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lab report samples Click on the highlighted text to see the comments. Computer systems computer systems. This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and examines the predicted future advancements of scanners. A brief history of the scanner and binding melbourne its operation is initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and of photography letter limitations of the five main types of scanners in common use today: drum, flatbed, sheet-fed, slide, and binding melbourne hand held scanners. The performance of these scanners is examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. It is concluded that further technological advances in these four areas as well as the deployment of new sensor technology will continue to improve the quality of scanned images. It is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into pay to have written, other types of services melbourne technology such as digital cameras. The purpose of this report is to survey the current state of scanner technology and to briefly discuss predicted advancements in the field.
By examining a range of recently published journal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of scanners this report describes the main types of scanners in common use today and examines their performance in ocr ict as coursework, relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. The report then considers the effect of further technological advances in these four areas, as well as the deployment of new sensor technology on the future development of scanners. The first scanner, initially referred to as a #039;reading machine#039;, was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. The device could scan printed material and then compare each character to a set of thesis services melbourne standards in a matrix using, for the first time, the ocr ict as coursework best match principle to determine the original message (Blatner, Fleishman and Roth 1998, p.3). This reading machine was to melbourne, form the basis for the development of current scanning, sorting and processing machines.
An early improvement on the reading machine was the drum scanner. These scanners used a type of scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes (PMT) . Drum scanners are still used in industry today because of the high quality images they produce. The development of smaller, more economical scanners such as desktop scanners and scanners for domestic use followed the drum scanner as the first world war essay number of computer users increased and computer technology advanced. Scanners can now capture images from a wide variety of two and three dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on thesis services, a hard-drive or floppy disk. With the of the first world aid of specific software, these images can then be manipulated and enhanced by the user. Binding Melbourne. It is have for you now possible to deploy electronic acquisition to melbourne, create an entire layout (including all graphic elements) from the same computer.
This means manual stripping is no longer required (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). Scanners are considered an invaluable tool for adding graphics and text to documents and pay to have been readily adopted by both business and domestic users. A scanner is a device that uses a light source to electronically convert an services, image into binary data (0s and 1s). This binary data can then be used to store the of the first world war essay scanned image on a computer. A scanner recreates an image by using small electronic components referred to as the scanner#039;s #039;eyes#039; (Scanner tips 2000).
The type of #039;eyes#039; used in today#039;s scanners are charge-coupled devices (CCD) and photomultiplier tubes (PMT). These electronic eyes measure the amount of light reflected from individual points on the page and translate it to digital signals that correspond to the brightness of each point (Englander 2000). To create a file on the computer that represents a colour image, the scanner divides the image into a grid with many individual points called pixels or picture elements (Scanner tips 2000). A scanning head, termed a row of #039;eyes#039;, reads over thesis binding melbourne, the grid and assigns a number to each pixel based on the main colour in that pixel, using green, blue and red. For example an aqua pixel would be saved as a number to represent the proportion of blue, green and red which represents the colour aqua (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). There are five main types of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand held scanners. Drum scanners were widely used in the past, however they are much less commonly used today due to advances in scanner technology.
As a result of their expense, these machines are primarily used by professionals in industry, where they are considered important due to the high-end quality image they produce and because they use PMT technology which is more sophisticated than charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and contact image sensor#039;s (CISs). Drum scanners are difficult to cause of the first war essay, operate and technicians operate these scanners by placing the item to be scanned on thesis binding melbourne, a glass cylinder rotating at high speeds around the sensor (Sullivan 1996). The most popular scanners for general use are flatbed scanners. Autism Paper. This type of thesis binding scanner is cause first world highly versatile because it is able to scan flat objects as well as small three dimensional objects. Thesis Binding Services. Flat-bed scanners operate by research paper, placing the item to be scanned on a glass window while scanning heads move underneath it. Binding Services. A transparency adapter is used to qu est dissertation, scan transparent originals such as slides or x-rays, and an automatic document feeder is available for scanning large numbers of documents (Scanner tips 2000) . Sheet-fed scanners have grown in popularity in recent years, particularly for small office or domestic use as they are reasonably priced, can scan full-sized documents and binding services are compact, requiring limited desk space (Scanner tips 2000). Most models of sheet-fed scanners have an cover, inbuilt document feeder to overcome the thesis services problem of manually feeding one sheet of paper at a time.
However the actual process or scanning with a sheet-fed scanner may result in distortion as the image to ce qu une oeuvre, be scanned moves over the scanning heads (Scanner tips 2000). A further limitation of sheet-fed scanners is that they are unable to scan three dimensional objects. This type of scanner is used to scan items such as slides that need careful handling during scanning. Unlike other scanners, the scanning heads in slide scanners do not reflect light from the image, but rather pass light through it. This enables these scanners to produce superior results without distortions caused by reflective light. To be able to scan small and thesis binding detailed items, these scanners have a large number of have a paper eyes on the scanning head which produces a high quality result. Slide scanners tend to thesis binding, be more expensive and less versatile than flatbed and sheet-fed scanners as they are limited to only scanning slides and film. These scanners, however, are well suited to users requiring high quality scans of large numbers of slides (Scanner tips 2000). Hand held scanners are compact, portable scanners which are simply dragged across a page manually to capture an image. These scanners are easy to use and economical to purchase; however, their use is limited to text of up to four inches in of the world, diameter that does not require a high resolution. Services Melbourne. For this reason, hand held scanners are unsuitable for colour images.
A further disadvantage of hand held scanners is that the user must have a steady hand when scanning or the of the first world war essay resulting image will be distorted (Scanner tips 2000). The performance of a scanner can be examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Resolution is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can sample in a given image. It is used to describe the amount of detail in an image (Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas 1996). Higher resolution scanners are generally more expensive and produce superior results as they have a greater capacity to capture detail. Scanners have two types of resolutions: optical resolution and interpolated resolution. Optical resolution, or hardware resolution, is a measure of thesis how many pixels a scanner can actually read. A current model desktop scanner typically has a resolution of 300 x 300 dots per inch (dpi) (Anderson 1999) . This means that this scanner has a scanning head with 300 sensors per inch, so it can sample 300 dpi in one direction and 300 dpi in the other direction by stopping the scanning head 300 times per inch in both directions. Some scanners stop the ocr ict scanning head more frequently as it moves down the page, giving an optical resolution of 300 x 600 dpi; however, scanning more frequently in one direction does not improve the result of the scan. The basic requirement for melbourne scanning detailed images and line art from photos or other printed originals is an optical resolution of 600 dpi.
When scanning slides and of the first war essay negatives the minimum optical resolution is 1200 dpi. Interpolated resolution measures the number of pixels a scanner is able to predict. A scanner can turn a 300 x 300 dpi scan into a 600 x 600 dpi scan by looking in-between scanned pixels and guessing what that spot would have looked like if it had been scanned. This prediction is then used to insert new pixels in between the thesis binding services actual ones scanned. This technique is director less precise than optical resolution; however it assists in improving the enlargement of scanned images. Bit depth refers to the amount of information that a scanner records for each pixel when converting an image to digital form. Scanners differ in the amount of data they record for each pixel within an thesis binding services, image. The simplest kinds of scanners only record data related to black and outline research white details and have a bit depth of 1 (Anderson 1999).
The minimum bit depth required for scanning photographs and documents is 24-bits, while slides, negatives or transparencies need a scanner with at least 30-bits. Thus for binding services a scanner to produce a high quality scan with colour, a higher bit depth is required. In general, current scanners have a bit depth of ocr ict as coursework 24, which means that 8 bits of information can be collected for thesis the three primary colours used in scanning; blue, red and green (Anderson 1999). This high resolution allows scanners to produce images close to photographic quality. Dynamic range refers to the measurement of the range of argumentative essay tones a scanner can record on a scale of 0.0 to 4.0, with 0.0 being perfect white and thesis binding services 4.0 being perfect black. Colour flat-bed scanners usually have a dynamic range of 2.4. Autism Research Paper. A range of thesis services melbourne this measurement is ocr ict unable to provide high quality colour scans. Services. A dynamic range of 2.8 and 3.2 is suited to professional purposes and can be found in high-end scanners.
An even higher dynamic range of 3.0 to 3.8 can be provided by drum scanners. A scanner, like any type of hardware, requires software. Typically the two most common pieces of software provided with scanners include optical character recognition (OCR) and image editing software. Optical character recognition software translates the information recorded in qu est ce qu, a scan, tiny dots, into binding services, a text file which can be edited. Image editing software allows the tones and colours of an image to be manipulated for better printing and display. Of Photography Cover Letter. Image editing also gives filters to apply special effects to scanned images. The quality of scanned images is constantly improving as characteristics such as resolution, bit-depth and dynamic range are enhanced and thesis melbourne further developed.
More sophisticated image editing and optical character recognition software development is also resulting in world, superior quality scans. Thesis Melbourne. Future advances are expected to result in d art, the incorporation of specialized scanners into thesis services, other types of cause first technology such as the binding services melbourne recently developed digital camera. This device allows the user to take pictures of three-dimensional objects much like a regular camera, except that instead of using film, the objects are scanned by the camera in a similar process to the functioning of a flatbed scanner. The relatively new area of autism research paper sensor technology in the form of a contact image sensor (CIS) (see Appendix 1) is thesis expected to improve the functionality of scanners and the quality of images as it replaces the cumbersome optical reduction technique with a single row of sensors (Grotta and pay to written Wiener 1998, p. 1). Developers have already been able to produce a CIS scanner which is melbourne thinner, lighter, more energy efficient and cheaper to manufacture than a traditional CCD base device. However, the quality of the scan is not as good as its counterparts. Further development of CIS technology is needed to improve image quality and colour, and to address the problem of a limited 300 or 600 dpi. This report has identified five types of scanners currently available. Some are primarily used for qu est ce qu une oeuvre dissertation professional purposes such as the drum scanner; others are used more broadly in the workplace and home such as flatbed scanners and to a lesser extent sheetfed scanners. Scanners for specialized purposes have also been identified such as slide and binding services melbourne handheld scanners.
The performance of these scanners is a paper written dependent upon their resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. Scanners have improved significantly in recent years in terms of weight, size, price and thesis speed, and outline autism the replacement of CCD technology with CIS technology is anticipated to produce further benefits to thesis binding services, these areas as well as to scan quality. The impact of these improvements is expected to increase the as coursework accessibility of scanner technology to thesis melbourne, a wider range of users and its suitability for a wider range of purposes. In relation to this, the future of scanner technology seems to point to the convergence of different technologies. Specialized scanners are currently being incorporated into other types of technologies such as digital cameras, printers, and photocopiers. This can be expected to continue with other forms of technology in director of photography cover, conjunction with further improvements to image quality, speed, price, size and weight. Anderson, D. The PC Guide. Thesis Binding. [http:www.pctechguide.com/18scanners.htm]. Blatner, D., Fleishman, G. Roth, G. (1998) Real world scanning and halftones 2nd edition, Peachpit Press, USA.
Englander, I (2000). The Architecture of computer hardware and systems software. John Wiley, USA, p272. Figeiredo, J. McIllree, J. Thomas, N. (1996) Introducing information technology 2nd edition Jacaranda Press, Singapore, p145. Grotta, D. and for you Weiner, S. What#039;s now . What#039;s next. [http://www.zdnet.com/pcmag/features/scanners98/intro.html] PC Magazines 20 October 1998. 8/4/00. Prepress, scanners, digital cameras and photoCDs. [http://www.prepress.pps.com/mem/lib/ptr/scanners.html] 1998.
6/4/00. Scansoft scanner tips [http://www.scannercentral.com/scanners/tips/tips1.asp] 2000.6/4/00. Sullivan. M. Types of scanners. [http://hsdesign.com/scanning/types/types.html] 1996. 8/4/00. Clear statement of the four criteria used in the report to assess the technology.
Appropriately mentions an important aspect of future enhancements - sensor technology, as well as other aspects of future scanning technology. The comment on the quality of scanned images could be extended to include other desirable improvement outcomes; for example, faster scanning or 3D scanning. States the purpose and outlines the content of the report succinctly at the start. Historical background is thesis services melbourne then provided. This level of detail should be placed in Section 2 #039;How Scanners Work#039;.
Try to avoid repeating ideas in the body of the argumentative essay plastic report by grouping ideas on the same topic or subtopic together. Good comment - provides an overall picture. It would be more appropriate to discuss such detailed aspects of scanning in the body of the report rather than the services melbourne introduction. World. When a technical term such as this is used it should be explained and related to thesis services, the previous sentence(s). This paragraph presents a clear definition of how a scanner works. The student#039;s understanding of the concept is evident because the definition has been clearly expressed in the student#039;s own words and the sources of the definition have been acknowledged. The student has used information from only one source for Sections 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, and 3.5.
This has severely limited the ce qu d art content of these sections of the report. This paragraph provides a good description of this criteria in simple clear language. It would be better to services melbourne, use a more recent reference here. A 1999 reference which states this is current typical resolution in an essay written in 2002 is inappropriate - computer technology develops very quickly. This concept is qu est une oeuvre poorly explained. The student needs to express the main point in more detail. The ideas in this paragraph are well expressed; however the source of these ideas has not been provided. Binding Services. The student needs to provide references. The concept of #039;dynamic range#039; has not been sufficiently explained here. The student needs to provide further detail and to provide references to as coursework, the sources of information used. As in the previous paragraph, the concept has not been sufficiently explained.
Further detail is required, especially in relation to the current capabilities and limitations of the software. Binding Melbourne. References to the sources used are also required here. This sentence is too general. It would be better to include more specific information about the kind of enhancements being referred to. This paragraph provides an appropriate amount of detail. Significant improvements to the field are identified in a brief discussion of new technology. However the student has again omitted references to the sources used in the discussion. This conclusion presents a brief summary of the qu est une oeuvre d art dissertation main ideas that have been established in the report. Thesis. Unfortunately, it typifies the limitations of the report; that is, the content is too general - more specific detail is required.
A further improvement would be to provide more detail on pay to written, how the current state and future position of scanner technology is related to the broader field of computer technology. WARNING - do not use this reference list as a model! The number of services sources used in cover, an assignment depends on the quality of the melbourne sources - their currency, reliability, and the amount of relevant information. This reference list consists of 8 sources: 3 books, 1 magazine, and 4 commercial web sites. It does not meet the requirements of the assignment description. Plastic Surgery. One source is used for a number of sections in thesis binding services, the report. The reference list needs to include several academic journal articles and more magazine articles.
This would enable a wider range of opinions and ideas to ocr ict, be included. For this report, it is best to only use commercial web sites published by major manufacturing companies which provide technical and thesis services educational information rather than online shopping or reseller sites, or sites developed by individuals. Content and layout: The citations need to include appropriate details, and to be punctuated according to the Harvard Referencing System. For example, the country (USA) has been provided as the place of publication in a number of citations instead of the name of a city or town, the copyright dates of many of the director web sites has not been included, and the inclusion of a page number for a book (p.145) is not necessary in the reference list (it is required in thesis binding services, the text if the student is making a direct quote). The use of punctuation in this reference list is inconsistent and autism research not always appropriate. Problems? Questions?
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A critical evaluation of Blue Ocean Strategy and its value to SMEs. In this essay I will critically analyze and evaluate the Blue Ocean Strategy ; its value to small-to-medium size enterprises and how it can create a demand in today#8217;s hyper-competitive market space. I will also discuss the key elements required to develop the Blue Ocean Strategy. Thesis Binding Services! To do this, I will use appropriate and relevant case studies of of photography, SMEs within their contexts and discuss the thesis binding services melbourne benefits of adopting the ce qu d art dissertation Blue Ocean Strategy. Thesis Binding Services! Most of the companies in as coursework, today’s world are engaged in rivalry and fighting with their competitors for thesis melbourne market share and sustainable and profitable growth, for product differentiation and for gaining a competitive edge in qu est une oeuvre dissertation, their products or services. Thesis Services Melbourne! W. War Essay! Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne use metaphors to describe different business models; they describe the strategy used by these companies to ensure profitable growth as Red Ocean Strategy which is not an appropriate strategy for growth in this cutting edge competitive environment. Binding Melbourne! They also stated that companies cannot achieve success by fighting with their rivals. In a competitive environment, it is the time to make strategic moves and the best way to do this is to create “Blue Oceans”. This means creating uncontested market space for the profitable growth of the company which is not only beneficial for the company but also for the customers. It is the best strategy, offering competition with rivals and director of photography creating new demand for binding the product or service. (West, D.C. Ford, J, 2010) In today’s unstable business environment, SMEs have to deal with many problems.
These include a lack of real understanding of consumer demand, lack of for you, flexibility and diversity in binding, supply, financial constraints, lack of management skills, technological inabilities and lack of ongoing development of new products. It is ocr ict, essential that SMEs take the necessary actions to binding eliminate these problems as they are the obstacles to their profitable growth. Argumentative Essay Plastic! The purpose of implementing or using Blue Ocean Strategy for SMEs is to eliminate these problems as it has one of the finest approaches for looking at the business and its expertise in specific areas. (Porter, M.E., 1998) In order to binding services survive in the market, SMEs tend to focus on establishing an advantage over the competition. They do so by working out ways that they can perform better than their competitors. The size of the market, however, remains constant as these SMEs are trying to director cover corner the same market share as the others without creating their own new markets.
This highly competitive attitude is referred to as Red Ocean and creating new markets is referred to as Blue Ocean . Some of the differences in these two strategies and reasons that SMEs should switch from Red Ocean Strategy to Blue Ocean Strategy are given below (Siegemund, C, 2008). The key tools and thesis processes involved in developing a Blue Ocean are: strategy canvas, four force action frame work, ERRC grid, and four hurdles to execution. Outline Autism Research! Many other tools are also involved in this strategy in relation to SMEs but the key tools can be explained as follows: (Kim, W.C. Mauborgne, R., 2005) The strategy canvas is an thesis analytical and investigative framework for making a convincing Blue Ocean. The horizontal axis includes those factors on which companies compete with others, including their investments.
The vertical axis includes the factors which are offered by the company to the buyers among those key competing factors. One purpose of the strategy canvas is to capture the current position of the ocr ict SME in the existing market. Thesis Services! This will help strategists to understand which factors are utilised in the company’s current investment and completion focus. Another purpose of this is to work out ways the company can attract the attention of ce qu une oeuvre, customers and non-customers so that they ignore the competitors. (Siegemund, C: 2008) The four actions framework is used for rebuilding buyer- value elements in drawing a new value curve. To design a new value curve and to melbourne eliminate or break the trade-off between differentiation and low cost, SMEs need to ask four vital questions. These questions allow the strategists to confront the logic of their strategy and the business plans. As the diagram below explains, the four questions are: Which of the factors that the SME takes for granted should be eliminated? Which factors should be reduced well below the SME’s standard?
Which factors should be raised well above the industry#8217;s standard? Which factors should be created, that the SME has never offered? (Kim, W.C. Mauborgne, R., 2005) On the basis of these questions, the manager of the pay to have a paper written for you SME can use the information from the first question to eliminate certain factors; those which had contributed some value in past but no longer had much value for today’s consumers. The answer to binding the second question can compel the manager of the SME to consider reducing those factors which had been over-designed in order to compete in the market. By using the answers to this question, the cost structure can be reduced.
The third question can be used to over plastic increase the industry’s standards by improving certain factors and the fourth question can be used to discover new sources of value for buyers (Porter, 1998). Thesis Melbourne! The eliminate-reduce-raise-create (ERRC) grid complements the four actions framework and essay over plastic it basically forces the services SME to autism research act on thesis, all the four factors mentioned in the four force framework. Ce Qu Une Oeuvre D Art! This allows a new value curve to thesis binding services be created so that the Blue Ocean can be initiated in director of photography letter, that company. Thesis! When the four blocks in the grid are completed by accurately filling them in, the cause first world company can gain some of the important benefits. The SME can, at the same time, introduce differentiation and low costs so that it can overcome the value-cost trade off. Binding Services! The ERRC grid helps the essay over plastic surgery SMEs, especially those concentrating more on the aspects of ‘raising’ and ‘creating’. They are helped to increase their cost structures and their products and binding services by proper and accurate modifications which will make them different from others companies with similar problems.
As developing this grid is not an easy operation, it compels the manager of the SMEs to be detailed in the work and evaluate every factor that the would need to become competitive. (Kim, Mauborgne, 2010; Siegemund, 2008) Once the managers of the SMEs have incorporated the Blue Ocean Strategy into a profitable business model, their biggest challenge is the necessity of executing the strategy. There will inevitably be some hurdles which can be difficult to overcome. The four hurdles which are predicted in outline research, this strategy are as follows: The cognitive hurdle arises when there is the need to convince the SME’s employees of benefits of the change in the strategies of the organisation. Some people do not want changes in their routine as they are familiar with the thesis services melbourne profits that have been generated from the Red Ocean. The resource hurdle is never particularly significant in any SMEs because whenever strategies are to be changed, there is the pay to have a paper need of resources. An unmotivated staff can be a hurdle; an unmotivated staff needs to be motivated so that the work allocated can be completed fast without the staff being stubborn. Services! Last, but not the least, is the political hurdle which can be experienced in every SME or organisation. (Kim, Mauborgne, 2010) The use of the Blue Ocean Strategy will be explained by case studies; Cirque du Soleil and [yellow tail]: Cirque du Soleil very successfully entered a structurally unattractive circus industry. Qu Est Ce Qu D Art! It was able to reinvent the industry and create a new market space by challenging the conventional assumptions about how circuses.
Its value was that it was innovative in thesis binding services, altering the consumer group; from children to adults. As shown in research paper, figure, the three foremost and most important criteria in Cirque du Soleil’s strategic profile, which were used to initiate the thesis binding melbourne Blue Ocean, were focus, divergence, and a compelling tag-line. The strategy canvas of Cirque du Soleil’s competitors gives a comparison with the strategic profiles of their competitors, which can be expressed graphically. The canvas explains how Cirque du Soleil’s success came from ocr ict, changing from the services traditional and conventional, using the Blue Ocean Strategy. The figure shows that the value curve of Ringling Bros. and Barnum Bailey is the same basic shape as that of smaller regional circuses.
The prime difference is that the ocr ict regional circuses, due to limited resources, could not give up the thesis binding services more competitive factors. In contrast, Cirque du Soleil improved its value curve drastically by taking the path of the Blue Ocean Strategy. It introduced new and non-circus factors such as themes, multiple productions, a more comfortable viewing environment, and artistic music and dance. All these factors were adopted from director of photography letter, aspects of the theatre and binding melbourne live entertainment industry. So, it can be learnt from the strategy canvas, the age-old factors which are used by other circuses have been entirely re-created by Cirque du Soleil.
Its innovations set them apart in the value curve. Both these factors are on the strategy canvas – capturing the market. (Kim, Mauborgne, 2010) The eliminate-reduce-raise-create grid for director of photography cover letter Cirque du Soleil shows how it used this tool of the Blue Ocean Strategy to set it apart from others and succeed as a circus SME. Worth noting, is the range of factors that, in an industry that has a long history of competing in the business environment, can be identified, eliminated and reduced. Services! Cirque du Soleil eliminated several factors practised in traditional circuses, such as animal shows, star performers, and multiple show arenas. Casella Wines created [yellow tail], a wine whose strategic profile deviated from the norms of the competition and created a product using Blue Ocean Strategy. Casella, instead of selling his product as only a wine, sold it as a social drink and offered it to all age groups or to those consumers who liked beer, wine, cocktails and others. This social drink was one of the fastest growing brands and it created history in both the Australian and ocr ict the U.S. wine industries.
It became the biggest imported wine into the U. S., outselling the French and Italian wines. [yellow tail] exceeded all competition with no promotional campaigns, mass media, or consumer advertising. Binding Services! It didn’t simply steal sales from competitors; it grew the market. (Kim, Mauborgne, 2010) Figure shows how the developers of [yellow tail] could make the competition irrelevant in the U.S. wine industry. Written! Here we can graphically compare [yellow tail]’s Blue Ocean Strategy with the more than 1600 wineries competing in the U.S. As shown in Figure, [yellow tail]’s value curve stands apart. Casella Wines, in the space of two years, by using this grid and acting on all these actions—eliminate, reduce, raise, and create – established a place in the market and melbourne surpassed all wine industries in U.S. (Kim, Mauborgne, 2010) It can be seen from these case studies that both SMEs created an une oeuvre d art dissertation exceptional value curve and used the Blue Ocean Strategy to render the thesis binding competition irrelevant. They found alternatives so that they could survive in research, the market and hence their value curves diverged from other SMEs. The tag-line used by [yellow tail] made an impression and attracted interest; a fun and thesis binding services melbourne simple wine to be enjoyed every day. When expressed by means of a value curve, an effective Blue Ocean Strategy like [yellow tail]’s has three complementary qualities: focus, divergence, and a compelling tag-line.
It is director, very difficult to ignore the importance of SMEs; they contribute to thesis binding melbourne the development process of the industry, help in job-creation equal income distribution, economic stability and sustainability, give birth to entrepreneurial spirit and maintain social stability. There are several factors which can affect the development of SMEs such as the policy environment, development of human resources, finance, changing technology, and also access to the useful information. On the other hand, due to growing demand and importance of SMEs, efficient management of SMEs is of photography cover letter, vital. Effective management is essential for achieving the preset goals and objectives. To survive in the market and to be successful, an organization must continue to thesis binding melbourne improve and argumentative essay plastic learn. The top management of the melbourne organization has to show by example, a willingness to accept change. Developing a Blue Ocean Strategy is not a static achievement but it a dynamic process which every SME must follow if they want profitable growth. Siegemund, C., (2008), Blue Ocean Strategy for small and une oeuvre d art mid-sized companies in Germany . Hamburg: Druck diplomica. pp 28-32. Porter, M.E., (1998), Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitor , Revised ed.
New York: The Free Press. West, D.C. Ford, J., (2010), Strategic Marketing: Creating Competitive Advantage . 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kim, W.C. Mauborgne, R., (2005), Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make Competition Irrelevant , United States of America: Harvard Business School Press. Kim, W.C. Mauborgne, R., (2010), About Blue Ocean Strategy.
Available: http://www.blueoceanstrategy.com/abo/about_bos.html. Last accessed 27 July 2010. Kim, W.C. Mauborgne, R., (2010), Blue Ocean Strategy Tools, Frameworks and Methodologies. Available: http://www.blueoceanstrategy.com/abo/bos_tools.html. Last accessed 27 July 2010. Completed according to your requirements.
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com 1152x864 resume Linux Shortcuts and thesis Commands: by Stan and Peter Klimas. This is a practical selection of the commands we use most often. Press Tab to see the listing of all available command (on your PATH). On my small home system, it says there are 2595 executables on qu est my PATH.
Many of these commands can be accessed from your favourite GUI front-end (probably KDE or Gnome) by clicking on the right menu or button. They can all be run from the thesis services melbourne command line. Cause Of The World War Essay. Programs that require GUI have to be run from a terminal opened under a GUI. = single special or function key on the keyboard. For example Ctrl indicates the control key. italic = name of the file or variable you probably want to thesis melbourne substitute with your own. fixed width = in-line Linux commands and argumentative essay over plastic filenames.
Notes for the UNIX Clueless: 1. LINUX IS CASE-SENSITIVE. For example: Netscape, NETSCAPE and nEtscape are three different commands. Also my_filE, my_file, and binding melbourne my_FILE are three different files. Your user login name and password are also case sensitive. Pay To A Paper. (This goes with the tradition of UNIX and the c programming language being case sensitive.) 2. Filenames can be up to 256 characters long and thesis services can contain letters, numbers, . (dot), _ (underscore), - (dash), plus some other not recommended characters. 3. Files with names starting with . Qu Est Une Oeuvre Dissertation. are normally not shown by the ls (list) or dir commands. Think of binding services, these files as hidden. A Paper. Use ls -a (list with the option all) to thesis binding services melbourne see these files.
4. / is an equivalent to DOS (root directory, meaning the parent of all other directories). 5. Under Linux, all directories appear under a single directory tree (there are no DOS-style drive letters). 6. In a configuration file, a line starting with # is autism research paper a comment. 7.1 Linux essential shortcuts and sanity commands. Switch to the first text terminal. Thesis Binding Services. Under Linux you can have several (6 in standard setup) terminals opened at the same time. Switch to the nth text terminal. Print the name of the terminal in which you are typing this command. Switch to the first GUI terminal (if X-windows is running on this terminal).
Switch to ocr ict the nth GUI terminal (if a GUI terminal is thesis melbourne running on ocr ict screen n-1). Thesis Binding Melbourne. On default, nothing is running on of photography terminals. 8 to 12, but you can run another server there. (In a text terminal) Autocomplete the command if there is only one option, or else show all the available options. THIS SHORTCUT IS GREAT! It even works at LILO prompt! Scroll and edit the command history. Binding. Press Enter to execute. Scroll terminal output up. Work also at the login prompt, so you can scroll through your bootup messages. Scroll terminal output down.
(in X-windows) Change to the next X-server resolution (if you set up the X-server to more than one resolution). For multiple resolutions on my standard SVGA card/monitor, I have the following line in the file /etc/X11/XF86Config (the first resolution starts on default, the largest determines the size of the virtual screen): Modes 1024x768 800x600 640x480 512x384 480x300 400x300 1152x864 (in X-windows) Change to the previous X-server resolution. (in X-windows) Kill the current X-windows server. Use if the X-windows server crushes and argumentative essay cannot be exited normally.
Shut down the system and reboot. Binding Melbourne. This is the normal shutdown command for a user at the text-mode console. Don't just press the as coursework reset button for shutdown! Kill the current process (mostly in the text mode for small applications). Log out from the thesis current terminal. Autism Research Paper. See also the next command.
Send [End-of-File] to the current process. Don't press it twice else you also log out (see the previous command). Stop the transfer to the terminal. Resume the transfer to the terminal. Try if your terminal mysteriously stops responding. Send the thesis binding services melbourne current process to the background. Logout.
I can also use logout for the same effect. (If you have started a second shell, e.g., using bash the second shell will be exited and you will be back in the first shell, not logged out.) Restore a screwed-up terminal (a terminal showing funny characters) to default setting. Use if you tried to director of photography cat a binary file. You may not be able to see the command as you type it. Paste the text which is currently highlighted somewhere else. This is the normal copy-paste operation in Linux. (It doesn't work with Netscape and WordPerfect which use the MS Windows-style copy-paste. It does work in the text terminal if you enabled gpm service using setup.) Best used with a Linux-ready 3-button mouse (Logitech or similar) or else set 3-mouse button emulation). (tilde) My home directory (normally the directory /home/my_login_name ). Melbourne. For example, the command cd. / my_dir will change my working directory to the subdirectory my_dir under my home directory. Typing just cd alone is an equivalent of the command cd.
(dot) Current directory. For example, ./my_program will attempt to execute the director of photography cover letter file my_program located in your current working directory. (two dots) Directory parent to the current one. For example, the command cd .. Thesis Services Melbourne. will change my current working directory one one level up. 7.2 Common Linux commands--system info. Print working directory, i.e., display the name of my current directory on the screen.
Print the name of the plastic local host (the machine on which you are working). Use netconf (as root) to change the name of the machine. Print my login name. Print user id (uid) and his/her group id (gid), effective id (if different than the real id) and the supplementary groups. Print or change the operating system date and time. E.g., I could change the date and time to 2000-12-31 23:57 using this command: To set the hardware (BIOS) clock from the system (Linux) clock, use the command (as root) setclock. Determine the amount of thesis binding services, time that it takes for a process to director of photography letter complete + other info.
Don't confuse it with the date command. E.g. I can find out how long it takes to thesis services display a directory content using: Determine the users logged on the machine. (=remote who) Determine all users logged on your network. The rwho service must be enabled for this command to run. Ocr Ict. If it isn't, run setup as root to enable rwho. System info about a user. Try: finger root. Show listing of users last logged-in on your system. Show the last (1000 or so) commands executed from the command line on the current account.
The | more causes the display to stop after each screenful. Show the amount of time since the last reboot. (=print status) List the processes currently run by the current user. List all the processes currently running, even those without the controlling terminal, together with the thesis binding services melbourne name of the user that owns each process. Keep listing the currently running processes, sorted by cpu usage (top users first). In KDE, you can get GUI-based Ktop from Kmenu under System-Task Manager (or by executing ktop in cause an X-terminal). (= Unix name with option all) Info on your (local) server. Melbourne. I can also use guname (in X-window terminal) to display the info more nicely.
Memory info (in kilobytes). (=disk free) Print disk info about all the filesystems (in human-readable form) (=disk usage) Print detailed disk usage for cause war essay, each subdirectory starting at the / (root) directory (in human legible form). Cpu info--it show the content of the file cpuinfo . Binding Melbourne. Note that the files in the /proc directory are not real files--they are hooks to look at information available to ocr ict as coursework the kernel. List the interrupts in use. Linux version and other info. Show the types of thesis services melbourne, filesystems currently in use.
Show the setup of printers. (As root. Outline Autism Research. Use /sbin/lsmod to execute this command when you are a non-root user.) Show the kernel modules currently loaded. Show the current user environment. Show the content of the environment variable PATH. This command can be used to show other environment variables as well. Use set to thesis melbourne see the full environment. Print kernel messages (the content of the so-called kernel ring buffer). Press q to quit less. Use less /var/log/dmesg to autism research paper see what dmesg dumped into thesis binding services melbourne this file right after the last system bootup.
Display a brief help on a command (works with most commands). Outline Autism. --help works similar to DOS /h switch. The more pipe is needed if the output is longer than one screen. Display the contents of the system manual pages (help) on the topic. Binding Services Melbourne. Try man man first. Of The World. Press q to quit the services melbourne viewer. The command info topic works similar and director cover may contain more up-to-date information. Manual pages can be hard to read. Try any_command --help for short, easy to digest help on a command. If more info needed, have a look to the directory /usr/doc . To display manual page from a specific section, I may use something like in this example: man 3 exit (this displays an info on the command exit from thesis section 3 of the manual pages).
Give me the list of the une oeuvre d art dissertation commands that have something to to do with my topic. Display brief info on a bash (shell) build-in command. List the content of the current directory. Binding. Under Linux, the as coursework command dir is an alias to ls. Thesis Binding Services Melbourne. Many users have ls to of photography cover be an alias to thesis binding services melbourne ls --color.
List the paper content of the current directory, all files (also those starting with a dot), and in a long form. Pipe the output through the more command, so that the display pauses after each screenful. Change directory. Thesis Binding Services Melbourne. Using cd without the directory name will take you to your home directory. cd - will take you to your previous directory and is a convenient way to toggle between two directories. cd .. will take you one directory up. Copy files. E.g., cp /home/stan/existing_file_name . Director Of Photography Cover Letter. will copy a file to my current working directory. Use the -r option (for recursive) to copy the contents of whole directories, e.g. , cp -r my_existing/dir/ mcopy source destination. Copy a file from/to a DOS filesystem (no mounting necessary).
E.g., mcopy a:autoexec.bat. /junk . See man mtools for related commands: mdir, mcd, mren, mmove, mdel, mmd, mrd, mformat . Move or rename files. The same command is used for moving and renaming files and directories. Create a hard link called destination to thesis binding services the file called source . The link appears as a copy of the outline research original files, but in reality only one copy of the file is kept, just two (or more) directory entries point to melbourne it. Ocr Ict As Coursework. Any changes the file are automatically visible throughout. When one directory entry is removed, the other(s) stay(s) intact. The limitation of the hard links are: the files have to be on the same filesystem, hard links to directories or special files are impossible. Create a symbolic (soft) link called destination to the file called source.
The symbolic link just specifies a path where to look for the file. In contradistinction to hard links, the source and services melbourne destination don't not have to tbe on the same filesystem. In comparison to hard links, the drawback of symbolic links are: if the original file is removed, the link is of photography broken, symbolic links can also create circular references (like circular references in spreadsheets or databases, e.g., a points to b and b points back to a). Remove (delete) files. You must own the binding file in order to be able to remove it. On many systems, you will be asked or confirmation of deleation, if you don't want this, use the -f (=force) option, e.g., rm -f * will remove all files in my current working directory, no questions asked. Make a new directory. Remove an pay to have a paper for you empty directory. (recursive remove) Remove files, directories, and their subdirectories. Careful with this command as root--you can easily remove all files on the system with such a command executed on thesis services melbourne the top of your directory tree, and there is no undelete in Linux (yet).
But if you really wanted to outline autism do it (reconsider), here is how (as root): rm -rf /* View the content of a text file called filename, one page a time. Binding Services Melbourne. The | is the pipe symbol (on many American keyboards it shares the outline paper key with ) The pipe makes the services melbourne output stop after each screenful. For long files, it is a paper written for you sometimes convenient to use the binding services commands head and tail that display just the director beginning and the end of the file. If you happened to use cat a binary file and your terminal displays funny characters afterwards, you can restore it with the melbourne command reset. Scroll through a content of a text file. Press q when done. Less is roughly equivalent to more , the command you know from DOS, although very often less is more convenient than more. Edit a text file using the simple and standard text editor called pico . Edit a text file, while disabling the long line wrap. Handy for editing configuration files, e.g. /etc/fstab . Find the file called filename on your filesystem starting the search from the root directory /. The filename may contain wildcards (*,?). Find the file name of which contains the string filename.
Easier and faster than the previous command but depends on ocr ict a database that normally rebuilds at night. Run an services executable in the current directory, which is not on your PATH. Change the date/time stamp of the file filename to as coursework the current time. Create an binding empty file if the cause of the first file does not exist. Start a barebone X-windows server (without a windows manager). Start an binding services X-windows server and the default windows manager. Works like typing win under DOS with Win3.1. Start another X-windows session on argumentative plastic the display 1 (the default is thesis binding services opened on display 0). You can have several GUI terminals running concurrently. Switch between them using CtrlAltF7, CtrlAltF8, etc.
(in X terminal) Run a simple X-windows terminal. Typing exit will close it. There are other, more advanced virtual terminals for X-windows. I like the popular ones: konsole and kvt (both come with kde) and gnome-terminal (comes with gnome). If you need something really fancy-looking, try Eterm . (in X terminal). Very nice, old-fashioned game. Many small games/programs are probably installed on your system. I also like xboard (chess).
(as root) Shut down the system to cause of the world war essay a halt. Mostly used for a remote shutdown. Melbourne. Use CtrlAltDel for director of photography, a shutdown at the console (which can be done by any user). (as root, two commands) Halt or reboot the machine. Used for remote shutdown, simpler to thesis binding services type than the previous command. (in X terminal) Run netscape (requires a separate Netscape installation). The current versions of Netscape (4.x) are known to be big and buggy. They occasionally crash by vanishing (no other harm done). Also, when not connected to the network , Netscape likes to refuse to cause of the world war essay do anything (looks like it hanged)-it revives when you connect.
(in X terminal) Run netscape on the current machine and direct the output to machine named host display 0 screen 0. Your current machine must have a permission to display on the machine host (typically given by executing the command xhost current_machine_name in the xterminal of the machine host. Thesis Binding. Other X-windows program can be run remotely the same way. View an html file or browse the net from the text mode. A good text-mode mail reader. Another good and standard one is elm . Your Netscape mail will read the mail from your Internet account. pine will let you read the local mail, e.g. the mail your son or a cron process sends to you from a computer on your home network. The command mail could also be used for reading/composing mail, but it would be inconvenient--it is meant to as coursework be used in scripts for automation. A good tex-mode mail reader. See the previous command. A really basic but extremally useful and fast mail reader. A basic operating system tool for e-mail. Look at the previous commands for a better e-mail reader. mail is good if you wanted to thesis binding services melbourne send an over surgery e-mail from a shell script.
(in X term) An icq instant messaging client. Another good one is kxicq . Older distributions don't have an binding services icq client installed, you have to do download one and install it. Talk to another user currently logged on your machine (or use talk username1 @ machinename to ocr ict talk to a user on a different computer) . Thesis Services Melbourne. To accept the invitation to the conversation, type the command talk username2 . Director Of Photography. If somebody is trying to talk to you and it disrupts your work, your may use the command mesg n to refuse accepting messages. Thesis Binding. You may want to use who or rwho to ocr ict determine the users who are currently logged-in. Launch the Midnight Commander file manager (looks like Norton Commander for Linux). Connect to another machine using the TELNET protocol. Use a remote machine name or IP address. You will be prompted for your login name and password--you must have an account on the remote machine to login. Telnet will connect you to another machine and thesis binding melbourne let you operate on it as if you were sitting at its keyboard (almost). Telnet is not very secure--everything you type goes in open text, even your password!
(=remote login) Connect to another machine. The login name/password from outline autism research paper your current session is used; if it fails you are prompted for a password. (=remote shell) Yet another way to connect to a remote machine. The login name/password from your current session is used; if it fails you are prompted for a password. Ftp another machine. (There is services melbourne also ncftp which adds extra features and gftp for GUI .) Ftp is cause first world war essay good for copying files to/from a remote machine.
Try user anonymous if you don't have an account on the remote server. After connection, use ? to see the list of available ftp commands. The essential ftp command are: ls (see the files on the remote system), ASCII , binary (set the file transfer mode to either text or binary, important that you select the proper one ), get (copy a file from the remote system to the local system), mget (get many files at once), put (copy a file from the local system to the remote system), mput (put many files at once), bye (disconnect). For automation in thesis binding a script, you may want to use ncftpput and ncftpget , for example: ncftpput -u my_user_name -p my_password -a remote.host.domain remote_dir *local.html. Minicom program (looks like Procomm for Linux). (=tape archiver) Untar a tarred and compressed tarball (*.tar.gz or *.tgz) that you downloaded from the Internet. Untar a tarred but uncompressed tarball (*.tar). Decompress a zipped file (*.gz or *.z). Use gzip (also zip or compress ) if you wanted to compress files to of photography cover this file format. (=big unzip) Decompress a file (*.bz2) zipped with bzip2 compression utility. Used for big files.
Decompress a file (*.zip) zipped with a compression utility compatible with PKZIP for services, DOS. Extract the content of an autism research paper *.arj archive. Decode a file encoded with uuencode . Thesis Binding Melbourne. uu-encoded files are typically used for transfer of non-text files in have a paper written for you e-mail (uuencode transforms any file into an ASCII file). (=print status) Display the list of currently running processes with their process IDs (PID) numbers. Use ps axu to see all processes currently running on your system (also those of other users or without a controlling terminal), each with the thesis binding services melbourne name of the owner. Director Of Photography Letter. Use top to keep listing the processes currently running. Bring a background or stopped process to binding melbourne the foreground. Send the process to the background.
Opposite to fg. The same can be accomplished with Ctrlz. If you have stopped jobs, you have to type exit twice in row to log out. Run any command in the background (the symbol means run the proceeding command in the background). Run any command (usually one that is going to take more time) when the system load is low. I can logout, and the process will keep running.
Execute a command at a specified time. Of Photography Letter. You will be prompted for the command(s) to run, until you press Ctrld. Force a process shutdown. First determine the PID of the process to kill using ps. Kill program(s) by name.
(in an xwindow terminal) Kill a GUI-based program with mouse. (Point with your mouse cursor at thesis services melbourne, the window of the a paper for you process you want to thesis binding services kill and ocr ict click.) (as root) Check and control the thesis binding services printer(s). Type ? to see the list of of the world, available commands. Show the content of the thesis binding printer queue. Under KDE (X-Windows), you may use GUI-based Printer Queue available from Kmenu-Utilities. Remove a printing job job_number from the queue. Run program_name adjusting its priority. Since the priority is not specified in this example, it will be adjusted by 10 (the process will run slower), from the default value (usually 0).
The lower the number (of niceness to other users on the system), the pay to have for you higher the priority. The priority value may be in the range -20 to melbourne 19. Only root may specify negative values. Use top to have a paper display the binding services priorities of the running processes. (as root) Change the priority of a running process to of photography letter -1. Normal users can only adjust processes they own, and binding services melbourne only up from the as coursework current value (make them run slower). Ctrlc , Ctrlz , Ctrls , and binding melbourne Ctrlq also belong to this chapter but they were described previously.
In short they mean: stop the current command, send the current command to the background, stop the data transfer, resume the data transfer. (as root in X-terminal) Configuration tool for your printer(s). Settings go to the file /etc/printcap . (as root) Configure mouse, soundcard, keyboard, X-windows, system services. There are many distibution-specific configuration utilities, setup is the default on RedHat. Mandrake 7.0 offers very nice DrakConf . (as root, either in text or graphical mode). You can access and change hundreds of setting from it. Very powerful--don't change too many things at autism research paper, the same time, and thesis binding melbourne be careful with changing entries you don't understand.
(in X-terminal). Of The World. Adjust the settings of the graphical display for services melbourne, all resolutions so as to eliminate black bands, shift the argumentative over plastic display right/left/up/down, etc. (First use the knobs on thesis binding services your monitor to fit your text mode correctly on the screen.) To make the outline research paper changes permanent, display the frequencies on the screen and transfer them to the setup file /etc/X11/XF86Config . Create an alias for the command ls to enhance its format with color. In this example, the alias is also called ls and the color option is only envoke when the output is done to a terminal (not to files). Put the alias into the file /etc/bashrc if you would like the alias to be always accessible to all users on the system. Type alias alone to see the list of aliases on binding melbourne your system. Create a new account (you must be root). E.g., adduser barbara Don't forget to set up the password for the new user in the next step. Ocr Ict. The user home directory is binding melbourne /home/ user_name . The same as the command adduser user_name . Remove an account (you must be a root). The user's home directory and the undelivered mail must be dealt with separately (manually because you have to decide what to do with the qu est une oeuvre d art files). Create a new group on your system.
Non-essential but can be handy even on binding services a home machine with a small number of users. Change the cause world war essay password on services your current account. Cause. If you are root, you can change the password for any user using: passwd user_name. (=change mode) Change the file access permission for the files you own (unless you are root in which case you can change any file). You can make a file accessible in three modes: read (r), write (w), execute (x) to three classes of users: owner (u), members of the same group as the owner (g), others on the system (o). Check the binding current access permissions using: If the file is accessible to all users in all modes it will show: The first triplet shows the file permission for as coursework, the owner of the file, the binding services melbourne second for his/her group, the third for others. Paper. A no permission is shown as -. E.g., this command will add the permission to read the file junk to all (=user+group+others):
This command will remove the permission to binding execute the file junk from others: Also try here for more info. You can set the essay default file permissions for thesis, the news files that you create using the qu est ce qu une oeuvre d art dissertation command umask (see man umask ). chown new_ownername filename. chgrp new_groupname filename. Change the file owner and group. You should use these two commands after you copy a file for use by somebody else. (=substitute user id) Assume the superuser (=root) identity (you will be prompted for the password). Type exit to return you to your previous login. Don't habitually work on your machine as root. The root account is for administration and the su command is to ease your access to the administration account when you require it.
You can also use su to binding assume any other user identity, e.g. su barbara will make me barbara (password required unless I am a superuser). (as root in world X terminal). GUI to thesis binding services to add/remove kernel modules. You can do the plastic surgery same from the command line using the thesis command insmod , but insmode is less newbie-friendly. List currently loaded kernel modules.
A module is like a device driver--it provides operating system kernel support for a particular piece of hardware or feature. List all the modules available for your kernel. The available modules are determined by how your Linux kernel was compliled. Every possible module/feature can be compiled on linux as either hard wired (fast, non-removable), module (maybe slower, but loaded/removable on demand), or no (no support for this feature at all). (as root) Insert modules into the kernel (a module is roughly an cover equivalent of a DOS device driver).
This example shows how to insert the modules for thesis binding services melbourne, support of the external parallel port zip drive (it appears to be a problem to get the external zip drive to work in any other way under RH6.0 ). (as root, not essential). Remove the module module_name from the autism research kernel. setserial /dev/cua0 port 0x03f8 irq 4. (as root) Set a serial port to a non-standard setting. The example here shows the thesis services standard setting for the first serial port (cua0 or ttyS0). The standard PC settings for the second serial port (cua1or ttyS1) are: address of i/o port 0x02f8, irq 3. Have A Paper Written For You. The third serial port (cua2 or ttyS2): 0x03e8, irq 4. The forth serial port (cua3 or ttyS3): 0x02e8, irq 3. Add your setting to /etc/rc.d/rc.local if you want it to be set at the boot time. See man setserial for good a overview. (as root) Linux hard drive partitioning utility (DOS has a utility with the same name). (as root in X terminal). Nice GUI front-end for configuration of the kernel options in thesis melbourne preparation for compilation of your customized kernel. (The directory name contains the version of your Linux kernel so you may need to modify the directory name if your Linux kernel version is different than 2.0.36 used in this example. You also need the Tk interpreter and the kernel source code installed. ) The alternatives to make xconfig are: make config (runs a scripts that asks you questions in the text mode) and make menuconfig (runs a text-based menu-driven configuration utility). Written For You. Try: less /usr/doc/HOWTO/Kernel-HOWTO for more information.
After the configuration, you may choose to proceed with kernel compilation of the new kernel by melbourne issuing the following commands: The last command will take some time to complete (maybe 0.5 h, depending on your hardware). Argumentative Surgery. It produces the thesis melbourne file zImage, which is your new Linux kernel. Next: Read: /usr/doc/HOWTO/Kernel-HOWTO for information on how to install the new kernel. You will probably also find it useful to read man depmode. Configuration, compilation and installation of a new kernel is une oeuvre d art not difficult but it CAN lead to problems if you don't know what you are doing.
Compilation of a kernel is a good way to test your hardware, because it involves a massive amount of computing. If your hardware is flaky, you will most likely receive the signal 11 error (read the beatiful /usr/doc/FAQ/txt/GCC-SIG11-FAQ ). See this for details on kernel upgrade. (as root) Build the module dependency table for the kernel. This can, for example, be useful after installing and booting a new kernel. Use modprobe -a to load the services melbourne modules. (as root) Re-create the bindings and the cache for the loader of dynamic libraries (ld). You may want to run ldconfig after an installation of new dynamically linked libraries on your system. (It is also re-run every time you boot the ce qu une oeuvre computer, so if you reboot you don't have to run it manually.) (=make node, as root) Create a device file.
This example shows how to create a device file associated with your first floppy drive and could be useful if you happened to accidentally erase it. The options are: b=block mode device (c=character mode device, p=FIFO device, u=unbuffered character mode device). Binding. The two integers specify the major and the minor device number. (=floppy disk format, two commands, as root) Perform a low-level formatting of a floppy in the first floppy drive (/dev/fd0), high density (1440 kB). Then make a Linux filesystem (-t ext2), checking/marking bad blocks (-c ). Making the cause first world files system is an thesis services equivalent to the high-level format. badblocks /dev/fd01440 1440. (as root) Check a high-density floppy for bad blocks and display the results on the screen. The parameter 1440 specifies that 1440 blocks are to be checked. This command does not modify the ocr ict as coursework floppy.
(=file system check, as root) Check and repair a filesystem. The example uses the partition hda2, filesystem type ext2. dd if=/dev/fd0H1440 of=floppy_image. dd if=floppy_image of=/dev/fd0H1440. (two commands, dd=data duplicator) Create an image of a floppy to the file called floppy_image in binding the current directory. Then copy floppy_image (file) to another floppy disk. Works like DOS DISKCOPY. (=RedhatPackageManager, install, verbose, hashes displayed to show progress, as root.) Install a content of une oeuvre, RedHat rpm package(s) and print info on what happened. Keep reading if you prefer a GUI installation.
(=RedhatPackageManager, query, package, list.) Read the info on the content of a yet uninstalled package filename.rpm . (=RedhatPackageManager, query, package, information.) List the files contained in a yet uninstalled package filename.rpm . (=RedhatPackageManager, query, file.) Find out the binding services melbourne name of the *.rpm package to ce qu d art dissertation which the binding melbourne file filename (on your hardrive) belongs. (=RedhatPackageManager, erase=uninstall.) Uninstall a package pagckagename . Packagname is the same as the qu est ce qu une oeuvre d art dissertation beginning of the *.rpm package file but without the thesis melbourne dash and version number. (in X terminal, as root if you want to of photography cover letter be able to binding install packages) GUI fronts to the Red Hat Package Manager (rpm). Surgery. glint comes with RH5.2, gnorpm with RH6.0, kpackage comes with RH6.1 or must be installed separately but is the best of the three. Use any of them to thesis services view which software packages are installed on a paper written your system and thesis binding melbourne the what not-yet-installed packages are available on your RedHat CD, display the info about the packages, and install them if you want (installation must be done as root). See here for details on cause of the war essay mounting drives. Examples are shown in the next commands.
mount -t auto /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy. (as root) Mount the floppy. The directory /mnt/floppy must exist, be empty and thesis melbourne NOT be your current directory. mount -t auto /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom. (as root) Mount the cause CD. You may need to create/modify the /dev/cdrom file depending where your CDROM is. Thesis Binding Melbourne. The directory /mnt/cdrom must exist, be empty and NOT be your current directory. (as user or root) Mount a floppy as user. The file /etc/fstab must be set up to do this. Letter. The directory /mnt/floppy must not be your current directory. (as user or root) Mount a CD as user.
The file /etc/fstab must be set up to do this. The directory /mnt/cdrom must not be your current directory. Unmount the floppy. The directory /mnt/floppy must not be your (or anybody else's) current working directory. Depending on binding melbourne your setup, you might not be able to unmount a drive that you didn't mount. (as root) A very good menu-driven setup of pay to have written for you, your network. Check if you can contact another machine (give the machine's name or IP), press CtrlC when done (it keeps going). Show the kernel routing table. Query your default domain name server (DNS) for an Internet name (or IP number) host_to_find . This way you can check if your DNS works. You can also find out the binding melbourne name of the host of ocr ict as coursework, which you only thesis services melbourne know the IP number.
Have a look how you messages trave to host_to_trace (which is either a host name or IP number). (for RH5.2, seen next command for argumentative surgery, RH6.0) Set up the firewall IP forwarding policy to masquerading. (Not very secure but simple.) Purpose: all computers from your home network will appear to the outside world as one very busy machine and, for example, you will be allowed to browse the Internet from all computers at once. echo 1 /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward. ipfwadm-wrapper -F -p deny. ipfwadm-wrapper -F -a m -S xxx.xxx.xxx.0/24 -D 0.0.0.0/0. (three commands, RH6.0). Does the same as the previous command. Substitute the xs with digits of your class C IP address that you assigned to your home network. See here for more details. In RH6.1, masquarading seems broken to me--I think I will install Mandrake Linux:). (as root) Display info on binding services melbourne the network interfaces currently active (ethernet, ppp, etc).
Your first ethernet should show up as eth0, second as eth1, etc, first ppp over modem as ppp0, second as ppp1, etc. The lo is the loopback only interface which should be always active. Use the options (see ifconfig --help ) to configure the interfaces. ( /sbin/ifup to it run as a user) Startup a network interface. E.g.: Users can start up or shutdown the ppp interface only when the right permission was checked during the ppp setup (using netconf ). To start a ppp interface (dial-up connection), I normally use kppp available under kde menu internet. ( /sbin/ifdown to as coursework run it as a user). Binding Melbourne. Shut down the network interface. Ocr Ict. E.g.: ifdown ppp0 Also, see the previous command.
Displays a lot (too much?) information on the status of your network. Play the first track from binding services a audio CD. Get a free coffee cup holder :))). Pay To Have A Paper Written. (Eject the CD ROM tray). Play a wave file. Play an services melbourne mp3 file. mpg123 -w my_file.wav my_file.mp3.
Create a wave audio file from an director of photography cover mp3 audio file. (in X terminal) Start the program to downolad mp3 files that other users of napster have displayed for downloading. Really cool! (CD ripper) Read the contents of an audio CD and save it into wavefiles in the current directories, one track per wavefile. The 1- means from track 1 to the last. Binding Melbourne. -B forces putting each track into of the world a separate file. Play a midi file. playmidi -r my_file.mid will display text mode effects on the screen. (argument not given here) Convert from almost any audio file format to another (but not mp3s). Binding Melbourne. See man sox . Display a postscript file on screen. I can also use the director older-looking ghostview or gv for the same end effect.
ps2pdf my_file.ps my_file.pdf. Make a pdf (Adobe portable document format) file from a postscript file. (in X terminal) A humble looking but very powerful image processor. Takes some learning to use, but it is great for artists, there is almost nothing you can't do with gimp. Use your mouse right button to get local menus, and learn how to thesis services use layers. Save your file in the native gimp file format *.xcf (to preserve layers) and only then flatten it and pay to have written save as png (or whatever). There is thesis binding services a large user manual /usr/ (in X terminal) Powerful photo editor.
Convert the propriatory giff graphics into a raw, portable pnm file. Then convert the pnm into a png file, which is a newer and better standard for Internet pictures (better technically plus there is no danger of being sued by the owner of giff patents).