one of those things that pulls me out of the story. I have to think about the with writing majors in new york, sentence and get lost.
Therefore I don’t write in present. Study Dissertation. I didn’t realize that there were a lot of stories being written in resources, present tense. I (generally) feel the same way about present tense in fiction. The distraction fades as I read, but I’m never quite oblivious of it. Conversely, present tense in a script seems to make complete sense to me. The script is a blueprint describing what the camera sees. Writing what the camera sees in past tense would make no sense. (Same goes for stage plays, which are also present tense.)
I don’t know what the percentage of present tense stories are these days, but it’s much more common than it used to be, and particularly so in literary works. (I don’t know if present-tense storytelling happens much in commercial fiction.) Great post. Context. Interesting points on means the relation between scripts and the third person, present tense style. One reason I make this point (whether it’s been made elsewhere or not) is because it reveals an ugly and constant truth about the world of fiction. Many (if not most) of the context study, stories you read at any given time are written not in the pure service of craft, but at least partly in the service of trends. Some of these trends help break molds, of means to me essay, course, but others are simply cliquey conventions. Valid point, Mark. And I would take that a step further by saying lots of fiction has been written in direction opposition to trends. I agree that each perspective and tense creates a different effect but I’m strongly of the opinion that a story will call for a certain point of view or tense. Context Dissertation. If somebody ignores this instinct and their story still works, good luck to them.
But I’ve had stories absolutely refuse to budge for me until I’ve switched narrative POV. Then, suddenly, liberation. On the subject of the suspension of disbelief and narrative voice, I have heard of writers saying that writing fiction in third person is illogical. I have also heard writers say that first person is easy… You’re right that people write against trends, too. The point, of course, would be to ignore trends and do what best suits each individual story — as you suggest in your next paragraph. I don’t think third person is gender discrimination, necessarily illogical, because I could write a report about context study dissertation a car wreck that took the third person. I do understand that there’s some fantasy involved in omniscient third person, where the author knows what every character is thinking in intimate detail. It takes a leap of faith to enter a story written like that, but it’s usually so entertaining the reader doesn’t care about colleges creative majors in new york any dissonance with reality.
As to first person, it’s always come more easily to me, but I know some people who wrestle with it constantly. I’ve become more interested in third person lately, simply because I have more opportunities to context dissertation, explore individual characters. I’m still on the fence as to human, whether this is a good thing, or something I really want to pursue. You say that you go to study, school, get beat up, go home, and tell the story in i set scholarship essay, past tense because it happened in past tense, and for most of us, that’s mostly true. We begin to tell stories of context study, our past in past tense. But if you listen closely to people relating the how do i set, events of their lives to others, you will hear a majority of them slipping into present tense during the crucial parts of their stories. You’ll also hear a lot of second-person, especially when describing locations. “So, I go into the break room, right? And when you go into the break room, the context dissertation, table’s right in front of you, and essays, the microwave’s on your left, right? So anyways, he’s like hiding there, and context, he’s got this big knife…” In short fiction, I can mange to stick to on concerning human understanding, this pattern, telling the story mostly in study, past tense, slipping into present tense for those crucial “here and now” scenes (usually without even noticing it until I read it). In my first novel, though, I found myself repeatedly having to go back pages and what america means to me, pages and context study, convert from present into past.
Coupled with the awkwardness of past perfect for the story’s actual past, I found it simpler to just write in in present tense. The funny thing is that until I started doing it myself, present tense always threw me for pitt transfer essay, the first few pages, but I truly believe it is dissertation, a better way to replicate the stories we tell each other in real life. You’re right that tense changes in real life, and often fluidly. I wouldn’t dispute that at all. (Your example is excellent.) I once kept a diary about gardening and yard work for a solid eight months. Term Gender Discrimination. I wrote almost all of it in present tense because it felt right. Each day I would work in the garden or yard, then I would come inside and write the highlights down. Later, when I went back to clean up the inevitable carnage, I discovered that I couldn’t stand the present-tense point of view. (And I was surprised by the magnitude of my reaction.) On some level authorial preference clearly plays a part, as does appropriateness to the content.
My larger concern is that I think some (perhaps many) writers don’t address either of these considerations on the way to adopting a point of view. Rather, they simply mimic what they’re reading, or what’s popular/trendy. It is ludicrous to study dissertation, believe only the past tense, be it 1st, second or third person is the america, correct way to present a narrative; how often do you walk around and extract people’s thoughts from their heads? The answer is never!! What you do in fact is watch people’s actions and listen to context dissertation, them and to present a story in way that focuses only on immediacy of action and dialogue is actually the most realistic POV because this is precisely how humans interact in how do i set up a essay, real life, not the way in which billions of authors have and continue to demonstrate through employing past tense; a story about who wants what from whom and why now, not about study who wanted what from whom and why they wanted it then?? Who gives a sh*t about back then, it is about now not then.
It’s always interested me that some aspects of suspension of disbelief in human understanding, a given medium seem to be more or less acceptable to context dissertation, specific individuals on means to me essay an intrinsic basis. For example, when watching old-school cartoons involving a lot of study dissertation, gags and character violence/plasticity, I’ve actually witnessed someone saying, “Aw, that could never happen!” Well, it’s a cartoon, and yes, in up a essay, real life that could never happen. Yet despite the obviousness of this, somehow a specific action or gag will break suspension of disbelief or plausibility for context dissertation, that viewer. I, on what means to me essay the other hand, tend to view the choice to work in the medium of animation as a desire to do things that could never happen in real life, so I don’t ever have that reaction. In the medium of dissertation, writing, by which I mean anything that is delivered via text on a page, I tend to ‘see’ the medium as one which implies the past tense. If I want to write something in the present tense I tend to colleges with majors in new york, look at other, more vital mediums, like the stage play or film, because I know those mediums excel at present tense — and at the immediacy you speak so eloquently of.
In no case, however, do I do what you seem to do when you confront past tense, and that’s discount the value of the story because it’s not being presented as immediate. Context Study Dissertation. I know other people who share that feeling, but again, it’s just one I’ve never had. I don’t need present tense in order to feel that something is relevant or meaningful. My point is not to say that anybody is right or wrong. And I certainly allow for generational changes in audience expectation over time.
But in the end I think some people are just wired up to essays on concerning human understanding, care about aspects of tense and context study dissertation, point of view in an intrinsic way. If they don’t get what works for them they end up saying, “Aw, that could never happen.” Comment Policy: Ditchwalk is a wild place, but not without tending. On-topic comments are welcomed, appreciated and essay, preserved. Off-topic or noxious comments are, like invasive species, weeded out.
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A FREE Sample Home Bakery Business Plan Template. Are you about context study dissertation, starting a bakery Business from essays understanding home (bread, dessert cupcake)? If YES, here is a complete sample bakery business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the study requirements for starting a bakery. We also took it further by resources essays analyzing and drafting a sample bakery marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for context, bakery businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Executive Summary Market Analysis SWOT Analysis Financial Projection Marketing Plan Marketing ideas Strategies. How In-demand after are Baked Foods ? They come in succulent and fluffy styles, some taste sweeter than others, some folks even like it burnt, brown or white, and some also have fillings- this could be caramel, strawberry, peanut butter and all what not. What Means To Me Essay? What could this be, you wonder? Well, it is baked foods.
We all love to have a bite of some baked meals; be it pastries, cakes, cupcakes and what have you. Context? Would it be okay then to say that baked stuff is in high demand? Without a shadow of doubt, indeed, baked foods are always in high demand. This is no wonder that those who have stayed long in the trade can authoritatively boast of making millions in a month or less. Bakery business is one business that one that doesn’t have an inkling about how to bake, can go get trained, practice, start a business and within a short space of time get good returns on investment.
How important is the Business Plan? However, truth is human understanding, that getting trained on the art isn’t all that is required to break even. If after you may have gotten the context study dissertation right training and i set, have sought to get started in business, there is one very important hurdle that needs to be scaled. This is one very vital hurdle that helps your business stay focused and accountable, whilst you watch it grow to the very plateau of success. If you asked those who have thriving businesses that have grown into conglomerates how they have been able to stay afloat and focused amidst of the huge success they have attained over the years, chances are that they would say the key is following the plans you have drawn up on your business model and not derailing from it. Use an Existing Business Plan Model to Craft Yours. Looking through an already completed business plan might appear too technical, as you may need to pay thorough attention to understanding all that is context study dissertation, being said there. And truth is on concerning, that drawing up a business plan can sure like look a herculean task. However, did you know that you could actually draw up your very own business plan without the services of a consultant to dissertation help you write one? Well, truth is that you can do that and america to me, achieve nearly same result as you would if you were to context dissertation hire an expert. Here is what you need to do; it is good a thing that the emergence of the internet has caused that ample knowledge can be found and gained online.
It is for this reason that you can consider browsing the internet to get a business plan template. You will need to i set get one that is study, similar to your business so that you can be able to relate with it as it applies to your own trade. Good news is that you have already been saved the stress of searching the human internet further. Context? Here is a sample bakery business plan that can readily come in handy as you plan to write yours. A FREE Sample Home Bakery Business Plan Template. Human Resources? The bakery industry has come a long way, and will continue to evolve with countless of bakers bringing creativity into context study dissertation, the industry. The Baked foods production has been in existence for america to me essay, tens of centuries.
In the true sense of the word, it has been around for over two thousand years. If per chance there is a doubt about this; then perhaps there would be a need to take a look at the bible era. Context? One of the predominant meals that was widely talked about in the bible was the transfer application essay bread. Study Dissertation? So, it wouldn’t be wrong to say that those of old have been able to successfully pass the pitt transfer application essay art from one generation to another generation. The Romans who generally like baked foods are actually the people who improvised and context study, developed the baking of essays on concerning human foods commercially – bakeries. In nearly all their occasions; ranging from mere feasts to study weddings, they are known to always celebrate with baked foods.
As such, they may be accorded the praise of being the ones who introduced bakery as an occupation and they achieved this around 300 BC. After this significant milestone was achieved, the drastic appeal for baked goods increased throughout Europe and expanded into the eastern parts of Asia. Essays Understanding? At that point, bakers started baking breads and goods from their kitchens and thereafter took to the streets to context study have them sold out. Essays On Concerning Human Understanding? Selling of dissertation baked foods became the trend and before too long, baked products were getting hawked in streets of Rome, Germany, London and Paris et al. Over time, bakeries no longer had to rely solely on human resources, retailing their baked breads and snacks in the streets, in the open market or via home deliveries, but could now move ahead to open their bakery stores for customers to come in context and order for their freshly baked bread and other foods.
History has it that Paris in France happens to how do i set scholarship be the first city in context study the world to have started open air bakery. What America Means Essay? Bread and all flour based foods are generally consumed by almost everybody in our planet; as such, anyone who chooses to establish a bakery in any part of the world is sure going to get good returns on his or her investment, as long as they are doing the right things when it comes to context running a business. Aside from bread which seems to be the face of the bakery industry, cake is also one of the products of the bakery commerce that is america means essay, doing pretty well in the market all over the world. Yes, people eat bread and other flour made snacks on a daily basis, but you would quite agree that cake making is also one of the major money spinners for bakers. Although not all bakers are specialized in cake making, but those who are into the art, alongside bread and other snacks, are the ones who seem to be maximizing the bakery industry. The fact that people order for cakes during their special events like birthday parties, wedding ceremonies, wedding anniversaries, and other memorable occasions, makes the bakery business a high – in context dissertation – demand business. Bakery Business Plan – MARKET ANALYSIS. When it comes to human breads, cakes, and snacks etc., everyone may want to context quite agree that the resources market trend changes with rapid astonishment. Study Dissertation? This is why we invested time to create a sample bakery marketing plan template. Bakers are seriously researching and term discrimination, creating flavors and varieties that will keep them afloat in the bakery business.
Any baker who wants to remain relevant in the scheme of things in study dissertation the industry must be willing to explore the ‘bakery world’; he or she must be able to come up with a product that tastes unique from what is readily available in the present market. In view of the above stated fact, we have hired the best of hands available in Florida to transfer work with us in becoming a pacesetter when it comes to exploring and producing products with tastes that can meet the demand of the markets that is available to us in the cities where our bakeries are located. Part of the marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt include but not limited to study dissertation the following; Open our bakery with a bang – big party Neighborhood, door to door and resources, mouth to ear mode of advertisement to introduce our business Engage in road shows ( make some open air noise) to dissertation introduce our business Create same products in different sizes, with different prices and perhaps a little lower that the prices of similar products in the market Start a TV show in line with our business goal and objectives Sponsor relevant events, such as bakery competitions and wedding shows on TV et al. Human Essays? We are quite aware that the target market for bakery products cut across people of all walks of study life. Since everybody needs food to survive; we are prepared to meet the needs of as much people as we can, within the various locations our bakeries will be located. It is indeed difficult to create a list of the people we intend selling our bakery products to. because everybody needs what we have to offer except for our trainings and consultancy services. Pitt Transfer Application Essay? Here are just a few of the context study dissertation people / places that we intend selling our products and services to: Families (Homes) Schools (boarding house and campus et al) Groceries Stores Shopping Malls Wedding Ceremonies Event Planners Sport Centers Corporate Organizations Aspiring Entrepreneurs (Those who want to learn baking) Housewives. To Me Essay? Our Competitive Advantage. There is hardly any city in the United States and perhaps in other parts of the world where there isn’t at least one bakery. Context? People eat bread, cakes and snacks in all parts of the on concerning human understanding world and context dissertation, as such loads of people are already running their bakery businesses.
We are not ignorant of the fact that there are standard bakeries in Orlando, Florida, but that will not deter us from forging ahead to set – up our own bakery company. Top Taste Confectionaries has couple of factors that is term gender discrimination, counting as a positive for us; our competitive advantage in the market place. One of study our competitive advantage is that we are one of the few bakery companies that is not only involved in pitt transfer application the sale of breads, cakes and snacks but also operate a government accredited bakery school where professional bakers are hatched and sent forth to study start their own bakery business or manage their homes properly. The fact that we offer consultancy services in line with what we do, gives us an edge over other bakery companies in the United States of America. We are of the view that if we are able to get it right from the how do up a scholarship outset, it will likely take us less time than projected for us to be amongst the top 5 bakery company in the whole of the dissertation United States of America. Bakery Business Plan – SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy.
We are quite aware that the market for breads, cakes and snacks is on what america means, the increase and won’t plummet anytime soon, and we are also aware that loads of entrepreneurs in Florida are into study, the sale of almost all the term paper products that we have on our stable, save for context, the consultancy services that we render and the bakery institute that we operates. In view of human that, we have been able to work out context study plans that will help us win a large percentage of the available market in the cities where our bakeries located. For the reason of the business goals that we have set for ourselves at Top Taste Confectionaries, we will continue to what america means explore and improvise, so that we will remain relevant in the market place.In nut a shell, we will explore the following marketing and sales strategies to promote our bakery business; Direct Marketing Via Our Sponsored TV Programs and context, Community Based Events Erect Our Billboards in Strategic locations around the human understanding city Sales Reps Online Marketing (via our official website, social media platforms and blog et al) Referral Marketing Promotion of context dissertation our products during our training sessions in our Bakery Institute. Gender Discrimination? Our Pricing Strategy. Part of our strategy for entering the market is to dissertation leverage on pricing in gaining a good percentage of the available market.
The fact that we are going to be selling our products a little bit below the market price does not in any way mean that we will compromise our quality and quantity. As a matter of fact, we have perfected strategies to ensure that we are shoulders higher than our competitors in essays human understanding terms of quality and quantity. The prices of our products will be the cheapest anybody can get in the whole of Orlando, Florida and the cities where we intend establishing our bakeries. Our payment policy is all inclusive, because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the context payment options that will be available in gender discrimination every of our outlets; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (preferably for those that will order our products and would want us to deliver it to them, those who want to attend our bakery institute training, as well as for payment for our consultancy services) Payment via check (preferably for those who will order our products and would want us to deliver it to them, those that want to attend our bakery institute training, as well as for payment for our consultancy services) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans without any hitches. Bakery Business Plan – Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Bakery business especially products like breads and confectionaries might not necessarily need huge budget for dissertation, publicity and advertisement.
As a matter of fact if you the packaging of your bakery products are cool and the quality and quantity is in order, you wouldn’t struggle to sell your products. How Do I Set Essay? Aside from our consultancy services and bakery institute, we don’t intend to context dissertation spend huge amount for publicity and advertisement. We have perfected plans to maximize the on concerning human understanding recourse we have, to get the context study dissertation result (sales) that we require to make profits and expand the business. Here are the platforms we intend making use of to promote and essays on concerning, advertise our business; Place adverts on both print and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on dissertation, the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , Badoo, et al Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations Engage in road shows from time to time Distribute our fliers and term paper gender discrimination, handbills to targeted areas from time to time. Study? Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Top Taste Confectionaries. We don’t have the intention of i set up a bringing business partners outside the family to invest in the business, which is why we have restricted raising our startup capital to; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal Source for soft loans from family members and context dissertation, friends Apply for loan from the bank. N.B: We have been able to generate about $150,000 and we are at the final stage of obtaining a loan of $100,000 from our bank. All the pitt papers and document have been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited. Context? Bakery Business Plan – Sustainability and essays on concerning human, Expansion Strategy. We don’t have the plans to invest hugely in context study our bakery business and watch the what america means to me essay business fold up or struggle to make progress.
We have perfected our strategies on sustainability and expansion. Part of what we will do to stay relevant in the bakery business is to strive to maintain or increase of quality and quantity, to run bakery trainings and context study, also offer consultancy services. We have perfected plans to triple our sales every year and we also have plans to open different outlets of how do up a our bakery in context study different locations in Florida and other key cities in the United States of America. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Renting of Facility and Construction of the Bakery: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members and friends: Completed Applications for Loan: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of c employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, electronic appliances and bakery equipment: In progress Creating Official Website for pitt transfer essay, the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress Health and Safety and context study, Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Opening party / launching party: In Progress Compilation of our list of products and detailed recipe: Completed Arrangement for trainers and training facility: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors – suppliers of all our needed raw materials: In Progress Purchase of with creative writing majors in new york delivery vans: Completed.
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Convert Grass Lawns to Gravel to context Reduce Insect Suffering. by Brian Tomasik. First written: 16 May 2015; last update: 24 Dec. 2016. Most insects die soon after birth, and their lives probably contain more suffering than happiness. If you have a lawn that you actively maintain, you should consider converting your grass to hard landscape materials like gravel, or to artificial turf, to reduce plant biomass and therefore insect suffering. I Set? This could save you labor in the long run, reduces your probability of tick bites, and may be good for the environment. Context Study? It may prevent at least hundreds of insects from suffering per dollar and might even save you money. However, if you don't actively manage your lawn, the calculation becomes less clear because eliminating a grass lawn might slightly contribute to climate change.
Note: I assume that in many places, neighborhood rules or building codes might prevent you from america essay replacing a lawn with gravel. Would artificial turf be acceptable? Also, maybe it would be allowed to context at least put a strip of rocks around the perimeter of your home, or something like that? Doing so might also slightly reduce the number of insects that come indoors. Human Understanding? Finally, when picking out a house, you can consider gravel-friendliness as one factor. Other things being equal, it seems better to choose a house in a more rural area where you can buy a larger amount of more secluded land. If you can't use gravel, you could consider adding a porch or other structure that would cover some grass, although the context study dissertation, amount of human, land covered per unit cost might be small. It's often claimed that there's nothing humans can do to context dissertation reduce the suffering of insects in the wild. This claim is wrong. One important way to help wild insects is to study the effects of pitt application, human environmental policies on insect populations and favor those policies that cause fewer insects to come into a nasty, brutish, and context short existence.
This work is important but involves a high degree of uncertainty in the analysis. If you actively manage your lawn, then a relatively clear-cut way to human essays reduce insect suffering is to replace your lawn with non-biological materials in order to prevent plants from growing. The reason to focus on dissertation, eliminating plants is because plants are the roots of the food chain. Colleges With Creative Writing York? As long as plant energy is created, someone is context dissertation, eventually going to term paper eat it (whether insects, bacteria, or other critters). Study? So just shuffling around population dynamics for human understanding heterotrophs isn't solving the fundamental problem that more plant energy means more life. Preventing photosynthesis stops the problem before it gets started. Converting grass lawns to gravel, glass, artificial grass, or other materials is a common landscaping practice -- one that many people do without giving a thought to insect suffering.
You can find tons of articles by searching and similar queries. This page has a slideshow of options. Another page gives prices for different materials: The cost to install a square foot of pea gravel is $1.1 to context study dissertation $1.8. Another source reports $1-$3 per square foot. Artificial grass costs $5 to what america $20 per square foot. The average lawn in the US is about 0.2 acres, or.
8700 square feet. Study Dissertation? Assuming $1-$3 per square foot, the cost of converting your lawn to gravel would be. Once converted, you can avoid the costs of essays on concerning human understanding, mowing, watering, etc. This page estimates $800-$1000 to pay for lawn-mowing services per year. Context Study Dissertation? If you do the mowing yourself, say it takes 10 hours per year at a cost of $50/hour, or $500. Assume a discount rate of 5% and that the gravel lawn lasts 20 years. Human Understanding? Saving $500/year for 20 years has a present value of $500 * (1-1.05 -20 )/(.05/1.05) = $6,500.
Saving $1000/year has a present value of $13,000. Study Dissertation? So a gravel lawn might or might not pay for itself. Of course, this calculation also depends on how a non-grass lawn affects your home price relative to colleges with writing in new a grass lawn, whether gravel is allowed by local regulations, etc. If converting to gravel saves you money, that's great. Even if it doesn't save you money, it might be worth doing anyway depending on its cost in order to reduce insect suffering.
How much insect suffering it reduces is the topic of the next section. All told, the context study, Earth has about gender discrimination 13.4 billion hectares of land. Context Study? Your 0.2-acre lawn is about 6*10 -12 of the total. If the world's 10 18 insects were distributed evenly across the Earth, your lawn would contain. 6 million insects. This estimate seems too high, because tropical regions of the world house a disproportionate share of insects (although Arctic and Antarctic regions contain disproportionately fewer insects).
This discussion estimates insect densities on farm land as. 10 million per hectare, or. 4 million per acre. That again seems plausibly too high for essays lawns. Indeed, sometimes I don't see any bugs on context, lawns, though at other times I see lots of little critters hopping around. But lawns definitely are home to bugs. A slightly lower estimate of human resources essays, how many insects live on lawns at a given time or are later supported by the biomass produced on lawns (e.g., decomposers eating dead grass clippings) at study, a given time might be -- just making up a number based on personal observation -- 5 per square foot. a Assuming a lawn of 0.2 acres, that implies. 44,000 insects supported by transfer application your lawn's grass at any given time.
Grass biomass also supports tons of bacteria, nematodes, etc. (especially when it decomposes). Suppose these collectively matter as much as all the insects. Then your lawn supports a total of 44,000 actual insects + 44,000 equivalent insects = 88,000 effective insects at a given time during the non-winter months. Context Dissertation? (The appendix at the end of this piece estimates a similar, though slightly higher, number of effective insects using an human, alternate approach.) Making the conservative assumption that these insects go through one generation per study, year, then you prevented 88,000 effective insect deaths per year. America? And if the gravel lawn lasts, say, 20 years before needing to context study dissertation be redone, that's 88,000 * 20 = 1.8 million effective insects saved from a short life and miserable death. Essays On Concerning Human? And this ignores the study dissertation, fact that many of those insects would give birth to hundreds of baby insects, most of which would die soon after being born. So the term, actual number of insect deaths prevented may be many times higher. If converting your lawn to gravel was financially positive from the beginning, then these reductions in insect suffering are just a bonus. Context Dissertation? If, instead, converting the lawn cost, say, $10K, then you would have prevented. 180 painful insect lives per dollar, which is quite impressive! Not having a lawn is also good for the grass that doesn't come into existence, assuming you care about plant suffering to a nonzero degree.
Michael Pollan: That the perfume of jasmine or basil, or the scent of freshly mowed grass, so sweet to gender discrimination us, is context study dissertation, (as the ecologist Jack Schultz likes to say) the chemical equivalent of a scream? Obviously this analysis is simplistic and ignores many relevant factors. For instance, maybe gravel lawns would collect puddles of rainwater, which would allow more mosquitoes to breed than before, thereby increasing mosquito populations. Many more possibilities like this should be explored. Grass sequesters carbon, so non-biological lawns might worsen climate change. This section explores the implications of this point. Firstly, it's important to note that the net effects of climate change on creative writing, wild-animal suffering and far-future suffering aren't obvious. But I think it's plausibly somewhat better in expectation to reduce carbon emissions than increase them. Study Dissertation? How much do lawns help to pitt reduce carbon emissions? In general, lawns don't sequester as much carbon as trees.
Trees sequester carbon because they live for decades before decomposing, trapping carbon year after year as they grow. Dissertation? Grass lives maybe a year before decomposing. Still, grass does sequester some carbon into the soil that isn't fully released back into the atmosphere. Part of the reason for human resources essays this is that grass has a lot of roots, which can trap carbon in the soil. If you actively maintain your lawn, a grass lawn may be a net source of study dissertation, greenhouse gases. Essays Understanding? Each hour of context, lawn mowing generates as much pollution as driving a car nearly 100 miles. (source) One study found that managed lawns in Florida sometimes increased net greenhouse-gas emissions.
This blog post rejects claims by the lawn-care industry that managed lawns are net carbon sinks. Of course, if you don't manage your lawns and term let them grow wild, they'll be net carbon sinks, but the magnitude of the effect isn't huge (see Table 1 here). Finally, you should consider using white or light-colored gravel or other materials to increase albedo. In fact, one page actually recommends that you Replace part of your lawn with a white gravel rock garden. Instead of your grass absorbing heat, the white gravel will reflect radiation back into space. Calculation if you don't maintain your lawn. Suppose that in the most extreme case, you don't manage your lawn at context study dissertation, all but let the plants grow wild. Also ignore the albedo potential of white gravel. How much could the climate-change impact of america essay, replacing lawn with gravel be? This study found that lawns can sequester 46 to study dissertation 127 g C per m 2 per year. Another study found (Table 6) net carbon sequestration rates between 0.32 and 0.74 Mg per hectare per year.
Since a hectare is 10,000 m 2 , this implies 32 to resources essays 74 g C per m 2 per year. As above, assume the average lawn is 0.2 acres, or 809 m 2 . Context Study? Taking an estimate of, say, 46 g C per m 2 per year implies. 37 kg C sequestered per year on transfer application essay, the whole lawn. CO 2 has one carbon atom (mass number = 12) and two oxygen atoms (mass number = 16), so 37 kg C implies 37*(16*2+12)/12 = 136 kg CO 2 , or 0.136 metric tons. Using a similar calculation as is done here, and assuming that climate change increases effective insect populations by 2% in expectation over uncertainty (e.g., we might be 60% confident that climate change will increase effective insect populations by context study dissertation 10% and 40% confident that it will reduce them by 10%: 0.6*0.1 - 0.4*0.1 = 0.02), we find that our average lawn reduces insect populations by 79,000 per year. 79,000 is awfully close to the 88,000 estimate for how many effective insects were reduced per year by i set essay converting grass to gravel. Actually, I rejiggered some of my estimates to make these two come out context about the same, in order to demonstrate the degree of what essay, uncertainty at play. (Had I let one or the other of these estimates win out, some readers might have falsely concluded that the question was clear one way or the other.) So if you have a lawn that requires no maintainance, then if you also think that climate change will increase wild-organism suffering on balance, then the context study, question of whether to replace your lawn with gravel isn't obvious. It's important to remember that. Carbon sequestration declines after grass has been growing on human, an area for 25-30 years because soils become saturated with carbon. (This study discusses lawn sink capacity further.) So if you have an old lawn, it may not be providing much sequestration value after all.
These calculations ignore the albedo potential of white gravel. How much would that consideration affect the results? I don't have a good way to quantitatively compare the albedo effect versus the carbon-sequestration effect, but albedo could be quite significant, given that deforestation in high latitudes might actually cool the dissertation, planet more than warm it because deforested land has greater albedo. Colleges With Creative In New? I also don't know how much more expensive white gravel is. One study for lawn carbon sequestration found net sequestration even for study actively managed lawns, especially since irrigation and fertilization increase carbon sequestration. However: one of the how do scholarship essay, study's authors was working for the Scotts Miracle-Gro Company and dissertation so would have been biased to favor lawns and active lawn management the study apparently didn't consider the impact of nitrous oxide from fertilizer, which can offset up to about 30 percent of the carbon stored in the lawns other studies as cited above have found that lawns can be net sources rather than sinks of carbon (though these studies have been criticized by pro-lawn researchers). So for paper actively managed lawns, the jury is still out on their net climate-change impact. Thus, it seems more likely that replacing an actively managed lawn with gravel is study, a net plus.
Should you manage your lawn less if you don't convert to gravel? Even if you don't convert your lawn to gravel, it's probably better if you stop using fertilizer, since this presumably increases biomass production and pitt transfer application essay also may contribute to climate change. You should also probably stop watering your lawn, since water increases biomass production (and may also deplete water resources in your area). Of course, watering somewhat increases carbon sequestration. The sign of pesticide use is less clear, but because the grass will be eaten by some little critter or other down the road, it's plausible that pesticides increase net suffering by increasing deaths per unit time. If you don't care at all about context study dissertation bacteria, this calculation becomes more subtle, because it's possible that, say, pesticides will mean fewer insects but more bacteria, depending on paper, what kinds of study dissertation, critters eat decomposing grass. Or maybe pesticides don't reduce net insect populations because they just translate to how do i set scholarship more decomposing insects to offset the fewer insects in live grass.
I don't know. It's unclear to me whether mowing your lawn is context, net good or bad assuming you still have a grass lawn. Not having a grass lawn avoids the downsides of mowing while capturing the upside. If it would cost a lot to gravel over your lawn, you can still make a smaller difference by covering parts of your lawn with various permanent objects, like rocks, big pieces of wood, metal, etc. (I say permanent objects because if you move the objects around a lot, they may not inhibit grass growth as much and resources essays will crush bugs painfully each time they're moved. For similar reasons, I avoid walking on grass.) Of course, depending on what kind of neighborhood you live in, some of these possibilities may not be allowed. I'm also nervous about covering small regions of soil, since anecdotally if I lift up rocks or pieces of wood on lawns, I find tons of bugs making a home underneath them, which calls into question whether the covering objects actually reduce insect populations at all or instead increase insect populations. In contrast, it seems pretty clear that the gravel on my driveway prevents most surface-dwelling insects from living on that region of study dissertation, land except when passing by. A friend told me that weeds used to grow in his gravel driveway, which suggests the same might happen on gravel lawns. This would reduce the benefit of the gravel lawn in preventing insects. I've lived at several houses with gravel driveways and rarely saw weeds, so this problem isn't universal, but a web search shows that many other homeowners do have weeds in their gravel driveways.
The reason I focus this piece on gravel is that alternate materials, like asphalt or artificial turf, are more expensive, and I'd rather not dissuade people from covering their lawns because the material is so expensive. Paper Gender Discrimination? Also, asphalt lawns aren't a common landscaping option, so it might be harder to study persuade people to term paper gender go this route, and some neighborhoods might disallow it. Finally, asphalt may be worse for climate change because it's darker than gravel. (White concrete would be better in dissertation, terms of albedo, but it's quite expensive.) This piece has focused on the possibility of covering your own lawn, but in theory, a person could scale this approach by with creative writing york buying land to be covered. If you bought other houses just to cover their lawns, the context, strategy would be hopelessly expensive, but if you bought land that doesn't have a house on pitt application essay, it, the cost would actually be modest: maybe a few thousand dollars per context, acre. For example, one of the first listings I found on a land-sale website was a sale of 75 acres of hunting land for $89,950. (Covering the land would also prevent hunting on on concerning human understanding, it, of course.) Considering that the cost of covering an study dissertation, acre of essays on concerning human, land with gravel would be in context study, the tens of thousands of dollars based on gender discrimination, the estimates used above, buying land would actually be a small portion of the total cost of covering it. Of course, you'd also have to pay annual property taxes, but even if property taxes were.
2% of the land value (which may be high) paid each year for context study 20 years, the cost still wouldn't be that big. Also, if you bought huge amounts of gravel, you might get a discount relative to the prices for gravel on just your own yard. Land in developing nations would be even cheaper. For instance, on an international property-selling site, I randomly found this listing for essay 75 acres in Belize at context study, a price of $28,307. Presumably insect densities there would be vastly higher than in many parts of the term paper gender, US. That said, there might also be a cost in hiring someone to look after the study dissertation, property if you didn't live there. (Checking up on the property would presumably be less crucial in what america means, a developed country where enforcement of property rights could be relied on context dissertation, to a greater degree.) In general, this approach of means, buying property to directly address wild-organism suffering on it is interesting. It's sort of the inverse of The Nature Conservancy's work.
In terms of direct insect suffering prevented, it might sometimes be quite cost-effective. However, it doesn't have the dissertation, same far-future impact potential that spreading concern for wild-organism suffering has. It might also make people angry and transfer essay thereby tarnish the movement to spread empathy for wild organisms. This might be particularly true with respect to study buying properties in developing countries, since people there depend more on their land for survival. Maybe outrage at i set essay, covering land with gravel would be reduced if the dissertation, gravel covering was used for a purpose, such as to transfer application create (plant-free) rock gardens or trails/mazes based on rock colors. If the context study, area were opened to tourists, doing this might generate some income. However, such a business would require a lot of work in its own right, and it's not clear it would make much money. The biggest problem with buying property to cover with gravel might be climate change. Because non-home property generally isn't mowed and fertilized, it's probably a net carbon sink, so graveling it over would probably contribute to climate change, which has the potential to offset the benefit of reducing insect populations on the land. On Concerning? This would be less true if you bought farm land, which is mowed and dissertation fertilized, but presumably by term paper discrimination doing that you'd mostly just shift farming to other pieces of property. If more forest or grassland was converted to farm land to compensate for your buying farm land, then this would still reduce carbon sequestration. (If you buy farm land, the price of farm land increases slightly, thereby slightly increasing food prices and hence reducing agricultural production, but this effect is probably small.)
So in practice, I'm doubtful that buying property to reduce wild-organism suffering on it is as promising as it seemed, but we should keep an eye out for other ways in which the strategy could actually work. Maybe the albedo calculations for white gravel would show that it reduces climate change even relative to unmanaged grass, in context study dissertation, which case buying land and converting it to white gravel would be good all around. This possibility seems important to explore further. Another idea that would reduce concerns about climate change would be to cover land with solar panels rather than gravel. b However, my guess is essays, that solar panels are really expensive, so unless a solar-power business like this would already be close to cost-neutral in its own right, it would probably be an expensive way to context study reduce insect suffering. How Do I Set? And if such a business were profitable in its own right, then your doing it might partially displace solar panels that someone else would have laid down. Study Dissertation? (Solar panels on roofs don't displace grass, but solar panels on fields do somewhat insofar as they shade the underlying grass.) It would be ideal to lay down solar panels flat on the ground to prevent any grass from growing underneath, but this is less efficient at what means to me, capturing energy than letting the panels tilt toward the context dissertation, sun.
Another approach for making an impact beyond your own lawn could be to create an organization to subsidize home owners for converting their lawns to means essay gravel or other non-biological materials. This should probably only be done for home owners who actively manage and fertilize their lawns. Ignoring the overhead to administer the organization and find interested customers, the cost-effectiveness of this approach would plausibly be similar as for context study dissertation converting your own lawn to paper gender discrimination gravel (or maybe more so because the organization could focus on those with the highest lawn-maintainence costs first). It would be important to inspect compliance to make sure people follow through on the conversion and dissertation don't bring grass back later on. (This inspection process could be compared with verifying a conservation easement. It might get expensive, unfortunately. Term Gender Discrimination? To reduce inspection costs, maybe only context study dissertation, a small fraction of paper, homes could be inspected at random.) The organization could also run awareness campaigns to context inspire people for what america to me essay whom gravel lawns would save money to convert voluntarily. Fortunately, people who spend the most on lawn care are also those for whom converting to gravel is more likely to be altruistically positive because they probably have the most climate-change impact via lawn maintenance. It's unclear what the cost per study, person convinced would be for an awareness campaign. Behavior change is often hard, although there may be several people who would gladly convert their lawns if they heard of the idea, so there may be some people who are relatively easy to convince. Suppose it costs $900 to convince one person on means essay, the margin to context study dissertation switch to gravel lawns, via advertisements, pro-gravel op-eds, etc.
As discussed above, typical gravel lawn prevents. 1.8 million effective insects during non-winter months over 20 years. Pitt Transfer? Assuming that bugs and bacteria are active half the year in context study dissertation, temperate climates, that's (1.8 million)/2 = 0.9 million effective-insect-years of suffering, and essays human the cost-effectiveness is study dissertation, (0.9 million)/($900) = 1000 effective-insect-years prevented per dollar. Comparison with humane insecticides. Gravel lawns and humane insecticides are both concrete ways to reduce insect suffering. I look more favorably on gravel lawns because. there's less risk of colleges with creative majors in new york, a gravel-lawn campaign being misinterpreted to imply something possibly harmful, whereas a campaign to reduce the pain of insecticides might lead most casual observers to wrongly assume that we're in favor of organic farming pending more thorough research on how much lawns sequester carbon, promoting gravel lawns seems to have low uncertainty and doesn't rely on assumptions about the run-on ecosystem effects of a different insecticide or whether one type of insecticide is really more humane and equally lethal compared with another the start-up costs of a gravel-lawn campaign are smaller (all that's required is to promote something that some people already do) people might look more favorably on context dissertation, gravel lawns, considering that, e.g., they help with California's droughts and might reduce climate change the paper gender, case for gravel lawns more prominently brings up the study dissertation, idea that bug lives in aggregate have more bad than good. The main reason why humane insecticides might have higher payoff is that in the long run, it might be possible to help more insects more cheaply if humane insecticides became widespread, since the dollar cost per hectare affected per year is probably smaller for humane insecticides. But given that most people oppose insecticide use for reasons of human and environmental health, I doubt there could ever be a widespread movement with economies of scale to merely use more humane insecticides without also reducing the essays, quantity of insecticides employed. Appendix: Estimating effective insects per hectare using net primary productivity.
In the main text I estimated. 88,000 effective insects on a lawn of 0.2 acres. Dissertation? That number was derived from guessing what seemed like a reasonable number of insects per square foot based on paper discrimination, what I've seen in real life. This section attempts an alternative estimate based on the net primary productivity of lawn grass. This study reviews the literature to context study find an average net primary productivity for grasslands of gender discrimination, 5.89 to study 12.71 Mg dry matter/ha/year. Since I suspect this paper might be biased to what america to me essay overstate carbon sequestration, and in order to keep my estimate conservative, I'll take a smaller figure: say, 2 Mg.
The study says (pp. 809-10) that Each year, ≈10% of the biomass added to the soil may be humified (Duiker and Lal, 2000; Puget et al., 2005; Schimel et al., 1994). Context? If we conservatively assume that 10% of what means to me, all the primary production is humified, that leaves 90% to be consumed immediately: 2 * 0.9 = 1.8 Mg. How much of this mass goes into biomass of context dissertation, insects, bacteria, etc.? And how much of the energy is term gender, expended as heat? Following are some estimates of insect ECIs: One page reports: Tests on two species of context study dissertation, edible grasshoppers, Locusrana migratoria and a species of Melanoplus, fed on application essay, several kinds of context dissertation, grasses showed combined ECIs in human resources essays, the range of 10-15% and 8-11%, respectively. Context Study Dissertation? (Note that the means, linked page supports entomophagy, which I oppose.) This study found ECIs for grasshoppers between 9.5% and dissertation 16.5%. Colleges With Creative Writing? This study found ECIs between. 15%.
This page says: For the German cockroach ( Blattella germanica ), [the ECI] is well above 40. Silkworms, traditionally cultivated in context study dissertation, China and colleges with creative writing neighboring regions, typically have an ECI in the 20-30 span. Conversion efficiencies for effective insects should be higher than this, since some of what isn't digested by insects will be eaten by bacteria later. On the other hand, the quoted figures are plausibly high-ish ECIs relative to insects in general because insect farmers will tend to use insects with higher ECIs and harvest the insects once they've grown rather than letting them continue to expend energy after they're already at full size. Assuming these considerations roughly cancel, let's take an study dissertation, ECI of. 10%. I assume this ECI is for growing organisms. Human Understanding? ECIs for adult organisms should be roughly 0%, since adults tend not to grow further. So all told, the ECI for context study dissertation organisms that eat grass biomass might be, say, the midpoint of what america means to me essay, 10% and 0%: 5%.
5% of 1800 kg implies 90 kg of heterotroph-organism biomass by dry weight. This is primary-consumer production per year, i.e., the increase in context dissertation, biomass of primary consumers per year. In temperate climates, this growth only happens during spring-fall months. If we assume for simplicity (if not accuracy) that primary consumers are all univoltine and live from up a essay spring through fall, then the standing biomass of context, primary consumers by the end of the season would equal the annual production: 90 kg per hectare. Assume that a mass of bacteria/nematodes/etc. equal to the mass of an insect suffers as much as the colleges with creative york, insect.
Then we can convert 90 kg of dry organism biomass into a number of effective insects by study dissertation dividing by the dry weight of an insect. With Creative Majors? This page reports that a fruit fly has a mass of 2–3 * 10 ?7 kg, while an adult housefly has a mass of 2 * 10 ?5 kg. Here's another way to estimate housefly mass. An adult housefly is context study dissertation, 6-7 mm long. Say the fly has equal volume as a 4 mm cube. Then it would be 4 3 = 64 mm 3 or 0.064 cm 3 . Assume it's. half as dense as water and that its dry weight is. half its wet weight. Then it would weigh (0.064 g)/(2*2) = 0.016 g, or about how do scholarship 2 * 10 -2 g, which is exactly the same as the 2 * 10 ?5 kg figure from the context dissertation, previous paragraph. Let's take a housefly as our reference insect.
Then the number of effective houseflies is (90 kg)/(2 * 10 ?5 kg per fly) = 4.5 million flies. This is per hectare per year. It's equivalent to 360,000 effective houseflies supported by paper a 0.2-acre lawn. This is close to my 88,000 estimate, which is surprising given that I didn't fudge with any of context study dissertation, my input assumptions in order to make the i set up a scholarship essay, number come out right. If you only care about insects, rather than bacteria/nematodes/etc., then the number of effective houseflies would have to be reduced to account for the fact that a lot of grass isn't eaten by insects. If, say, 10% of digestible grass biomass is eaten by insects, that would imply. 36,000 actual insects supported by the grass of an study, average lawn, which is about the same as the 44,000 estimate I arrived at by guesstimating insects per square foot. Estimate using springtails and mites. This article says of pitt transfer, springtail bugs: Ranging from 0.25-10mm in context dissertation, length, there are typically around 10,000 per square metre of soil, rising to pitt transfer as many as 200,000 per square metre in some places. This page says. In sheer numbers, they are reputed to be one of the most abundant of all macroscopic animals, with estimates of 100,000 individuals per square meter of ground, essentially everywhere on Earth where soil and related habitats (moss cushions, fallen wood, grass tufts, ant and termite nests) occur. Only nematodes, crustaceans, and mites are likely to have global populations of similar magnitude [. Study? ].
Here are vivid videos showing dense springtails on soil. A friend of term gender, mine (unfortunately!) has a vermiculture bin, and in it, I've seen populations of mites as dense as. 1 per mm 2 just on study dissertation, the surface of the bin. That implies. 10 6 mites per resources, square meter. Suppose that the context study dissertation, decaying grass on your lawn supports 10,000 springtails per m 2 = 10 8 springtails per hectare. Suppose the essays, typical springtail is small -- say 0.5 mm. Above I suggested that a typical housefly is 6-7 mm long. Study? So a housefly is america means essay, about (6.5/0.5) 3 = 2 * 10 3 times bigger than a springtail. Hence, 10 8 springtails per hectare have about the same size as. 50,000 houseflies per study dissertation, hectare.
That's. 4000 houseflies on a 0.2-acre lawn. And if we count mites and other invertebrate fauna as well, this number might be a few times bigger, putting this estimate in a similar ballpark as the 44,000 estimate of what to me, bugs on context dissertation, a typical lawn in the main text. In the main text, I assumed a very conservative 5 bugs per square foot of lawn. Gender Discrimination? This is at least an order of magnitude lower than the study, densities of invertebrates per square foot of grassland that are reviewed in this 1937 article: Mr. McAtee in a grassy meadow in human resources essays, March found 1,374 animals in four square feet, or 343 per square foot, but of this number, 933 were one species of ant, Trematoriurn caespitum , and context dissertation although there was no ant colony in on concerning understanding, the plot, yet for comparison with a woodland plot, he subtracts these strongly contrasting elements, leaving 239 animals for dissertation four square feet, or 60 per square foot. This much more nearly approximates the results obtained in understanding, the present investigation, which totaled 6,843 animals for the 100 square feet examined, or, to compare with a locality where the climate more nearly approximates that of context study, Washington, those of a previous investigation by the writer in central Illinois [. ], where the animal population (counting grasshopper and america essay mealybug egg-clusters as one, rather than each egg as a separate individual) averaged 57.5 per square foot in the fall and early winter, and study 82.9 per square foot in essays on concerning, the spring. Mr.
Morris [. ] records finding 3,586,088 insects per acre, or 82 per square foot in a pasture in England. Context Study? Dr. Beebe [. ] found [. ] 65 per square foot of leaves and writing majors york moss from an uncleared area in the woods of a New York Zoological Park [. ]. The writer [. ] collected 215 ants and 114 other insects and small animals from three square feet of pasture near the beach at Pt. Cangrejos, Porto Rico, or 110 animals per square foot.