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“Blaxicans” and own term, Other Reinvented Essay Sample. The son of immigrant Mexican parents in San Francisco, Richard Rodriguez (b. 1944) grew up in a Mexican American section of Sacramento. He was educated in Catholic grammar and high schools, and he attended Stanford and Columbia universities, where he took a bachelor’s and a master’s degree, as well as the Warburg Institute in Great Britain. World Peace? He is the winner of a Fulbright Fellowship, a National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship, and a Peabody Award, which recognizes outstanding work in the electronic media. Rodriguez achieved recognition in 1981, when he published Hunger of Memory: The Education of write paper Richard Rodriguez. The book includes a criticism of both affirmative action and bilingual education on essay my happy the grounds that they tend to separate rather than unite people. He is also the author of Days of Obligation: An Argument with my Mexican Father (1992) and of Brown: The Last Discovery of America (2002). He is currently working on a book about Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.
Rodriguez has written numerous essays, which have appeared in your own term paper, Harper’s Magazine, American Scholar, Time, Mother Jones, Forum, and Nuestro. Essay About Technology? The essay that follows was first published in the Chronicle of Higher Education, a publication for college professors and administrators. In it Rodriguez argues that the old racial classifications—black, white, Hispanic, and so on—should be abandoned, for they misrepresent the cultural and ethnic realities of today’s America. incomprehensibly, mythic, rind, aforementioned, perpetual, dilute, ineffable, mulatto, fallacious, archetypal, demythologizing. Own Term Paper? There is something unsettling about immigrants because … well, because they chatter incomprehensibly, and us constitution, they get in everyone’s way. Immigrants seem to be bent on undoing America. Just when Americans think we know who we are—we are Protestants, culled from Western Europe, are we not? —then new immigrants appear from write own term Southern Europe or from essay my happy place Eastern Europe. We—we who are already here—we don’t know exactly what the latest comers will mean to our community. How will they fit in your paper, with us? Thus we—we who were here first—we begin to question our own identity. After a generation or two, the grandchildren or the great-grandchildren of us constitution immigrants to the United States and write your own term, the grandchildren of those who tried to keep immigrants out of the United States will romanticize the term subjects immigrant, will begin to see the immigrant as the write figure who teaches us most about what it means to be an American.
None of this, of course, can we admit to the. Essays? Vietnamese immigrant who served us our breakfast at the hotel this morning. In another 40 years, we will be prepared to say to the Vietnamese immigrant that he, with his breakfast tray, with his intuition for travel, with his memory of tragedy, with his recognition of peerless freedoms, he fulfills the meaning of write your paper America. In 1997, Gallup conducted a survey on race relations in America, but the poll was concerned only with white and black Americans. History Essays? No question was put to the aforementioned Vietnamese man. There was certainly no question for the Chinese grocer, none for the Guatemalan barber, none for the tribe of paper Mexican Indians who reroofed your neighbor’s house. Paper? The American conversation about race has always been a black-andwhite conversation, but the conversation has become as bloodless as badminton.
I have listened to the black-and-white conversation for most of my life. I was supposed to attach myself to one side or the other, without asking the obvious questions: What is this perpetual dialectic between Europe and Africa? Why does it admit so little reference to anyone else? I am speaking to your paper, you in American English that was taught me by on the us constitution, Irish nuns—immigrant women. I wear an Indian face; I answer to a Spanish surname as well as this California first name, Richard. You might wonder about the complexity of historical factors, the collision of centuries, that creates Richard Rodriguez. My brownness is the illustration of write your paper that collision, or the bland memorial of it. I stand before you as an on rap and society, ImpureAmerican, an Ambiguous-American. In the 19th century, Texans used to say that the reason Mexicans were so easily defeated in battle was because we were so dilute, being neither pure Indian nor pure Spaniard. Yet, at write your the same time, Mexicans used to say that Mexico, the country of my ancestry, joined two worlds, two competing armies. Jose Vasconcelos, the Mexican educator and on the, philosopher, famously described Mexicans as la raza cosmica, the cosmic race.
In Mexico what one finds as early as the 18th century is own term paper, a predominant population of mixed-race people. Essay On Rap And Society? Also, once the write your slave had been freed in Mexico, the incidence of marriage between Indian and African people there was greater than in term paper, any other country in the Americas and has not been equaled since. Write Your Paper? Race mixture has not been a point of pride in America. Americans speak more easily about “diversity” than we do about the fact that I might marry your daughter; you might become we; we might become us. America has so readily adopted the apus Canadian notion of multiculturalism because it preserves our preference for thinking ourselves separate—our elbows need not touch, thank you. I would prefer that table. I can remain Mexican, whatever that means, in the United States of America. I would propose that instead of adopting the Canadian model of multiculturalism, America might begin to imagine the Mexican alternative—that of your own term paper a mestizaje society. Because of colonial Mexico, I am mestizo. But I was reinvented by President Richard Nixon. In the early 1970s, Nixon instructed the Office of Management and Budget to identify the major racial and term paper subjects, ethnic groups in the United States.
OMB came up with five major ethnic or racial groups. The groups are white, black, Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/ Eskimo, and write your paper, Hispanic. It’s what I learned to do when I was in college: to call myself a Hispanic. At my university we even had separate cafeteria tables and term subjects, “theme houses,” where the children of Nixon could gather —of a feather. Native Americans united. African Americans.
Casa Hispanic. The interesting thing about write own term, Hispanics is that you will never meet us in apus history exam essays, Latin America. You may meet Chileans and Peruvians and Mexicans. You will not meet Hispanics. If you inquire in Lima or Bogota about write your paper, Hispanics, you will be referred to Dallas. For “Hispanic” is a gringo contrivance, a definition of the world according to European patterns of colonization. Such a definition suggests I have more in common with Argentine Italians than with American Indians; that there is an ineffable union between the white Cuban and the mulatto Puerto Rican because of Spain. Nixon’s conclusion has become the basis for the way we now organize and understand American society. The Census Bureau foretold that by the year 2003, Hispanics would outnumber blacks to become the largest minority in the United States.
And, indeed, the subjects year 2003 has arrived and write, the proclamation of apus exam Hispanic ascendancy has been published far and your own term paper, wide. While I admit a competition has existed—does exist—in America between Hispanic and black people, I insist that the comparison of Hispanics with blacks will lead, ultimately, to essay, complete nonsense. For there is no such thing as a Hispanic race. In Latin America, one sees every race of the world. One sees white Hispanics, one sees black Hispanics, one sees brown Hispanics who are Indians, many of whom do not speak Spanish because they resist Spain.
One sees Asian-Hispanics. To compare blacks and Hispanics, therefore, is to construct a fallacious equation. Some Hispanics have accepted the fiction. Write Your Own Term? Some Hispanics have too easily accustomed themselves to impersonating a third race, a great new third race in America. But Hispanic is an ethnic term. It is a term denoting culture. So when the Census Bureau says by the year 2060 one-third of all Americans will identify themselves as Hispanic, the Census Bureau is not speculating in pigment or quantifying according to actual historical narratives, but rather is essay on rap music, predicting how by the year 2060 one-third of all Americans will identify themselves culturally.
For a country that traditionally has taken its understandings of community from blood and color, the new circumstance of so large a group of Americans identifying themselves by virtue of write your own term language or fashion or cuisine or literature is an essays us constitution, extraordinary change, and a revolutionary one. People ask me all the time if I envision another Quebec forming in the United States because of the large immigrant movement from the south. Do I see a Quebec forming in the Southwest, for example? No, I don’t see that at all. Own Term? But I do notice the Latin American immigrant population is essay conclusion about, as much as 10 years younger than the U.S. national population.
I notice the Latin American immigrant population is write paper, more fertile than the U.S. Essay Conclusion? national population. Write Paper? I see the movement of the immigrants from essay technology south to north as a movement of youth—like approaching spring! —into a country that is growing middle-aged. I notice immigrants are the archetypal Americans at write your paper a time when we—U.S. citizens—have become postAmericans, most concerned with subsidized medications. I was at a small Apostolic Assembly in East Palo Alto a few years ago—a mainly Spanish-speaking congregation in an area along the freeway, near the heart of the Silicon Valley. This area used to be black East Palo Alto, but it is descriptive essay, quickly becoming an Asian and Hispanic Palo Alto neighborhood. There was a moment in the service when newcomers to the congregation were introduced. Newcomers brought letters of introduction from sister evangelical churches in Latin America. The minister read out the various letters and pronounced the names and places of origin to the community. The congregation applauded. And I thought to myself: It’s over. The border is over.
These people were not being asked whether they had green cards. They were not being asked whether they arrived here legally or illegally. They were being welcomed within a new community for reasons of culture. There is now a north-south line that is theological, a line that cannot be circumvented by the U.S. Your Own Term? Border Patrol. I was on a British Broadcasting Corporation interview show, and a woman introduced me as being “in favor” of assimilation. I am not in term, favor of assimilation any more than I am in favor of the own term paper Pacific Ocean or clement weather. If I had a bumper sticker on the subject, it might read something like ASSIMILATION HAPPENS.
One doesn’t get up in the morning, as an immigrant child in America, and think to descriptive essay my happy, oneself, “How much of an your own term paper, American shall I become today?” One. doesn’t walk down the street and decide to essay, be 40 percent Mexican and 60 percent American. Culture is fluid. Culture is smoke. You breathe it. You eat it. You can’t help hearing it —Elvis Presley goes in your ear, and you cannot get Elvis Presley out of write your own term paper your mind. I am in favor of assimilation.
I am not in favor of assimilation. Essay? I recognize assimilation. A few years ago, I was in Merced, Calif. —a town of about 75,000 people in the Central Valley where the two largest immigrant groups at that time (California is so fluid, I believe this is no longer the case) were Laotian Hmong and Mexicans. Laotians have never in the history of the world, as far as I know, lived next to Mexicans. But there they were in write your own term, Merced, and living next to Mexicans. They don’t like each other. I was talking to the Laotian kids about why they don’t like the Mexican kids. They were telling me that the Mexicans do this and the Mexicans don’t do that, when I suddenly realized that they were speaking English with a Spanish accent. Descriptive Essay My Happy Place? On his interview show, Bill Moyers once asked me how I thought of your paper myself.
As an essay and society, American? Or Hispanic? I answered that I am Chinese, and that is because I live in a Chinese city and because I want to write paper, be Chinese. On Rap And Society? Well, why not? Some Chinese American people in the Richmond and Sunset districts of San Francisco sometimes paint their houses (so many qualifiers!) in colors I would once have described as garish: lime greens, rose reds, pumpkin. Your? But I have lived in a Chinese city for so long that my eye has taken on that palette, has come to prefer lime greens and rose reds and all the inventions of this Chinese Mediterranean. I see photographs in magazines or documentary footage of China, especially rural China, and I see what I recognize as home. Isn’t that odd?
I do think distinctions exist. I’m not talking about an America tomorrow in world thesis, which we’re going to find that black and write own term paper, white are no longer the music and society distinguishing marks of separateness. But many young people I meet tell me they feel like Victorians when they identify themselves as black or white. They don’t think of themselves in those terms. And they’re already moving into a world in write your paper, which tattoo or ornament or movement or commune or sexuality or drug or rave or electronic bombast are the organizing principles of their identity. The notion that they are white or black simply doesn’t occur.
And increasingly, of course, one meets children who really don’t know how to say what they are. They simply are too many things. Essay On Rap Music? I met a young girl in San Diego at a convention of mixed-race children, among whom the common habit is to define one parent over the other—black over white, for own term paper, example. But this girl said that her mother was Mexican and her father was African. The girl said “Blaxican.” By reinventing language, she is reinventing America. America does not have a vocabulary like the vocabulary the Spanish empire evolved to describe the multiplicity of racial possibilities in essay about technology, the New World. The conversation, the interior monologue of America cannot rely on write your own term the old vocabulary—black, white. Essay Music? We are no longer a black-white nation.
So, what myth do we tell ourselves? The person who got closest to it was Karl Marx. Marx predicted that the discovery of gold in California would be a more central event to your own term, the Americas than the discovery of the Americas by Columbus—which was only the meeting of two tribes, essentially, the on rap music and society European and the Indian. Write Your? But when gold was discovered in California in the 1840s, the entire world met. For the first time in human history, all of the known world gathered. The Malaysian stood in the gold fields alongside the African, alongside the Chinese, alongside the on rap and society Australian, alongside the Yankee. Own Term? That was an event without parallel in world history and the begin24 ning of modern California—why California today provides the mythological structure for understanding how we might talk about the American experience: not as biracial, but as the re-creation of the term paper known world in the New World. Sometimes truly revolutionary things happen without regard.
I mean, 25 we may wake up one morning and write paper, there is no black race. There is no white race either. There are mythologies, and—as I am in the business, insofar as I am in any business at all, of essay about demythologizing such identities as black and white—I come to write your paper, you as a man of many cultures. I come to you as Chinese. Peace Thesis? Unless you understand that I am Chinese, then you have not understood anything I have said. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION. Write Paper? a. In your own words, state Rodriguez’s thesis. b. In paragraph 2, the author says we cannot admit certain things to “the Vietnamese immigrant who served us our breakfast.” What are those things?
Why does Rodriguez say we can’t admit them? c. What is meant by the term “Ambiguous-American” (paragraph 6)? What is term paper subjects, la raza cosmica (paragraph 7)? d. Explain what the author means by “the Canadian notion of your own term paper multiculturalism” (paragraph 8)? What model does he want us to follow? e. Essay And Society? What does Rodriguez mean when he says that he was “reinvented” by write your paper, President Nixon (paragraph 10)? f. Why does the author object to essay conclusion technology, being called “Hispanic”? Why does he object to comparing blacks and Hispanics? g. Explain the reference to Quebec in paragraph 15. If necessary, research this question on own term paper the Internet. h. Paragraph 16 ends with a curious sentence. Re-read that paragraph and explain what that sentence means. i. On what grounds does the author claim to be Chinese? j. What does he mean in paragraph 24 when he says: “California … provides the mythical structure for understanding how we might talk about the American experience”?
How would you evaluate Rodriguez’s introduction? What methods does he use to capture our attention? As you learned in the introduction, this essay first appeared in a publication for college teachers and administrators. What in Rodriguez’s style indicates that he is technology, writing to such an audience? o. Often, writers define things by explaining what they’re not. Where does Rodriguez do this? p. Where does the author use anecdotes? Where does he use contrast? q. What function, other than ending the essay, does the write your own term paper conclusion serve? ENGAGING THE TEXT. World Peace? a. Own Term? In paragraph 15, Rodriguez claims that immigrants are “archetypal Americans” while citizens are “post-Americans, most concerned with subsidized medications.” What does he mean? Is he being fair and accurate?
Explain why or why not. b. In paragraph 20, the author asserts that today’s young people use categories other than those of essay music race to identify themselves. Paraphrase that paragraph. Then, write a paragraph or two in which you support or deny that assertion. SUGGESTIONS FOR SUSTAINED WRITING. a. Rodriguez tells Bill Moyers that he’s Chinese. Have you ever wished to be a member of an write your own term, ethnic, cultural, or religious group other than your own? If so, which one, and why? Write an essay in which you define that group by discussing its most interesting or attractive characteristics, and customs. b. In paragraph 24, the author states that in California the “known world” has been re-created in the “New World.” His point is world peace thesis, that a multitude of people from different countries reside in this state. Can you say the same about your campus, your state, your city, or your community? If so, write an essay that defines this locale as a gathering point for many diverse cultures. If this assignment does not interest you, write an essay that begins by your, explaining how, in “Blaxicans,” Rodriguez views the attitudes of American citizens towards immigrants. Term? Continue the essay by your own term, discussing your own opinions on this issue. c. Peace Thesis? Paragraph 23 of Rodriguez’s essay mentions that Karl Marx believed that the California Gold Rush was “a more central event to the Americas” than Columbus’s discovery.
Write an essay that uses scholarly research to support or deny this claim. Write Your? As an alternative, you might write about essays on the us constitution, another historical event that you consider central to paper, the development of the United States. Possible topics include the Boston Tea Party, the adoption of the U.S. Exam? Constitution, the Battle of Gettysburg, the your own term paper assassination of Abraham Lincoln, the Mexican American War, the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the assassination of President Kennedy, the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, or the world terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. You can also look into own term paper the distant future and predict ways in which an event like the election of the apus history exam first African American president will change the your own term United States. Essay Technology? About and by the Author. London, Scott. Write Own Term? “A View from the Melting Pot: An Interview with Richard Rodriguez.” scottlondon.com (http:/
interviews/rodriguez.html): Adapted from a broadcast of the radio program Insight Outlook, this interview first appeared in print as “Crossing Borders” in The Sun magazine of August 1997. Rodriguez, Richard. Days of Obligation: An Argument with My Mexican Father. Essay On Rap Music And Society? New York: Viking, 1992. Rodriguez, Richard. “Essays” (http:/ richard_rodriguez.html): Provides access to dozens of essays by Rodriquez online. Your Paper? Rodriguez, Richard.
Hunger of Memory: The Education of and society Richard Rodriguez. Boston: Godine, 1981. Woods, Richard D. “Richard Rodriguez” Dictionary of Literary Biography. Thomson Gale (http:/ On Race and Racial Classification. Hacking, Ian. “Why Race Still Matters.” Daedalus 134:1 (2005):102–16. “OMB Standards for Data on Race and own term paper, Ethnicity.” The Office of Minority Health. Essay Conclusion? US Department of Health and Human Services (http:/ / minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/browse.aspx?lvl=2lvlID=172): Includes links to important definitions and legislation. Prewitt, Kenneth. “Racial Classification in America: Where Do We Go from Here?” Daedalus 134:1 (2005): 5–17. Buscemi, Santi, and Charlotte Smith, 75 Readings Plus, New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2013. 12/20/11. Provided for testing purposes only.
Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order “Blaxicans” and Other Reinvented. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for “Blaxicans” and Other Reinvented. Your Own Term? In Richard Rodriguez’s essay “’Blaxicans’ and Other Reinvented Americans,” he states that people can choose to identify themselves with a culture rather than a race because they cultures don’t describe#8230; What Makes an American? While observing America and its social structure, being a college student who migrated to this country just nine years ago makes me wonder where I stand. Technically, I am no#8230; Blauner#8217;s hypothesis is subjects, explained in regards to write your own term paper, the Mexican American immigrants. Blauner#8217;s hypothesis is a theory about the creation of a minority group that asserts that minority groups created by colonization will experience more intense prejudice, racism, and discrimination than those#8230; Amy Tan and Richard Rodgriguez. Language is the system of words or signs that people use to my happy place, express thoughts and feelings to each other. Language has an impulse on a person that allows them to#8230; Aria: Billingual CHildhood.
As a son of paper Mexican American immigrants, Richard Rodriguez recounts the story of his childhood and his struggle to assimilate into American culture. In Aria: A memoir of a Bilingual#8230; ?Compare Contrast Essays. Let’s say you are comparing two immigrant groups: Central Americans and the Irish. As with all essays, you will have an introduction paragraph to music, start things off, to raise your#8230;
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The 100 Outstanding Journalists in the United States in the Last 100 Years. In March 2012 the faculty at the Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute at New York University, together with an Honorary Committee of alumni, selected “the 100 Outstanding Journalists in the United States in the Last 100 Years.” The list was selected from more than 300 nominees plus write-ins and was announced at a reception in your own term paper, honor of the 100th anniversary of world thesis journalism education at NYU on April 3, 2012. – Mitchell Stephens, Professor of Journalism, NYU. James Agee: a journalist, critic, poet, screenwriter and novelist who wrote the text for Let Us Now Praise Famous Men , a celebration of depression-era sharecropper families. Christiane Amanpour: long-time and distinguished international reporter for CNN; now also works for ABC News. Hannah Arendt: a political thinker, author of The Origins of Totalitarianism , who reported the Eichmann trial for the New Yorker ; those articles were turned into the book Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil in 1963. Russell Baker: a Pulitzer Prize-winning writer and humorist who wrote the popular “Observer” column in the New York Times from 1962 to 1998. James Baldwin: an essayist, journalist and your own term, novelist whose finely written essays, including “Notes of a Native Son,” “Nobody Knows My Name” and The Fire Next Time , made a significant contribution to term paper subjects the civil-rights movement. Donald L. Barlett: an investigative journalist who, along with his colleague James B. Steele, won two Pulitzer Prizes and multiple other awards for his powerful investigative series from the 1970s through the 1990s at the Philadelphia Inquirer and later at Time magazine.
Meyer Berger: a fine columnist and feature writer for the New York Times , where he worked, except for a short stretch at write your own term, the New Yorker , from 1928 to 1959; Berger won the Pulitzer Prize for his report on the murderer Howard Unruh. Carl Bernstein: while a young reporter at the Washington Post in the early 1970s broke the Watergate scandal along with Bob Woodward. Herbert Block (Herblock): a clever and creative Washington editorial cartoonist who coined the term ‘McCarthyism’ and worked for the Washington Post for apus essays, 55 years, until his death in write own term paper, 2001. Margaret Bourke-White: a photographer who was among the first women to report on wars and essays, whose pictures appeared on the cover of Life magazine, beginning in 1936. Ben Bradlee: executive editor at the Washington Post from 1968 to 1991, who supervised the papers revelatory investigation of the Watergate Scandel. Ed Bradley: a reporter who covered the Vietnam War, the 1976 presidential race, and your own term paper, the White House at CBS and who was a correspondent on history exam essays 60 Minutes for 26 years. Jimmy Breslin: street-wise, storytelling, Pulitzer-Prize-winning New York City columnist for the city’s tabloids over many decades in write your own term, the second half of the twentieth century and into the twenty-first.
David Brinkley: co-anchor of the top-rated Huntley-Brinkley Report on history NBC from 1956 to 1970, which he followed by a distinguished career as an anchor and commentator at your own term, NBC and ABC News. David Broder: influential Pulitzer Prize-winning political reporter and columnist, who joined the Washington Post in descriptive essay, 1968. Tom Brokaw: anchored NBC’s Nightly News and the network’s special-events coverage, including elections and your paper, September 11, from descriptive my happy 1982 to 2004. Art Buchwald: a Pulitzer Prize-winning satirist whose humor column, which began in the International Herald Tribune in 1949, was eventually syndicated to more than 550 newspapers. William F. Buckley, Jr.: editor, columnist, author, and TV host who founded the National Review in write, 1955. Robert Capa: a photographer who documented major historic events including the history essays, D-Day landings and the Spanish Civil War; Capa became an American citizen in 1946. Truman Capote: a novelist whose exhaustively reported and lyrically written 1965 “nonfiction novel,” In Cold Blood , was one of the most respected works of “new journalism.” Rachel Carson: a science writer whose 1962 book Silent Spring called attention to the dangers of pesticides and helped inspire the environmental movement. Howard Cosell: an aggressive, even abrasive, sports broadcaster, Cosell was one of the first Monday Night Football announcers in 1970 and was on write paper the show until 1983; he was known for his unvarnished commentary and peace, sympathetic reporting on Muhammad Ali. Walter Cronkite: a reporter who became the best known and perhaps most respected American television journalist of your own term paper his time as the anchor of the CBS Evening News from 1962 to 1981. Joan Didion: a literary journalist, novelist and memoirist, who helped invent “new journalism” in the 1960s and whose judgmental but superbly written articles have become standard texts in many journalism departments.
W.E.B. Du Bois: a sociologist, civil rights activist, editor, and journalist who is history essays, best-known for his collection of articles, The Souls of Black Folk , and for his columns on race during his tenure as editor of own term paper The Crisis , 1910–1934. Barbara Ehrenreich: a journalist and political activist who authored 21 books, including Nickel and Dimed , published in 2001, an essays on the, expose of the living and working conditions of the working poor. Nora Ephron: a columnist, humorist, screenwriter and director, who wrote clever and write your, incisive social and cultural commentary for Esquire and other publications beginning in apus history essays, the 1960s. Walker Evans: a photographer who reported Let Us Now Praise Famous Men along with James Agee and earned acclaim for own term, documenting of the faces of the music and society, Great Depression. Clay Felker: with Milton Glaser in your paper, 1968 launched New York magazine, which he had edited when it was a supplement to apus exam essays the Herald Tribune , and helped invent what became the most widely imitated style of magazine journalism in the late twentieth century and beyond.
Dexter Filkins: a wartime reporter and author who writes for the New Yorker , Filkins won the Pulitzer Prize in 2009 along with several other New York Times journalists for reports from own term paper Pakistan and Afghanistan. Frances FitzGerald: a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist who went to Saigon in 1966 and in paper subjects, 1972, published one of the most influential critiques of the war, Fire in the Lake: The Vietnamese and the Americans in Vietnam . Thomas Friedman: a Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter, columnist and author, Friedman began writing his column on foreign affairs, economics and the environment for the New York Times in 1995. Fred Friendly: president of CBS News in the mid-1960s and the co-creator of the television program “See It Now”; produced an investigation of Sen. Joseph McCarthy and write paper, the renowned 1960 documentary “Harvest of Shame.” Martha Gellhorn: a World War II correspondent whose articles were collected in paper, The Face of War ; she also covered the write your paper, Vietnam War and the Six Day War in the Middle East. Philip Gourevitch: a staff writer for the New Yorker , reported on the Rwanda genocide in his 1998 book We Wish To Inform You That Tomorrow We Will Be Killed With Our Families . Katharine Graham: a publisher who took over the Washington Post after her husband’s suicide in 1963, she resisted White House pressure during the paper’s printing of the Pentagon Papers and essays on the us constitution, the Watergate investigation; her memoir won the Pulitzer Prize in write your paper, 1998. Linda Greenhouse: a Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter who covered the US Supreme Court for the New York Times for more than 25 years, beginning in 1978. David Halberstam: a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and author, known for his coverage of Vietnam, the civil rights movement, politics, and sports. Pete Hamill: reporter, columnist, editor, memoirist and novelist who, beginning with a job as a reporter at the New York Post in 1960, reported, edited or wrote for most of New York City’s newspapers and about technology, many magazines.
Richard Harding Davis: journalist and fiction writer, whose powerfully written reports on major events, such as the Spanish-American War and the First World War, made him one of the best-known journalists of his time. Ernest Hemingway: a Nobel-Prize-winning novelist and journalist, who reported on Europe during war and peace for a variety of North American publications. Nat Hentoff: who with his Village Voice column, which began in 1957, crusaded, even against write some liberal orthodoxies, for essay, civil liberties. Bob Herbert: who wrote a column for the New York Times from 1993 to 2011 that dealt with poverty, racism, the Iraq War, and politics. Michael Herr: who covered the Vietnam War with unprecedented rawness and cynicism for your own term paper, Esquire and wrote the essay my happy, book Dispatches , a partially fictionalized account of his experiences in Vietnam. John Hersey: a journalist and novelist whose thoroughly reported and tightly written account of the consequences of the atomic bomb America dropped on Hiroshima filled an own term paper, entire issue of the New Yorker in term, 1946 and became one of the your, most read books in America in the second half of the twentieth century. Seymour Hersh: a long-time investigative reporter, specializing is national security issues, who earned acclaim for peace thesis, his Pulitzer Prize-winning coverage of the massacre by American soldiers at My Lai in Vietnam in 1968, as well as his 2004 reports about American mistreatment of detainees at Abu Ghraib. Don Hewitt: a television news producer who helped invent the evening news on CBS, produced the first televised presidential debate in 1960, extended the CBS Evening News from your own term 15 to 30 minutes in 1963, and later introduced and served as the world peace thesis, long-time executive producer of own term paper 60 Minutes . Christopher Hitchens: a prolific journalist with a large vocabulary and no fear of controversy, who wrote many widely discussed books and wrote columns for the Nation and Vanity Fair . Langston Hughes: a poet and playwright, Hughes also wrote a weekly column for the Chicago Defender from 1942 to 1962. Peter Jennings: a long-time ABC television reporter, he anchored World News Tonight from 1983 until his death in 2005.
Murray Kempton: a Pulitizer-Prize-winning journalist whose long, stately sentences and short tolerance for pretense made him one of New York’s most revered columnists and reporters; he wrote for the New York Post , the New York Review of Books , and, beginning in 1981, for Newsday . Ted Koppel: a television reporter and anchor who started a late-night news show in 1979 that eventually became Nightline . Jane Kramer: a staff writer for the New Yorker since 1964, writing mostly from paper subjects Europe. Charles Kuralt: Kuralt reported “On the Road” features for the CBS Evening News beginning in 1967 and later anchored CBS News Sunday Morning . Adrian Nicole LeBlanc: author of Random Family , the acclaimed non-fiction book published in write, 2002 about the term paper subjects, relations of drug dealers in the South Bronx. Anthony Lewis: a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and a columnist for the New York Times from 1969 to 2001. A. Own Term Paper. J. About Technology. Liebling: a New Yorker correspondent beginning in 1935 and an early press critic whose article collections include the acclaimed The Road Back to Paris and paper, The Wayward Pressman . Walter Lippmann: an intellectual, journalist and writer who was one of the founding editors of the music and society, New Republic magazine in 1914 and a long-time newspaper columnist. J. Anthony Lukas: a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, best known for write own term paper, his book on school integration in Boston: Common Ground: A Turbulent Decade in the Lives of essay on rap and society Three American Families . Jane Mayer: an investigative reporter who has been a staff writer for the New Yorker since 1968; her 2008 book The Dark Side exposed the Bush administration’s more questionable tactics in paper, the war on terror. Mary McCarthy: a novelist and critic, McCarthy’s essays appeared in publications like the Partisan Review , the Nation , the New Republic , Harper’s , and term, the New York Review of Books from the 1940s through the 1970s. John McPhee: a staff writer for the New Yorker since 1965, his detailed, discursive portraits – often explaining some aspect of the earth or its inhabitants – helped expand the paper, range of term paper journalism. H. L. Mencken: a tough, judgmental, impeccably literate and own term, hugely influential journalist, cultural critic, essayist, satirist and editor, he reported on the 1925 Scopes “Monkey” trial. Joseph Mitchell: a staff writer for the New Yorker from 1938 until his death in 1996, who won acclaim for his off-beat profiles, collected in the book Up in the Old Hotel and us constitution, Other Stories . Bill Moyers: an award-winning public-broadcasting journalist since 1971 and former White House press secretary under Lyndon Johnson, who also worked as the publisher of Newsday and write your own term paper, senior analyst for the CBS Evening News with Dan Rather . Edward R. Murrow: an influential television and apus history essays, radio journalist who covered the bombing of London, the liberation of Buchenwald, and helped expose Sen.
Joseph McCarthy and, in the 1960 documentary “Harvest of Shame,” the plight of American farm workers. Adolph Ochs: the New York Times , when he purchased it in own term paper, 1896, had a circulation of about 9,000; by 1921 Ochs’ paper, increasingly known for its nonpartisan reporting, had a staff of 1,885 and a circulation of 780,000. Gordon Parks: an activist, writer, and photojournalist, Parks became the first African-American photographer for Life in 1948. George Polk: a journalist and descriptive my happy, radio broadcaster for write your, CBS who insisted on finding his own information, Polk was killed while covering the Greek Civil War in paper, 1948; his colleagues established an award in his name. Gabe Pressman: a senior correspondent at WNBC-TV, he helped pioneer local television journalism and your paper, has been a New York City reporter for essay conclusion about, over 60 years. Ernie Pyle: renowned wartime journalist whose folksy, poetic, GI-centered reports from Europe and the Pacific during World War II earned him the 1944 Pulitzer Prize; Pyle was killed while covering the end of the write paper, war. Anna Quindlen: a novelist, journalist and columnist, her path-breaking New York Times column “Public and Private,” won the apus exam, Pulitzer Prize for Commentary in 1992. Dan Rather: a journalist who covered the Kennedy assassination and paper, the Nixon White House for CBS and was the longest serving anchor of an American network newscast, the CBS Evening News , from 1981 to essay about 2005. David Remnick: Remnick, a former Washington Post reporter, won the Pulitzer Prize for his book Lenin’s Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire and in 1998 became the write your own term, editor of the New Yorker , for which he also writes and reports.
A. About Technology. M. Rosenthal: a Pulitzer-Prize winning reporter, then the commanding executive editor of the New York Times from 1977 to 1986 – a period of growth and transition; later a columnist. Carl Rowan: the first nationally syndicated African-American columnist; he wrote his column, based at write, the Chicago Sun-Times , from 1966 to 1998. Mike Royko: a Pulitzer Prize-winning Chicago columnist since the early 1960s and author of an unauthorized biography of Mayor Richard J. Daley, Boss . Marlene Sanders: the first female television correspondent in Vietnam, the first female anchor on a US network television evening newscast and the first female vice president of ABC News. William Shawn: an editor who worked at the New Yorker for 53 years and ran it for paper subjects, 35 years, beginning in 1952; he is given much of the credit for write paper, establishing the magazine’s tradition of excellence in long-form journalism. Neil Sheehan: covered Vietnam for essay about, UPI, obtained the Pentagon Papers in 1971 for your paper, the New York Times from essay conclusion about technology Daniel Ellsberg and won the Pulitzer Prize for his book examining the failure of US policy in Vietnam: A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam . Randy Shilts: one of the first openly gay mainstream journalists; devoted himself to covering the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s for the San Francisco Chronicle ; his book examining that epidemic, And the Band Played On , was published in 1987; Shilts died of write AIDS at the age of 42 in 1994. William Shirer: a wartime correspondent and radio broadcaster who wrote Berlin Diary: The Journal of a Foreign Correspondent, 1939–1941 . Susan Sontag: an essayist, novelist and preeminent intellectual, among her many influential writings was “Notes on ‘Camp,’” published in 1964; a human-rights activist, she wrote about the plight of Bosnia for the Nation in 1995 and even moved to Sarajevo to call further attention to that plight. James B. Steele: an investigative journalist who, along with his colleague Donald L. World. Bartlett, won two Pulitzer Prizes and multiple other awards for his investigative series from the 1970s through the 1990s at write your own term paper, the Philadelphia Inquirer and later at Time magazine. Lincoln Steffens: while Shame of the Cities was published, in book form, in 1904 – more than 100 years ago – Steffens career as an influential journalist certainly continued, and included an conclusion about, interview with Lenin after the revolution and reporting from Mussolini’s Italy. John Steinbeck: a Nobel-Prize-winning novelist and journalist who exposed the hardships of write your paper Okie migrant camp life in the San Francisco News in apus history exam essays, 1936, covered World War II and wrote newspaper columns in the 1950s. Gloria Steinem: a social activist and writer, Steinem co-founded the women’s magazine Ms. in write own term, 1972.
I. F. Stone: an music and society, investigative journalist who published his own newsletter, I. Your. F. Stone’s Weekly , from 1953 to 1967. Gay Talese: a literary journalist; author of the renowned 1966 Esquire profile, “Frank Sinatra Has a Cold” and of many thoroughly reported, gracefully written books. Dorothy Thompson: her reporting on on rap and society Hitler and the rise of Nazism led to her being expelled from Germany in 1934; also a widely syndicated newspaper columnist, a rare female voice in radio news in the 1930s and the “second most influential woman in America,” after Eleanor Roosevelt, according to Time magazine in 1939. Hunter S. Thompson : created the paper, uninhibited, self-parodying ‘gonzo’ style of journalism in the 1960s and 1970s, covered the on rap music and society, 1972 presidential campaign for Rolling Stone , and wrote the book Fear and Loathing in write, Las Vegas . Garry Trudeau: the creator of the Doonesbury cartoon, in essay, 1975 he became the first person to win a Pulitzer Prize for your own term, a comic strip. Barbara Walters: a journalist, known for her interviewing skills, and host of many influential ABC programs, including the essay on rap and society, ABC Evening News and 20/20 . “Weegee”: the pseudonym of Arthur Fellig a prominent photojournalist who focused on New York’s Lower East Side in the 1930s and 1940s. Ida B. Write Your. Wells: prominent civil rights activist whose 1892 editorial on the lynching of essay three black men earned her popularity; she wrote her autobiography Crusade for Justice in write your own term, 1928.
E. B. White: the author of the popular children’s books Charlotte’s Web and Stuart Little , and the co-author of The Elements of Style , White contributed to subjects the New Yorker for about six decades, beginning in 1925. Theodore White: a political journalist and historian who pioneered behind-the-scenes campaign reporting in his book The Making of the President: 1960 , the first of many in the series. Walter Winchell: a powerful and widely read newspaper gossip columnist who also had the write your own term paper, top-rated radio show in 1948. Tom Wolfe: a popular journalist and novelist who helped invent “new journalism” in the 1960s and term subjects, 1970s with his well reported and kinetically written articles and books, including The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test and write paper, The Right Stuff . Bob Woodward: a reporter and editor at the Washington Post whose investigative articles with Carl Bernstein’s helped break the Watergate scandal in paper, the early 1970s; Woodward went on to write a series of your paper book detailing the inner workings of Washington. Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute. New York University. 20 Cooper Square, 6th Floor.
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WriteWell: How to Write an A+ Term Paper Templates and Examples
5 Rules of the Employment Follow-Up. Own Term Paper. By Robin Reshwan, Contributor | Feb. Music. 3, 2014, at 11:07 a.m. You saw the perfect job posted online. You customized your resume, wrote a great cover letter and then submitted via the process that was outlined in the posting. A day goes by.
A week goes by. Write Your Own Term Paper. A month goes by – but you never received a response. You don’t want to term paper bother the employer, but how do you get information you need? These tips will help you successfully navigate the employment follow-up. 1. Verify the your own term, receipt of your application. With the vast array of email providers and anti-virus software, it is world thesis highly possible that your resume may have been directed to own term a spam folder. After you press send, contact the company within the next day to verify that your application was received. If a contact name or number is apus essays not provided, you can contact a main phone number and ask for the number for the hiring department, human resources, talent acquisition, recruiting or employment. 2. Ask about the process.
If you are able to speak to a real human (instead of your a voice mail) when you are calling to verify receipt of your job materials, ask for more details regarding the intended screening process. Responses to questions like, “Can you provide any additional details regarding the screening process?” and “When may be a good time to follow up regarding the essays, status of my application?” can help you set realistic expectations. Some companies may make decisions within days but others may take weeks. Knowing how a specific role will be handled will assist in creating an write own term paper, effective follow-up plan. 3. Apus History. When in doubt, be politely persistent. If you were unable to get information regarding the hiring process, send a follow-up email with your resume five to seven days after you submitted your original application. The message with this email makes all the difference.
You should avoid blaming the hiring authority for not responding the first time and your, you should make it easy for them to contact you. The best correspondence acknowledges your continued interest in the role. The key is to on the continue the conversation versus emphasizing that you have not heard back. For example, “The customer service manager opportunity at X company brings together my five years of your own term directly related management experience and my commitment to transform the customer service process in the manufacturing industry. I welcome the opportunity to discuss how my background may be match for your needs. I have attached my resume for essay conclusion technology, easy reference.
Thank you, in advance, for your response.” 4. Your Own Term Paper. Look for changes. Paper. As employers receive responses to online job postings, they may make updates to the job description if necessary. Use this opportunity to reaffirm that your background is still a match and that you remain interested. Write Your. Additionally, the company LinkedIn page, Facebook site, Twitter account or website may show upcoming events or new products/services. Use these updates as a reason to correspond with recruiters – especially if the changes may be relevant to the role you are pursuing. In doing so, you are accomplishing two important things. Apus Exam Essays. First, you keep your candidacy top of mind. Second, you display that you are knowledgeable about the department, company or industry.
Communicating your attention to your detail and that you go beyond a typical job seeker are great ways to essays distinguish yourself. 5. Don’t give up. Many hiring managers and write own term paper, recruiters have multiple competing priorities. It is highly possible that if you didn’t receive a rejection response and you still see the position posted several weeks or months after your original application, the role may still be open. If you are still interested, repeat No. 3. The role may have just been put on the back burner. Your ongoing communication may be the boost you need to move to the top of the list when the apus essays, focus returns.
At this point, you have nothing to lose. Your Own Term. Without a round of follow up, you will never know if you weren’t a viable candidate or you just got lost in a mound of email. There is fortune in the follow-up. The art of history exam essays a politely persistent follow-up is what distinguishes high-performing employees in every job function from those that just wait for things to fall in their lap. Own Term. It makes perfect sense that employers will respond well to a job seeker that exhibits this skill since it is so professionally relevant. Descriptive Essay My Happy Place. Here’s to following up on own term the things you want for your career in 2014. Robin Reshwan is the founder of place Collegial Services, a consulting/staffing firm that connects college students, recent graduates and the organizations that hire them and a certified Women’s Business Enterprise (WBE). Your. She has interviewed, placed and hired thousands of people across a broad spectrum of subjects companies and industries.
Her career tips and advice are used by write paper, universities, national clubs/associations and businesses. A Certified Professional Resume Writer, Robin has been honored as a Professional Business Woman of the world peace, Year by the American Business Women's Association. She graduated Phi Beta Kappa and as a Regents Scholar from University of California, Davis. Didn't Get Hired? Don't Take It Personally. You can control a lot about how well you do in your job search … but not everything. Everything You Ever Wondered About Negotiating Salary, Answered. How much should you ask for? What if they pull your offer? We#39;ve got answers to all your trickiest salary questions.
4 Steps to write your own term paper a Successful Job Application. If you meet the qualifications, how can you put your best foot forward? 8 Things You Should Never Do at a Job Interview. Don’t make these mistakes during your next interview. 5 Things to apus history Remember When You Don't Get the Job. How to write your own term use rejection to your own advantage. Here's what you need to know about what to wear, how to essay about technology prepare and what to write own term say in a job interview. What to Do When You Disagree With Your Boss's Feedback.
Try to understand their perspective, and don't get defensive. Job Postings Alone Rarely Lead to Jobs. Older job seekers cannot rely only on postings to get the place, position they want. When managing remote employees, schedule regular check-ins and evaluate skills that are unique to their circumstances. Why You Should Look for a New Job While You're Happy in Your Current One.
Keeping your eyes and write own term, ears open can lead to positive results. World Peace. Our expert contributors give their best advice on answering common interview questions, perfecting job applications, negotiating salary and more. Find savvy job advice from the your, brains behind top careers blogs and websites, including Ask A Manager, Collegial Services, Vicki Salemi, Jobhuntercoach, Career Sherpa, Career Valet, Hallie Crawford, Robin Madell, Chrissy Scivicque and Peter Gudmundsson.
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Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition) Note: On 7 February 2013, this specification was modified in place to replace broken links to write, RFC4646 and RFC4647. Please refer to on the, the errata for write paper this document, which may include some normative corrections. The previous errata for descriptive this document, are also available. This document is also available in these non-normative formats: XML and XHTML with color-coded revision indicators.
The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a subset of write own term SGML that is completely described in this document. Its goal is to enable generic SGML to be served, received, and descriptive my happy, processed on the Web in write your the way that is subjects, now possible with HTML. XML has been designed for ease of implementation and for interoperability with both SGML and write your, HTML. This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document.
A list of current W3C publications and term subjects, the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/. This document specifies a syntax created by subsetting an existing, widely used international text processing standard (Standard Generalized Markup Language, ISO 8879:1986(E) as amended and corrected) for use on the World Wide Web. It is a product of the XML Core Working Group as part of the XML Activity. Write Your. The English version of this specification is the only normative version. However, for translations of this document, see http://www.w3.org/2003/03/Translations/byTechnology?technology=xml. This document is a W3C Recommendation. This fifth edition is not a new version of XML. Thesis. As a convenience to write paper, readers, it incorporates the changes dictated by the accumulated errata (available at http://www.w3.org/XML/xml-V10-4e-errata) to the Fourth Edition of XML 1.0, dated 16 August 2006. In particular, erratum [E09] relaxes the restrictions on peace element and own term, attribute names, thereby providing in XML 1.0 the major end user benefit currently achievable only by using XML 1.1.
As a consequence, many possible documents which were not well-formed according to previous editions of this specification are now well-formed, and previously invalid documents using the newly-allowed name characters in, for example, ID attributes, are now valid. Please report errors in this document to the public firstname.lastname@example.org mail list; public archives are available. For the convenience of readers, an XHTML version with color-coded revision indicators is apus, also provided; this version highlights each change due to an erratum published in the errata list for the previous edition, together with a link to the particular erratum in own term that list. Most of the errata in the list provide a rationale for the change. The errata list for music this fifth edition is available at http://www.w3.org/XML/xml-V10-5e-errata. An implementation report is available at http://www.w3.org/XML/2008/01/xml10-5e-implementation.html.
A Test Suite is maintained to help assessing conformance to write own term, this specification. This document has been reviewed by W3C Members, by software developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and is endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is a stable document and essay conclusion, may be used as reference material or cited from your own term, another document. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is to draw attention to history essays, the specification and to write own term paper, promote its widespread deployment. This enhances the functionality and interoperability of the Web. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the world peace, deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for own term disclosing a patent. Peace Thesis. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy. Extensible Markup Language, abbreviated XML, describes a class of data objects called XML documents and write own term, partially describes the behavior of computer programs which process them. XML is an application profile or restricted form of essay about SGML, the paper, Standard Generalized Markup Language [ISO 8879].
By construction, XML documents are conforming SGML documents. XML documents are made up of essay storage units called entities, which contain either parsed or unparsed data. Parsed data is your own term paper, made up of characters, some of which form character data, and some of which form markup. Essay Music. Markup encodes a description of the document's storage layout and your own term paper, logical structure. XML provides a mechanism to place, impose constraints on the storage layout and logical structure. [Definition: A software module called an XML processor is used to read XML documents and provide access to their content and structure.] [Definition: It is your own term paper, assumed that an XML processor is doing its work on behalf of another module, called the peace, application .] This specification describes the required behavior of an XML processor in terms of how it must read XML data and the information it must provide to the application. XML was developed by an XML Working Group (originally known as the SGML Editorial Review Board) formed under the write, auspices of the term, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1996. It was chaired by Jon Bosak of your paper Sun Microsystems with the active participation of an XML Special Interest Group (previously known as the essay my happy, SGML Working Group) also organized by the W3C. The membership of the XML Working Group is given in an appendix. Dan Connolly served as the write your own term, Working Group's contact with the W3C.
The design goals for XML are: XML shall be straightforwardly usable over the Internet. XML shall support a wide variety of applications. XML shall be compatible with SGML. It shall be easy to write programs which process XML documents. The number of optional features in XML is to be kept to apus, the absolute minimum, ideally zero. XML documents should be human-legible and reasonably clear. The XML design should be prepared quickly.
The design of XML shall be formal and concise. XML documents shall be easy to your paper, create. Terseness in XML markup is of minimal importance. This specification, together with associated standards (Unicode [Unicode] and ISO/IEC 10646 [ISO/IEC 10646] for characters, Internet BCP 47 [IETF BCP 47] and the Language Subtag Registry [IANA-LANGCODES] for language identification tags), provides all the information necessary to understand XML Version 1.0 and history exam essays, construct computer programs to process it. This version of the XML specification may be distributed freely, as long as all text and write own term paper, legal notices remain intact. The terminology used to describe XML documents is defined in the body of this specification. The key words MUST , MUST NOT , REQUIRED , SHALL , SHALL NOT , SHOULD , SHOULD NOT , RECOMMENDED , MAY , and OPTIONAL , when EMPHASIZED , are to us constitution, be interpreted as described in [IETF RFC 2119]. In addition, the terms defined in the following list are used in building those definitions and in describing the actions of an XML processor: [Definition: A violation of the rules of your own term paper this specification; results are undefined. Unless otherwise specified, failure to observe a prescription of on rap music this specification indicated by your own term, one of the keywords MUST , REQUIRED , MUST NOT , SHALL and SHALL NOT is an error. Conforming software MAY detect and report an error and MAY recover from it.] [Definition: An error which a conforming XML processor MUST detect and report to the application. After encountering a fatal error, the processor MAY continue processing the data to search for essays further errors and MAY report such errors to write own term, the application.
In order to support correction of errors, the processor MAY make unprocessed data from the document (with intermingled character data and markup) available to the application. Exam Essays. Once a fatal error is detected, however, the processor MUST NOT continue normal processing (i.e., it MUST NOT continue to pass character data and write own term, information about the document's logical structure to the application in the normal way).] [Definition: Conforming software MAY or MUST (depending on the modal verb in term subjects the sentence) behave as described; if it does, it MUST provide users a means to enable or disable the your own term, behavior described.] [Definition: A rule which applies to all valid XML documents. Violations of descriptive essay my happy place validity constraints are errors; they MUST , at user option, be reported by validating XML processors.] [Definition: A rule which applies to all well-formed XML documents. Violations of well-formedness constraints are fatal errors.] [Definition: (Of strings or names:) Two strings or names being compared are identical. Characters with multiple possible representations in write own term paper ISO/IEC 10646 (e.g. characters with both precomposed and base+diacritic forms) match only if they have the same representation in both strings. Conclusion About. No case folding is performed. (Of strings and rules in the grammar:) A string matches a grammatical production if it belongs to the language generated by that production. (Of content and content models:) An element matches its declaration when it conforms in the fashion described in the constraint [VC: Element Valid] .] [Definition: Marks a sentence describing a feature of XML included solely to ensure that XML remains compatible with SGML.] [Definition: Marks a sentence describing a non-binding recommendation included to increase the chances that XML documents can be processed by the existing installed base of SGML processors which predate the WebSGML Adaptations Annex to ISO 8879.] [Definition: A data object is an XML document if it is well-formed, as defined in this specification.
In addition, the XML document is write your paper, valid if it meets certain further constraints.] Each XML document has both a logical and a physical structure. Physically, the essay music and society, document is composed of units called entities. An entity may refer to write your, other entities to cause their inclusion in the document. A document begins in essay on rap and society a root or document entity. Logically, the write paper, document is composed of declarations, elements, comments, character references, and processing instructions, all of which are indicated in the document by explicit markup. Descriptive Essay My Happy. The logical and your own term, physical structures MUST nest properly, as described in 4.3.2 Well-Formed Parsed Entities . [Definition: A textual object is a well-formed XML document if:]
Taken as a whole, it matches the production labeled document. It meets all the well-formedness constraints given in apus this specification. Each of the parsed entities which is referenced directly or indirectly within the document is well-formed. Matching the document production implies that: It contains one or more elements. [Definition: There is exactly one element, called the your paper, root , or document element, no part of which appears in the content of any other element.] For all other elements, if the start-tag is in descriptive essay my happy the content of another element, the end-tag is in the content of the same element. More simply stated, the elements, delimited by start- and write own term, end-tags, nest properly within each other. [Definition: As a consequence of this, for each non-root element C in the document, there is one other element P in peace thesis the document such that C is in the content of P , but is your, not in the content of on the any other element that is in the content of P . P is referred to as the parent of C , and write own term paper, C as a child of P .] [Definition: A parsed entity contains text , a sequence of characters, which may represent markup or character data.] [Definition: A character is an atomic unit of essay technology text as specified by ISO/IEC 10646:2000 [ISO/IEC 10646]. Legal characters are tab, carriage return, line feed, and the legal characters of write your own term Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646. Place. The versions of these standards cited in A.1 Normative References were current at write paper the time this document was prepared.
New characters may be added to these standards by amendments or new editions. Consequently, XML processors MUST accept any character in the range specified for Char. World. ] The mechanism for encoding character code points into bit patterns may vary from entity to entity. All XML processors MUST accept the UTF-8 and UTF-16 encodings of Unicode [Unicode] ; the mechanisms for signaling which of the two is in use, or for bringing other encodings into play, are discussed later, in 4.3.3 Character Encoding in Entities . Document authors are encouraged to your own term paper, avoid compatibility characters, as defined in section 2.3 of descriptive essay place [Unicode]. Own Term. The characters defined in apus history essays the following ranges are also discouraged. They are either control characters or permanently undefined Unicode characters: This section defines some symbols used widely in the grammar. S (white space) consists of one or more space (#x20) characters, carriage returns, line feeds, or tabs. The presence of #xD in the above production is maintained purely for backward compatibility with the write your paper, First Edition. World Thesis. As explained in 2.11 End-of-Line Handling , all #xD characters literally present in an XML document are either removed or replaced by #xA characters before any other processing is done. The only way to get a #xD character to match this production is to use a character reference in an entity value literal. An Nmtoken (name token) is any mixture of name characters.
[Definition: A Name is an Nmtoken with a restricted set of initial characters.] Disallowed initial characters for Names include digits, diacritics, the own term, full stop and the hyphen. Names beginning with the string xml , or with any string which would match (('X'|'x') ('M'|'m') ('L'|'l')) , are reserved for standardization in this or future versions of this specification. The Namespaces in XML Recommendation [XML Names] assigns a meaning to names containing colon characters. Therefore, authors should not use the essay music and society, colon in XML names except for namespace purposes, but XML processors must accept the write own term paper, colon as a name character. The first character of a Name MUST be a NameStartChar, and any other characters MUST be NameChars; this mechanism is used to apus, prevent names from write your own term paper, beginning with European (ASCII) digits or with basic combining characters. Almost all characters are permitted in world peace thesis names, except those which either are or reasonably could be used as delimiters. The intention is to be inclusive rather than exclusive, so that writing systems not yet encoded in Unicode can be used in XML names. See J Suggestions for write your own term paper XML Names for on the suggestions on the creation of names.
Document authors are encouraged to use names which are meaningful words or combinations of words in natural languages, and to avoid symbolic or white space characters in names. Note that COLON, HYPHEN-MINUS, FULL STOP (period), LOW LINE (underscore), and MIDDLE DOT are explicitly permitted. The ASCII symbols and punctuation marks, along with a fairly large group of Unicode symbol characters, are excluded from names because they are more useful as delimiters in contexts where XML names are used outside XML documents; providing this group gives those contexts hard guarantees about what cannot be part of an XML name. The character #x037E, GREEK QUESTION MARK, is excluded because when normalized it becomes a semicolon, which could change the meaning of entity references. The Names and Nmtokens productions are used to define the validity of your own term paper tokenized attribute values after normalization (see 3.3.1 Attribute Types ).
Literal data is any quoted string not containing the quotation mark used as a delimiter for that string. Literals are used for specifying the content of internal entities (EntityValue), the world peace, values of attributes (AttValue), and own term, external identifiers (SystemLiteral). Note that a SystemLiteral can be parsed without scanning for markup. Although the EntityValue production allows the on the, definition of a general entity consisting of a single explicit in the literal (e.g., !ENTITY mylt ), it is your own term paper, strongly advised to avoid this practice since any reference to that entity will cause a well-formedness error. [Definition: All text that is essay place, not markup constitutes the character data of the document.] The ampersand character () and the left angle bracket () MUST NOT appear in their literal form, except when used as markup delimiters, or within a comment, a processing instruction, or a CDATA section. If they are needed elsewhere, they MUST be escaped using either numeric character references or the strings amp; and lt; respectively. The right angle bracket () may be represented using the string gt; , and MUST , for compatibility, be escaped using either gt; or a character reference when it appears in the string ]] in content, when that string is not marking the end of a CDATA section. In the content of elements, character data is any string of characters which does not contain the start-delimiter of any markup and does not include the CDATA-section-close delimiter, ]] . In a CDATA section, character data is any string of characters not including the CDATA-section-close delimiter, ]] . To allow attribute values to contain both single and double quotes, the own term, apostrophe or single-quote character (') may be represented as apos; , and the double-quote character () as quot; . [Definition: Comments may appear anywhere in a document outside other markup; in addition, they may appear within the document type declaration at places allowed by the grammar.
They are not part of the document's character data; an XML processor MAY , but need not, make it possible for term subjects an application to retrieve the text of write your comments. For compatibility, the string -- (double-hyphen) MUST NOT occur within comments.] Parameter entity references MUST NOT be recognized within comments. An example of a comment: Note that the grammar does not allow a comment ending in --- . The following example is not well-formed. [Definition: Processing instructions (PIs) allow documents to exam, contain instructions for applications.]
PIs are not part of the document's character data, but MUST be passed through to the application. The PI begins with a target (PITarget) used to identify the application to which the instruction is directed. The target names XML , xml , and so on are reserved for standardization in write your own term paper this or future versions of this specification. The XML Notation mechanism may be used for formal declaration of PI targets. Parameter entity references MUST NOT be recognized within processing instructions. [Definition: CDATA sections may occur anywhere character data may occur; they are used to escape blocks of text containing characters which would otherwise be recognized as markup. On Rap. CDATA sections begin with the write paper, string ![CDATA[ and end with the string ]] :] Within a CDATA section, only the CDEnd string is recognized as markup, so that left angle brackets and ampersands may occur in their literal form; they need not (and cannot) be escaped using lt; and amp; . CDATA sections cannot nest. An example of a CDATA section, in apus history which greeting and /greeting are recognized as character data, not markup: 2.8 Prolog and Document Type Declaration. [Definition: XML documents SHOULD begin with an XML declaration which specifies the version of XML being used.] For example, the following is own term paper, a complete XML document, well-formed but not valid:
The function of the markup in an XML document is to describe its storage and logical structure and to descriptive essay my happy, associate attribute name-value pairs with its logical structures. XML provides a mechanism, the document type declaration, to define constraints on the logical structure and to write paper, support the exam, use of predefined storage units. [Definition: An XML document is valid if it has an associated document type declaration and if the document complies with the own term, constraints expressed in it.] The document type declaration MUST appear before the first element in the document. Even though the essay my happy, VersionNum production matches any version number of the form '1.x', XML 1.0 documents SHOULD NOT specify a version number other than '1.0'. When an your own term paper, XML 1.0 processor encounters a document that specifies a 1.x version number other than '1.0', it will process it as a 1.0 document. This means that an XML 1.0 processor will accept 1.x documents provided they do not use any non-1.0 features. [Definition: The XML document type declaration contains or points to descriptive essay, markup declarations that provide a grammar for a class of documents. Paper. This grammar is known as a document type definition, or DTD . The document type declaration can point to on rap and society, an external subset (a special kind of your own term paper external entity) containing markup declarations, or can contain the markup declarations directly in an internal subset, or can do both.
The DTD for a document consists of both subsets taken together.] [Definition: A markup declaration is an element type declaration, an world peace, attribute-list declaration, an entity declaration, or a notation declaration.] These declarations may be contained in whole or in part within parameter entities, as described in the well-formedness and write own term, validity constraints below. For further information, see 4 Physical Structures . Note that it is possible to construct a well-formed document containing a doctypedecl that neither points to an external subset nor contains an internal subset. The markup declarations may be made up in apus whole or in part of the replacement text of parameter entities. The productions later in write own term this specification for essay individual nonterminals (elementdecl, AttlistDecl, and so on) describe the declarations after all the parameter entities have been included. Parameter entity references are recognized anywhere in the DTD (internal and external subsets and external parameter entities), except in write own term literals, processing instructions, comments, and descriptive essay, the contents of own term ignored conditional sections (see 3.4 Conditional Sections ). They are also recognized in entity value literals. The use of parameter entities in descriptive place the internal subset is restricted as described below. Validity constraint: Root Element Type. The Name in the document type declaration MUST match the element type of the root element. Validity constraint: Proper Declaration/PE Nesting.
Parameter-entity replacement text MUST be properly nested with markup declarations. That is to say, if either the write paper, first character or the last character of a markup declaration (markupdecl above) is contained in the replacement text for a parameter-entity reference, both MUST be contained in the same replacement text. Well-formedness constraint: PEs in Internal Subset. In the internal DTD subset, parameter-entity references MUST NOT occur within markup declarations; they may occur where markup declarations can occur. (This does not apply to references that occur in external parameter entities or to the external subset.) Well-formedness constraint: External Subset. The external subset, if any, MUST match the production for extSubset. Well-formedness constraint: PE Between Declarations. The replacement text of a parameter entity reference in a DeclSep MUST match the production extSubsetDecl. Like the internal subset, the world peace, external subset and any external parameter entities referenced in own term a DeclSep MUST consist of a series of complete markup declarations of the types allowed by the non-terminal symbol markupdecl, interspersed with white space or parameter-entity references. However, portions of the contents of the external subset or of essay conclusion these external parameter entities may conditionally be ignored by using the write paper, conditional section construct; this is not allowed in the internal subset but is allowed in external parameter entities referenced in essay on rap and society the internal subset. The external subset and your, external parameter entities also differ from the internal subset in paper subjects that in them, parameter-entity references are permitted within markup declarations, not only between markup declarations.
An example of an your own term paper, XML document with a document type declaration: The system identifier hello.dtd gives the address (a URI reference) of a DTD for the document. The declarations can also be given locally, as in this example: If both the external and internal subsets are used, the internal subset MUST be considered to occur before the external subset. This has the effect that entity and attribute-list declarations in the internal subset take precedence over those in apus exam essays the external subset.
2.9 Standalone Document Declaration. Markup declarations can affect the content of the write own term, document, as passed from an XML processor to an application; examples are attribute defaults and entity declarations. The standalone document declaration, which may appear as a component of the XML declaration, signals whether or not there are such declarations which appear external to the document entity or in essay parameter entities. [Definition: An external markup declaration is write paper, defined as a markup declaration occurring in the external subset or in technology a parameter entity (external or internal, the latter being included because non-validating processors are not required to read them).] In a standalone document declaration, the value yes indicates that there are no external markup declarations which affect the own term, information passed from the XML processor to the application. The value no indicates that there are or may be such external markup declarations. Note that the essay, standalone document declaration only denotes the your paper, presence of external declarations ; the presence, in descriptive place a document, of references to external entities , when those entities are internally declared, does not change its standalone status. If there are no external markup declarations, the standalone document declaration has no meaning. If there are external markup declarations but there is no standalone document declaration, the value no is assumed. Any XML document for which standalone=no holds can be converted algorithmically to a standalone document, which may be desirable for some network delivery applications.
Validity constraint: Standalone Document Declaration. The standalone document declaration MUST have the value no if any external markup declarations contain declarations of: attributes with default values, if elements to which these attributes apply appear in the document without specifications of values for these attributes, or. entities (other than amp , lt , gt , apos , quot ), if references to those entities appear in the document, or. attributes with tokenized types, where the attribute appears in the document with a value such that normalization will produce a different value from write your own term paper, that which would be produced in the absence of the declaration, or. element types with element content, if white space occurs directly within any instance of those types. An example XML declaration with a standalone document declaration: In editing XML documents, it is often convenient to descriptive my happy place, use white space (spaces, tabs, and your paper, blank lines) to set apart the markup for greater readability.
Such white space is typically not intended for inclusion in the delivered version of the document. Essay My Happy Place. On the own term paper, other hand, significant white space that should be preserved in the delivered version is common, for example in poetry and source code. An XML processor MUST always pass all characters in term subjects a document that are not markup through to your own term, the application. Essay My Happy Place. A validating XML processor MUST also inform the application which of these characters constitute white space appearing in element content. A special attribute named xml:space may be attached to an element to signal an intention that in that element, white space should be preserved by paper, applications. In valid documents, this attribute, like any other, MUST be declared if it is used. When declared, it MUST be given as an enumerated type whose values are one or both of default and preserve. For example:
The value default signals that applications' default white-space processing modes are acceptable for this element; the value preserve indicates the world peace, intent that applications preserve all the white space. This declared intent is considered to apply to all elements within the content of the element where it is specified, unless overridden with another instance of the xml:space attribute. This specification does not give meaning to any value of xml:space other than default and preserve. It is an write own term, error for essays us constitution other values to be specified; the XML processor MAY report the error or MAY recover by ignoring the attribute specification or by reporting the (erroneous) value to the application. Applications may ignore or reject erroneous values. The root element of any document is considered to write your paper, have signaled no intentions as regards application space handling, unless it provides a value for this attribute or the attribute is declared with a default value.
XML parsed entities are often stored in computer files which, for editing convenience, are organized into term paper subjects, lines. These lines are typically separated by some combination of the characters CARRIAGE RETURN (#xD) and LINE FEED (#xA). To simplify the own term paper, tasks of term subjects applications, the XML processor MUST behave as if it normalized all line breaks in external parsed entities (including the document entity) on input, before parsing, by translating both the two-character sequence #xD #xA and any #xD that is not followed by #xA to a single #xA character. In document processing, it is often useful to identify the write your own term, natural or formal language in which the content is written. A special attribute named xml:lang may be inserted in documents to history exam, specify the language used in the contents and write your, attribute values of any element in an XML document. In valid documents, this attribute, like any other, MUST be declared if it is used. The values of the attribute are language identifiers as defined by [IETF BCP 47], Tags for the Identification of peace Languages ; in addition, the empty string may be specified. (Productions 33 through 38 have been removed.) The language specified by xml:lang applies to write paper, the element where it is specified (including the values of its attributes), and to all elements in its content unless overridden with another instance of xml:lang . In particular, the empty value of us constitution xml:lang is used on an element B to override a specification of xml:lang on an enclosing element A, without specifying another language. Within B, it is considered that there is no language information available, just as if xml:lang had not been specified on B or any of its ancestors.
Applications determine which of an element's attribute values and which parts of its character content, if any, are treated as language-dependent values described by xml:lang . Language information may also be provided by external transport protocols (e.g. HTTP or MIME). When available, this information may be used by XML applications, but the write paper, more local information provided by xml:lang should be considered to override it. A simple declaration for about technology xml:lang might take the form. but specific default values may also be given, if appropriate. In a collection of French poems for write your paper English students, with glosses and notes in English, the essay about, xml:lang attribute might be declared this way: [Definition: Each XML document contains one or more elements , the boundaries of which are either delimited by your own term paper, start-tags and end-tags, or, for essay empty elements, by write own term, an empty-element tag. Each element has a type, identified by name, sometimes called its generic identifier (GI), and may have a set of attribute specifications.] Each attribute specification has a name and a value. This specification does not constrain the application semantics, use, or (beyond syntax) names of the element types and attributes, except that names beginning with a match to (('X'|'x')('M'|'m')('L'|'l')) are reserved for standardization in this or future versions of this specification. Well-formedness constraint: Element Type Match. The Name in an element's end-tag MUST match the element type in the start-tag.
Validity constraint: Element Valid. An element is valid if there is a declaration matching elementdecl where the Name matches the element type, and one of the following holds: The declaration matches EMPTY and the element has no content (not even entity references, comments, PIs or white space). The declaration matches children and the sequence of child elements belongs to the language generated by essays on the, the regular expression in the content model, with optional white space, comments and PIs (i.e. markup matching production  Misc) between the start-tag and the first child element, between child elements, or between the last child element and the end-tag. Note that a CDATA section containing only white space or a reference to an entity whose replacement text is character references expanding to write own term paper, white space do not match the nonterminal S, and essay, hence cannot appear in these positions; however, a reference to an internal entity with a literal value consisting of character references expanding to white space does match S, since its replacement text is the write own term paper, white space resulting from expansion of the character references. The declaration matches Mixed, and the content (after replacing any entity references with their replacement text) consists of character data (including CDATA sections), comments, PIs and child elements whose types match names in descriptive essay place the content model. The declaration matches ANY , and the content (after replacing any entity references with their replacement text) consists of character data, CDATA sections, comments, PIs and child elements whose types have been declared. 3.1 Start-Tags, End-Tags, and Empty-Element Tags. [Definition: The beginning of every non-empty XML element is marked by your, a start-tag .]
The Name in history exam the start- and end-tags gives the element's type . [Definition: The Name-AttValue pairs are referred to write paper, as the attribute specifications of the element], [Definition: with the Name in each pair referred to as the attribute name ] and [Definition: the content of the AttValue (the text between the ' or delimiters) as the attribute value .] Note that the order of attribute specifications in a start-tag or empty-element tag is not significant. Well-formedness constraint: Unique Att Spec. An attribute name MUST NOT appear more than once in the same start-tag or empty-element tag. Validity constraint: Attribute Value Type. The attribute MUST have been declared; the term paper, value MUST be of the type declared for it. (For attribute types, see 3.3 Attribute-List Declarations .) Well-formedness constraint: No External Entity References. Attribute values MUST NOT contain direct or indirect entity references to write own term, external entities. Well-formedness constraint: No in Attribute Values. The replacement text of any entity referred to directly or indirectly in an attribute value MUST NOT contain a . An example of a start-tag: [Definition: The end of every element that begins with a start-tag MUST be marked by an end-tag containing a name that echoes the element's type as given in the start-tag:] An example of an end-tag: [Definition: The text between the start-tag and end-tag is called the element's content :] [Definition: An element with no content is term paper, said to be empty .] The representation of an empty element is either a start-tag immediately followed by an end-tag, or an write paper, empty-element tag. Peace Thesis. [Definition: An empty-element tag takes a special form:]
Empty-element tags may be used for any element which has no content, whether or not it is declared using the write your, keyword EMPTY . For interoperability, the empty-element tag SHOULD be used, and SHOULD only essay conclusion about technology, be used, for elements which are declared EMPTY. Examples of empty elements: The element structure of an XML document may, for validation purposes, be constrained using element type and attribute-list declarations. An element type declaration constrains the your, element's content. Element type declarations often constrain which element types can appear as children of the element. At user option, an world peace, XML processor MAY issue a warning when a declaration mentions an element type for your paper which no declaration is provided, but this is not an error. [Definition: An element type declaration takes the form:] where the Name gives the descriptive my happy, element type being declared. Validity constraint: Unique Element Type Declaration. An element type MUST NOT be declared more than once.
Examples of element type declarations: [Definition: An element type has element content when elements of write your paper that type MUST contain only on rap and society, child elements (no character data), optionally separated by white space (characters matching the write your own term, nonterminal S).] [Definition: In this case, the constraint includes a content model , a simple grammar governing the allowed types of the child elements and the order in which they are allowed to appear.] The grammar is built on content particles (cps), which consist of names, choice lists of content particles, or sequence lists of content particles: where each Name is the type of an element which may appear as a child. Any content particle in a choice list may appear in the element content at the location where the world peace, choice list appears in the grammar; content particles occurring in a sequence list MUST each appear in the element content in the order given in the list. The optional character following a name or list governs whether the element or the content particles in the list may occur one or more ( + ), zero or more ( * ), or zero or one times ( ? ). The absence of your such an operator means that the element or content particle MUST appear exactly once. This syntax and meaning are identical to those used in the productions in music and society this specification. The content of an element matches a content model if and only if it is write own term paper, possible to world peace, trace out a path through the content model, obeying the sequence, choice, and repetition operators and matching each element in the content against an element type in the content model. For compatibility, it is an write your, error if the essay about technology, content model allows an element to match more than one occurrence of an element type in the content model. For more information, see E Deterministic Content Models . Validity constraint: Proper Group/PE Nesting. Parameter-entity replacement text MUST be properly nested with parenthesized groups.
That is to say, if either of the opening or closing parentheses in a choice, seq, or Mixed construct is contained in the replacement text for a parameter entity, both MUST be contained in the same replacement text. For interoperability, if a parameter-entity reference appears in a choice, seq, or Mixed construct, its replacement text SHOULD contain at least one non-blank character, and neither the your paper, first nor last non-blank character of the replacement text SHOULD be a connector ( | or , ). Examples of element-content models: [Definition: An element type has mixed content when elements of that type may contain character data, optionally interspersed with child elements.] In this case, the types of the child elements may be constrained, but not their order or their number of occurrences: where the Names give the term subjects, types of elements that may appear as children. The keyword #PCDATA derives historically from the term parsed character data. Validity constraint: No Duplicate Types. The same name MUST NOT appear more than once in a single mixed-content declaration. Examples of mixed content declarations: Attributes are used to associate name-value pairs with elements. Attribute specifications MUST NOT appear outside of start-tags and empty-element tags; thus, the productions used to write, recognize them appear in paper 3.1 Start-Tags, End-Tags, and Empty-Element Tags . Attribute-list declarations may be used:
To define the write your paper, set of attributes pertaining to a given element type. To establish type constraints for these attributes. To provide default values for attributes. [Definition: Attribute-list declarations specify the descriptive place, name, data type, and default value (if any) of each attribute associated with a given element type:] The Name in the AttlistDecl rule is the type of an own term, element. At user option, an XML processor MAY issue a warning if attributes are declared for an element type not itself declared, but this is not an error. The Name in the AttDef rule is the name of the attribute. When more than one AttlistDecl is provided for a given element type, the on rap music and society, contents of all those provided are merged. When more than one definition is provided for the same attribute of a given element type, the first declaration is binding and write your own term, later declarations are ignored. For interoperability, writers of DTDs may choose to provide at most one attribute-list declaration for a given element type, at most one attribute definition for a given attribute name in an attribute-list declaration, and at least one attribute definition in conclusion about technology each attribute-list declaration.
For interoperability, an XML processor MAY at user option issue a warning when more than one attribute-list declaration is provided for a given element type, or more than one attribute definition is provided for a given attribute, but this is not an write paper, error. XML attribute types are of three kinds: a string type, a set of tokenized types, and on rap and society, enumerated types. Your. The string type may take any literal string as a value; the tokenized types are more constrained. The validity constraints noted in peace the grammar are applied after the attribute value has been normalized as described in 3.3.3 Attribute-Value Normalization . Validity constraint: ID. Values of type ID MUST match the Name production. A name MUST NOT appear more than once in an XML document as a value of this type; i.e., ID values MUST uniquely identify the elements which bear them. Validity constraint: One ID per Element Type. An element type MUST NOT have more than one ID attribute specified. Validity constraint: ID Attribute Default.
An ID attribute MUST have a declared default of write your #IMPLIED or #REQUIRED . Validity constraint: IDREF. Values of essay conclusion about technology type IDREF MUST match the Name production, and values of type IDREFS MUST match Names; each Name MUST match the value of an ID attribute on write your some element in the XML document; i.e. IDREF values MUST match the value of some ID attribute. Validity constraint: Entity Name. Values of type ENTITY MUST match the Name production, values of essay my happy type ENTITIES MUST match Names; each Name MUST match the name of an unparsed entity declared in the DTD. Validity constraint: Name Token. Values of type NMTOKEN MUST match the Nmtoken production; values of type NMTOKENS MUST match Nmtokens.
[Definition: Enumerated attributes have a list of write your allowed values in their declaration ]. They MUST take one of those values. There are two kinds of enumerated attribute types: A NOTATION attribute identifies a notation, declared in the DTD with associated system and/or public identifiers, to be used in interpreting the element to which the term, attribute is attached. Validity constraint: Notation Attributes. Values of this type MUST match one of the write your paper, notation names included in the declaration; all notation names in the declaration MUST be declared. Validity constraint: One Notation Per Element Type. An element type MUST NOT have more than one NOTATION attribute specified. Validity constraint: No Notation on Empty Element. For compatibility, an attribute of type NOTATION MUST NOT be declared on on the an element declared EMPTY . Validity constraint: No Duplicate Tokens.
The notation names in a single NotationType attribute declaration, as well as the NmTokens in a single Enumeration attribute declaration, MUST all be distinct. Validity constraint: Enumeration. Values of this type MUST match one of the Nmtoken tokens in the declaration. For interoperability, the same Nmtoken SHOULD NOT occur more than once in the enumerated attribute types of your own term a single element type. An attribute declaration provides information on whether the attribute's presence is world peace, REQUIRED , and if not, how an write, XML processor is to react if a declared attribute is absent in a document. In an attribute declaration, #REQUIRED means that the attribute MUST always be provided, #IMPLIED that no default value is provided. [Definition: If the declaration is neither #REQUIRED nor #IMPLIED , then the peace thesis, AttValue value contains the declared default value; the #FIXED keyword states that the attribute MUST always have the default value. When an XML processor encounters an element without a specification for an attribute for which it has read a default value declaration, it MUST report the attribute with the declared default value to the application.] Validity constraint: Required Attribute. If the paper, default declaration is the keyword #REQUIRED , then the attribute MUST be specified for all elements of the type in the attribute-list declaration.
Validity constraint: Attribute Default Value Syntactically Correct. The declared default value MUST meet the essay on rap music, syntactic constraints of the declared attribute type. That is, the default value of an attribute: of type IDREF or ENTITY must match the Name production; of type IDREFS or ENTITIES must match the Names production; of type NMTOKEN must match the Nmtoken production; of type NMTOKENS must match the write paper, Nmtokens production; of an enumerated type (either a NOTATION type or an enumeration) must match one of the essay, enumerated values. Note that only the syntactic constraints of the type are required here; other constraints (e.g. that the value be the name of a declared unparsed entity, for an attribute of type ENTITY) will be reported by a validating parser only if an element without a specification for this attribute actually occurs. Validity constraint: Fixed Attribute Default. If an attribute has a default value declared with the write your own term paper, #FIXED keyword, instances of that attribute MUST match the default value.
Examples of essays attribute-list declarations: Before the write own term paper, value of an attribute is passed to the application or checked for validity, the XML processor MUST normalize the attribute value by applying the algorithm below, or by using some other method such that the value passed to the application is the same as that produced by the algorithm. All line breaks MUST have been normalized on input to #xA as described in 2.11 End-of-Line Handling , so the rest of this algorithm operates on text normalized in this way. Begin with a normalized value consisting of the essays on the, empty string. For each character, entity reference, or character reference in the unnormalized attribute value, beginning with the first and continuing to the last, do the paper, following: For a character reference, append the referenced character to the normalized value. For an entity reference, recursively apply step 3 of this algorithm to the replacement text of the term subjects, entity. For a white space character (#x20, #xD, #xA, #x9), append a space character (#x20) to the normalized value. For another character, append the character to the normalized value. If the attribute type is not CDATA, then the XML processor MUST further process the normalized attribute value by discarding any leading and trailing space (#x20) characters, and by your, replacing sequences of space (#x20) characters by a single space (#x20) character.
Note that if the essays us constitution, unnormalized attribute value contains a character reference to write your paper, a white space character other than space (#x20), the normalized value contains the referenced character itself (#xD, #xA or #x9). This contrasts with the case where the unnormalized value contains a white space character (not a reference), which is replaced with a space character (#x20) in essay on rap and society the normalized value and also contrasts with the case where the unnormalized value contains an entity reference whose replacement text contains a white space character; being recursively processed, the white space character is paper, replaced with a space character (#x20) in the normalized value. All attributes for which no declaration has been read SHOULD be treated by a non-validating processor as if declared CDATA . It is an world peace, error if an attribute value contains a reference to an entity for write which no declaration has been read. Following are examples of attribute normalization. Given the following declarations: the attribute specifications in the left column below would be normalized to the character sequences of the world peace thesis, middle column if the your own term, attribute a is apus, declared NMTOKENS and to those of the right columns if a is declared CDATA . Note that the last example is write your paper, invalid (but well-formed) if a is declared to be of type NMTOKENS . [Definition: Conditional sections are portions of the document type declaration external subset or of external parameter entities which are included in, or excluded from, the essay, logical structure of the DTD based on write the keyword which governs them.] Validity constraint: Proper Conditional Section/PE Nesting. If any of the ![ , [ , or ]] of a conditional section is contained in the replacement text for a parameter-entity reference, all of them MUST be contained in the same replacement text. Like the internal and external DTD subsets, a conditional section may contain one or more complete declarations, comments, processing instructions, or nested conditional sections, intermingled with white space. If the keyword of the conditional section is INCLUDE , then the contents of the conditional section MUST be processed as part of the DTD. Descriptive Essay My Happy. If the keyword of the conditional section is IGNORE , then the contents of the conditional section MUST NOT be processed as part of the DTD.
If a conditional section with a keyword of write own term paper INCLUDE occurs within a larger conditional section with a keyword of IGNORE , both the essay about, outer and the inner conditional sections MUST be ignored. Your. The contents of an term paper, ignored conditional section MUST be parsed by ignoring all characters after the [ following the write your own term, keyword, except conditional section starts ![ and ends ]] , until the matching conditional section end is found. Parameter entity references MUST NOT be recognized in this process. If the keyword of the conditional section is a parameter-entity reference, the parameter entity MUST be replaced by its content before the processor decides whether to include or ignore the conditional section. [Definition: An XML document may consist of one or many storage units. These are called entities ; they all have content and are all (except for the document entity and the external DTD subset) identified by entity name .] Each XML document has one entity called the document entity, which serves as the starting point for the XML processor and may contain the whole document. Entities may be either parsed or unparsed. [Definition: The contents of a parsed entity are referred to as its replacement text; this text is considered an integral part of the document.] [Definition: An unparsed entity is a resource whose contents may or may not be text, and peace thesis, if text, may be other than XML. Each unparsed entity has an associated notation, identified by own term, name. Beyond a requirement that an XML processor make the identifiers for the entity and notation available to essay and society, the application, XML places no constraints on the contents of unparsed entities.] Parsed entities are invoked by your own term, name using entity references; unparsed entities by name, given in apus history exam essays the value of ENTITY or ENTITIES attributes.
[Definition: General entities are entities for use within the document content. In this specification, general entities are sometimes referred to with the write your paper, unqualified term entity when this leads to no ambiguity.] [Definition: Parameter entities are parsed entities for use within the essays us constitution, DTD.] These two types of write your own term paper entities use different forms of reference and are recognized in different contexts. Furthermore, they occupy different namespaces; a parameter entity and subjects, a general entity with the same name are two distinct entities. 4.1 Character and Entity References. [Definition: A character reference refers to a specific character in write your the ISO/IEC 10646 character set, for essays on the example one not directly accessible from write own term, available input devices.]
Well-formedness constraint: Legal Character. Characters referred to history exam, using character references MUST match the production for Char. If the character reference begins with #x , the digits and letters up to the terminating ; provide a hexadecimal representation of the character's code point in ISO/IEC 10646. If it begins just with # , the paper, digits up to descriptive my happy place, the terminating ; provide a decimal representation of the character's code point. [Definition: An entity reference refers to own term paper, the content of a named entity.] [Definition: References to parsed general entities use ampersand ( ) and semicolon ( ; ) as delimiters.] [Definition: Parameter-entity references use percent-sign ( % ) and semicolon ( ; ) as delimiters.] Well-formedness constraint: Entity Declared. In a document without any DTD, a document with only an internal DTD subset which contains no parameter entity references, or a document with standalone='yes' , for an entity reference that does not occur within the external subset or a parameter entity, the Name given in the entity reference MUST match that in an entity declaration that does not occur within the external subset or a parameter entity, except that well-formed documents need not declare any of the following entities: amp , lt , gt , apos , quot . The declaration of a general entity MUST precede any reference to it which appears in a default value in an attribute-list declaration. Note that non-validating processors are not obligated to read and process entity declarations occurring in parameter entities or in the external subset; for such documents, the essays, rule that an entity must be declared is a well-formedness constraint only your paper, if standalone='yes' . Validity constraint: Entity Declared. In a document with an external subset or parameter entity references , if the us constitution, document is not standalone (either standalone='no' is specified or there is no standalone declaration), then the Name given in the entity reference MUST match that in write own term an entity declaration . For interoperability, valid documents SHOULD declare the entities amp , lt , gt , apos , quot , in the form specified in descriptive 4.6 Predefined Entities . The declaration of write a parameter entity MUST precede any reference to term paper subjects, it. Similarly, the declaration of a general entity MUST precede any attribute-list declaration containing a default value with a direct or indirect reference to that general entity.
Well-formedness constraint: Parsed Entity. An entity reference MUST NOT contain the name of an unparsed entity. Your. Unparsed entities may be referred to only in attribute values declared to be of type ENTITY or ENTITIES . Well-formedness constraint: No Recursion. A parsed entity MUST NOT contain a recursive reference to itself, either directly or indirectly. Well-formedness constraint: In DTD. Parameter-entity references MUST NOT appear outside the DTD. Examples of descriptive essay my happy place character and paper, entity references: Example of a parameter-entity reference: [Definition: Entities are declared thus:] The Name identifies the essays on the us constitution, entity in an entity reference or, in the case of an write paper, unparsed entity, in the value of an essay conclusion, ENTITY or ENTITIES attribute.
If the write your paper, same entity is declared more than once, the first declaration encountered is binding; at user option, an XML processor MAY issue a warning if entities are declared multiple times. [Definition: If the conclusion about, entity definition is an EntityValue, the defined entity is called an internal entity . There is paper, no separate physical storage object, and on the us constitution, the content of the entity is write your paper, given in essays us constitution the declaration.] Note that some processing of entity and your own term paper, character references in the literal entity value may be required to produce the correct replacement text: see 4.5 Construction of Entity Replacement Text . An internal entity is a parsed entity. Example of an about technology, internal entity declaration: [Definition: If the entity is own term, not internal, it is an external entity , declared as follows:] If the NDataDecl is present, this is a general unparsed entity; otherwise it is a parsed entity. Validity constraint: Notation Declared. The Name MUST match the declared name of a notation. [Definition: The SystemLiteral is called the term paper subjects, entity's system identifier . It is meant to be converted to a URI reference (as defined in [IETF RFC 3986]), as part of the process of dereferencing it to obtain input for the XML processor to construct the own term paper, entity's replacement text.] It is an error for a fragment identifier (beginning with a # character) to be part of a system identifier. Unless otherwise provided by information outside the scope of this specification (e.g. a special XML element type defined by a particular DTD, or a processing instruction defined by a particular application specification), relative URIs are relative to descriptive essay, the location of the resource within which the entity declaration occurs. This is defined to your own term, be the external entity containing the '' which starts the declaration, at world the point when it is parsed as a declaration. A URI might thus be relative to the document entity, to the entity containing the external DTD subset, or to your own term paper, some other external parameter entity.
Attempts to retrieve the resource identified by a URI may be redirected at subjects the parser level (for example, in an entity resolver) or below (at the protocol level, for example, via an HTTP Location: header). In the absence of additional information outside the scope of this specification within the resource, the base URI of a resource is always the URI of the write paper, actual resource returned. In other words, it is the URI of the essays on the us constitution, resource retrieved after all redirection has occurred. System identifiers (and other XML strings meant to be used as URI references) may contain characters that, according to [IETF RFC 3986], must be escaped before a URI can be used to own term paper, retrieve the referenced resource. The characters to be escaped are the control characters #x0 to #x1F and #x7F (most of which cannot appear in XML), space #x20, the delimiters '' #x3C, '' #x3E and '' #x22, the unwise characters ' ' #x7D, '|' #x7C, '' #x5C, '^' #x5E and '`' #x60, as well as all characters above #x7F. Since escaping is not always a fully reversible process, it MUST be performed only when absolutely necessary and essay about, as late as possible in a processing chain. In particular, neither the process of own term converting a relative URI to an absolute one nor the process of passing a URI reference to a process or software component responsible for dereferencing it SHOULD trigger escaping. When escaping does occur, it MUST be performed as follows: Each character to be escaped is represented in UTF-8 [Unicode] as one or more bytes. The resulting bytes are escaped with the URI escaping mechanism (that is, converted to apus essays, % HH , where HH is the write your paper, hexadecimal notation of the music, byte value).
The original character is replaced by the resulting character sequence. In a future edition of this specification, the XML Core Working Group intends to your, replace the preceding paragraph and list of essay and society steps with a normative reference to write own term paper, an upcoming revision of IETF RFC 3987, which will define Legacy Extended IRIs (LEIRIs). When this revision is available, it is the world, intent of the write, XML Core WG to essay conclusion, use it to replace language similar to the above in any future revisions of XML-related specifications under its purview. [Definition: In addition to write paper, a system identifier, an descriptive my happy place, external identifier may include a public identifier .] An XML processor attempting to retrieve the paper, entity's content may use any combination of the public and system identifiers as well as additional information outside the scope of conclusion about this specification to try to generate an alternative URI reference. Own Term Paper. If the essay conclusion, processor is your, unable to do so, it MUST use the URI reference specified in the system literal. On The Us Constitution. Before a match is attempted, all strings of white space in the public identifier MUST be normalized to single space characters (#x20), and leading and own term paper, trailing white space MUST be removed. Examples of external entity declarations: External parsed entities SHOULD each begin with a text declaration . The text declaration MUST be provided literally, not by reference to my happy, a parsed entity.
The text declaration MUST NOT appear at write own term any position other than the beginning of an external parsed entity. Music. The text declaration in an external parsed entity is not considered part of its replacement text. The document entity is well-formed if it matches the production labeled document. An external general parsed entity is write your, well-formed if it matches the production labeled extParsedEnt. All external parameter entities are well-formed by definition. Only parsed entities that are referenced directly or indirectly within the document are required to be well-formed. Well-Formed External Parsed Entity. An internal general parsed entity is well-formed if its replacement text matches the production labeled content. All internal parameter entities are well-formed by definition. A consequence of well-formedness in general entities is that the logical and physical structures in an XML document are properly nested; no start-tag, end-tag, empty-element tag, element, comment, processing instruction, character reference, or entity reference can begin in my happy one entity and end in another. 4.3.3 Character Encoding in Entities.
Each external parsed entity in an XML document may use a different encoding for its characters. All XML processors MUST be able to read entities in write paper both the UTF-8 and UTF-16 encodings. Essay My Happy Place. The terms UTF-8 and UTF-16 in this specification do not apply to related character encodings, including but not limited to UTF-16BE, UTF-16LE, or CESU-8. Entities encoded in UTF-16 MUST and entities encoded in write your own term UTF-8 MAY begin with the Byte Order Mark described by Annex H of [ISO/IEC 10646:2000], section 16.8 of [Unicode] (the ZERO WIDTH NO-BREAK SPACE character, #xFEFF). This is an encoding signature, not part of either the markup or the character data of the XML document. XML processors MUST be able to use this character to differentiate between UTF-8 and UTF-16 encoded documents.
If the replacement text of an external entity is to begin with the character U+FEFF, and no text declaration is present, then a Byte Order Mark MUST be present, whether the essays, entity is your own term paper, encoded in UTF-8 or UTF-16. Although an subjects, XML processor is write your, required to read only entities in the UTF-8 and UTF-16 encodings, it is recognized that other encodings are used around the world, and it may be desired for XML processors to exam essays, read entities that use them. In the absence of external character encoding information (such as MIME headers), parsed entities which are stored in an encoding other than UTF-8 or UTF-16 MUST begin with a text declaration (see 4.3.1 The Text Declaration ) containing an encoding declaration: In the document entity, the encoding declaration is part of the XML declaration. The EncName is the name of the encoding used.
In an encoding declaration, the write own term, values UTF-8 , UTF-16 , ISO-10646-UCS-2 , and ISO-10646-UCS-4 SHOULD be used for the various encodings and transformations of on rap music Unicode / ISO/IEC 10646, the values ISO-8859-1 , ISO-8859-2 , . ISO-8859- n (where n is the part number) SHOULD be used for the parts of ISO 8859, and paper, the values ISO-2022-JP , Shift_JIS , and EUC-JP SHOULD be used for the various encoded forms of thesis JIS X-0208-1997. It is RECOMMENDED that character encodings registered (as charset s) with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority [IANA-CHARSETS], other than those just listed, be referred to using their registered names; other encodings SHOULD use names starting with an x- prefix. XML processors SHOULD match character encoding names in a case-insensitive way and SHOULD either interpret an IANA-registered name as the encoding registered at IANA for that name or treat it as unknown (processors are, of course, not required to support all IANA-registered encodings). In the absence of information provided by an external transport protocol (e.g. Own Term Paper. HTTP or MIME), it is place, a fatal error for an entity including an your own term paper, encoding declaration to be presented to the XML processor in on the us constitution an encoding other than that named in the declaration, or for an entity which begins with neither a Byte Order Mark nor an encoding declaration to use an own term paper, encoding other than UTF-8. Note that since ASCII is a subset of UTF-8, ordinary ASCII entities do not strictly need an encoding declaration.
It is a fatal error for a TextDecl to occur other than at the beginning of an external entity. It is essays us constitution, a fatal error when an XML processor encounters an write your, entity with an encoding that it is unable to world thesis, process. Write Your Own Term. It is a fatal error if an XML entity is apus exam essays, determined (via default, encoding declaration, or higher-level protocol) to write your, be in a certain encoding but contains byte sequences that are not legal in that encoding. Specifically, it is a fatal error if an entity encoded in UTF-8 contains any ill-formed code unit sequences, as defined in section 3.9 of Unicode [Unicode] . Unless an encoding is determined by a higher-level protocol, it is also a fatal error if an XML entity contains no encoding declaration and its content is not legal UTF-8 or UTF-16. Examples of text declarations containing encoding declarations:
4.4 XML Processor Treatment of Entities and References. The table below summarizes the contexts in which character references, entity references, and invocations of unparsed entities might appear and the REQUIRED behavior of an XML processor in each case. World Peace. The labels in the leftmost column describe the recognition context: Reference in Content. as a reference anywhere after the start-tag and your own term, before the end-tag of an element; corresponds to the nonterminal content. Reference in essays Attribute Value. as a reference within either the value of an write paper, attribute in a start-tag, or a default value in an attribute declaration; corresponds to term paper subjects, the nonterminal AttValue. Occurs as Attribute Value. as a Name, not a reference, appearing either as the paper, value of an term, attribute which has been declared as type ENTITY , or as one of the space-separated tokens in the value of an attribute which has been declared as type ENTITIES . Reference in Entity Value. as a reference within a parameter or internal entity's literal entity value in write your the entity's declaration; corresponds to the nonterminal EntityValue. Reference in essays on the us constitution DTD.
as a reference within either the write own term, internal or external subsets of the DTD, but outside of an EntityValue, AttValue, PI, Comment, SystemLiteral, PubidLiteral, or the contents of an conclusion about technology, ignored conditional section (see 3.4 Conditional Sections ). Outside the write your own term paper, DTD, the % character has no special significance; thus, what would be parameter entity references in the DTD are not recognized as markup in content. Similarly, the names of on rap music and society unparsed entities are not recognized except when they appear in the value of an appropriately declared attribute. [Definition: An entity is write paper, included when its replacement text is retrieved and processed, in place of the peace thesis, reference itself, as though it were part of the own term, document at on rap the location the reference was recognized.] The replacement text may contain both character data and your own term paper, (except for parameter entities) markup, which MUST be recognized in the usual way. Music. (The string ATamp;T; expands to own term, ATT; and the remaining ampersand is not recognized as an entity-reference delimiter.) A character reference is included when the indicated character is processed in essays place of the reference itself. When an XML processor recognizes a reference to a parsed entity, in order to validate the document, the processor MUST include its replacement text. If the entity is external, and your own term, the processor is not attempting to validate the essay, XML document, the processor MAY , but need not, include the entity's replacement text. If a non-validating processor does not include the write your own term, replacement text, it MUST inform the application that it recognized, but did not read, the entity. This rule is based on the recognition that the automatic inclusion provided by the SGML and XML entity mechanism, primarily designed to essay about technology, support modularity in authoring, is not necessarily appropriate for other applications, in own term particular document browsing.
Browsers, for term example, when encountering an external parsed entity reference, might choose to provide a visual indication of the entity's presence and retrieve it for display only on demand. The following are forbidden, and constitute fatal errors: the appearance of a reference to an unparsed entity, except in your own term the EntityValue in an entity declaration. the appearance of essay place any character or general-entity reference in the DTD except within an own term, EntityValue or AttValue. a reference to an external entity in an attribute value. When an entity reference appears in an attribute value, or a parameter entity reference appears in a literal entity value, its replacement text MUST be processed in place of the reference itself as though it were part of the document at the location the reference was recognized, except that a single or double quote character in the replacement text MUST always be treated as a normal data character and MUST NOT terminate the literal. For example, this is well-formed: while this is not: When the name of an unparsed entity appears as a token in the value of an essays us constitution, attribute of your own term declared type ENTITY or ENTITIES , a validating processor MUST inform the application of the system and world, public (if any) identifiers for both the entity and its associated notation. When a general entity reference appears in the EntityValue in an entity declaration, it MUST be bypassed and left as is. Just as with external parsed entities, parameter entities need only be included if validating . When a parameter-entity reference is write your, recognized in the DTD and included, its replacement text MUST be enlarged by paper, the attachment of one leading and one following space (#x20) character; the own term, intent is to constrain the my happy, replacement text of parameter entities to write your own term, contain an integral number of grammatical tokens in world peace the DTD. This behavior MUST NOT apply to parameter entity references within entity values; these are described in 4.4.5 Included in Literal . It is an error for a reference to an unparsed entity to appear in the EntityValue in an entity declaration.
4.5 Construction of Entity Replacement Text. In discussing the treatment of entities, it is useful to own term, distinguish two forms of the entity's value. [Definition: For an internal entity, the descriptive my happy, literal entity value is the quoted string actually present in the entity declaration, corresponding to the non-terminal EntityValue.] [Definition: For an own term paper, external entity, the literal entity value is the exact text contained in the entity.] [Definition: For an essay conclusion about, internal entity, the replacement text is the write paper, content of the entity, after replacement of character references and apus exam essays, parameter-entity references.] [Definition: For an own term paper, external entity, the replacement text is the on the us constitution, content of the entity, after stripping the paper, text declaration (leaving any surrounding whitespace) if there is one but without any replacement of character references or parameter-entity references.] The literal entity value as given in an internal entity declaration (EntityValue) may contain character, parameter-entity, and general-entity references. Essays Us Constitution. Such references MUST be contained entirely within the literal entity value. Your Paper. The actual replacement text that is included (or included in apus history exam literal) as described above MUST contain the your own term paper, replacement text of any parameter entities referred to, and MUST contain the character referred to, in place of any character references in the literal entity value; however, general-entity references MUST be left as-is, unexpanded. For example, given the following declarations: then the replacement text for the entity book is: The general-entity reference rights; would be expanded should the reference book; appear in world peace the document's content or an write your own term, attribute value. These simple rules may have complex interactions; for a detailed discussion of peace thesis a difficult example, see D Expansion of Entity and Character References . [Definition: Entity and character references may both be used to escape the write, left angle bracket, ampersand, and other delimiters.
A set of exam essays general entities ( amp , lt , gt , apos , quot ) is specified for this purpose. Numeric character references may also be used; they are expanded immediately when recognized and MUST be treated as character data, so the numeric character references #60; and #38; may be used to escape and when they occur in character data.] All XML processors MUST recognize these entities whether they are declared or not. For interoperability, valid XML documents SHOULD declare these entities, like any others, before using them. If the entities lt or amp are declared, they MUST be declared as internal entities whose replacement text is a character reference to write your paper, the respective character (less-than sign or ampersand) being escaped; the double escaping is REQUIRED for these entities so that references to them produce a well-formed result.
If the entities gt , apos , or quot are declared, they MUST be declared as internal entities whose replacement text is the single character being escaped (or a character reference to that character; the double escaping here is OPTIONAL but harmless). For example: [Definition: Notations identify by descriptive my happy place, name the format of unparsed entities, the format of elements which bear a notation attribute, or the application to which a processing instruction is addressed.] [Definition: Notation declarations provide a name for the notation, for use in entity and attribute-list declarations and in attribute specifications, and an external identifier for the notation which may allow an XML processor or its client application to locate a helper application capable of processing data in the given notation.] Validity constraint: Unique Notation Name. A given Name MUST NOT be declared in more than one notation declaration. XML processors MUST provide applications with the name and your own term paper, external identifier(s) of any notation declared and referred to in an attribute value, attribute definition, or entity declaration. They MAY additionally resolve the external identifier into the system identifier, file name, or other information needed to allow the application to call a processor for data in the notation described. Essays On The Us Constitution. (It is write paper, not an error, however, for XML documents to declare and refer to notations for essay which notation-specific applications are not available on write your the system where the XML processor or application is running.) [Definition: The document entity serves as the root of the entity tree and conclusion, a starting-point for an XML processor.] This specification does not specify how the document entity is to be located by an XML processor; unlike other entities, the document entity has no name and might well appear on a processor input stream without any identification at all. 5.1 Validating and Non-Validating Processors. Conforming XML processors fall into your own term, two classes: validating and non-validating.
Validating and technology, non-validating processors alike MUST report violations of this specification's well-formedness constraints in the content of the document entity and any other parsed entities that they read. [Definition: Validating processors MUST , at paper user option, report violations of the constraints expressed by the declarations in conclusion the DTD, and failures to fulfill the validity constraints given in this specification.] To accomplish this, validating XML processors MUST read and process the entire DTD and own term, all external parsed entities referenced in the document. Non-validating processors are REQUIRED to check only the essay conclusion about, document entity, including the entire internal DTD subset, for write well-formedness. [Definition: While they are not required to check the document for validity, they are REQUIRED to process all the declarations they read in the internal DTD subset and in any parameter entity that they read, up to the first reference to a parameter entity that they do not read; that is to say, they MUST use the information in those declarations to apus history exam essays, normalize attribute values, include the replacement text of internal entities, and write, supply default attribute values .] Except when standalone=yes , they MUST NOT process entity declarations or attribute-list declarations encountered after a reference to a parameter entity that is not read, since the my happy place, entity may have contained overriding declarations; when standalone=yes , processors MUST process these declarations. Note that when processing invalid documents with a non-validating processor the application may not be presented with consistent information. For example, several requirements for uniqueness within the document may not be met, including more than one element with the write own term paper, same id, duplicate declarations of elements or notations with the same name, etc. Essay Conclusion. In these cases the your, behavior of the parser with respect to peace, reporting such information to the application is undefined. The behavior of a validating XML processor is highly predictable; it must read every piece of a document and report all well-formedness and validity violations. Less is paper, required of a non-validating processor; it need not read any part of the document other than the document entity. This has two effects that may be important to users of XML processors: Certain well-formedness errors, specifically those that require reading external entities, may fail to be detected by world thesis, a non-validating processor. Examples include the write your own term paper, constraints entitled Entity Declared , Parsed Entity , and No Recursion , as well as some of the cases described as forbidden in essay on rap 4.4 XML Processor Treatment of your Entities and References . The information passed from the world peace thesis, processor to the application may vary, depending on whether the processor reads parameter and external entities.
For example, a non-validating processor may fail to normalize attribute values, include the replacement text of internal entities, or supply default attribute values , where doing so depends on having read declarations in external or parameter entities , or in the internal subset after an unread parameter entity reference . For maximum reliability in your own term paper interoperating between different XML processors, applications which use non-validating processors SHOULD NOT rely on any behaviors not required of descriptive place such processors. Applications which require DTD facilities not related to write your own term, validation (such as the declaration of default attributes and history, internal entities that are or may be specified in external entities) SHOULD use validating XML processors. The formal grammar of XML is given in this specification using a simple Extended Backus-Naur Form (EBNF) notation. Write. Each rule in the grammar defines one symbol, in the form. Symbols are written with an initial capital letter if they are the start symbol of a regular language, otherwise with an initial lowercase letter. Essay About. Literal strings are quoted. Within the expression on the right-hand side of a rule, the following expressions are used to write your own term, match strings of one or more characters: where N is a hexadecimal integer, the expression matches the character whose number (code point) in peace thesis ISO/IEC 10646 is N . The number of leading zeros in write own term paper the #xN form is insignificant. matches any Char with a value in the range(s) indicated (inclusive). matches any Char with a value among the characters enumerated. Enumerations and ranges can be mixed in one set of and society brackets.
matches any Char with a value outside the range indicated. matches any Char with a value not among the write, characters given. Apus History Essays. Enumerations and ranges of forbidden values can be mixed in one set of brackets. matches a literal string matching that given inside the your, double quotes. matches a literal string matching that given inside the single quotes. These symbols may be combined to match more complex patterns as follows, where A and B represent simple expressions: expression is treated as a unit and may be combined as described in this list. matches A or nothing; optional A . matches A followed by essays, B . This operator has higher precedence than alternation; thus A B | C D is write own term, identical to (A B) | (C D) . matches any string that matches A but does not match B . matches one or more occurrences of A . Concatenation has higher precedence than alternation; thus A+ | B+ is identical to (A+) | (B+) . matches zero or more occurrences of A . Term Paper. Concatenation has higher precedence than alternation; thus A* | B* is identical to (A*) | (B*) . Other notations used in the productions are: well-formedness constraint; this identifies by name a constraint on well-formed documents associated with a production. validity constraint; this identifies by name a constraint on write your own term valid documents associated with a production.
Because of changes to essay my happy, productions  and your own term paper, , the productions in essays us constitution this Appendix are now orphaned and not used anymore in determining name characters. Own Term. This Appendix may be removed in a future edition of this specification; other specifications that wish to refer to history, the productions herein should do so by paper, means of a reference to my happy place, the relevant production(s) in write your own term the Fourth Edition of this specification. Following the term paper, characteristics defined in the Unicode standard, characters are classed as base characters (among others, these contain the alphabetic characters of the Latin alphabet), ideographic characters, and write your own term paper, combining characters (among others, this class contains most diacritics). On Rap Music And Society. Digits and extenders are also distinguished. The character classes defined here can be derived from the own term paper, Unicode 2.0 character database as follows: Name start characters must have one of the essay conclusion technology, categories Ll, Lu, Lo, Lt, Nl.
Name characters other than Name-start characters must have one of the categories Mc, Me, Mn, Lm, or Nd. Characters in the compatibility area (i.e. with character code greater than #xF900 and less than #xFFFE) are not allowed in XML names. Characters which have a font or compatibility decomposition (i.e. those with a compatibility formatting tag in field 5 of the database -- marked by field 5 beginning with a ) are not allowed. The following characters are treated as name-start characters rather than name characters, because the write your, property file classifies them as Alphabetic: [#x02BB-#x02C1], #x0559, #x06E5, #x06E6. Characters #x20DD-#x20E0 are excluded (in accordance with Unicode 2.0, section 5.14). Character #x00B7 is apus essays, classified as an extender, because the your own term, property list so identifies it. Character #x0387 is added as a name character, because #x00B7 is its canonical equivalent. Characters ':' and '_' are allowed as name-start characters. Characters '-' and '.' are allowed as name characters. XML is essay technology, designed to write your, be a subset of SGML, in that every XML document should also be a conforming SGML document. For a detailed comparison of the additional restrictions that XML places on documents beyond those of world SGML, see [Clark].
D Expansion of Entity and Character References (Non-Normative) This appendix contains some examples illustrating the sequence of entity- and character-reference recognition and expansion, as specified in write own term 4.4 XML Processor Treatment of peace Entities and References . If the DTD contains the declaration. then the XML processor will recognize the character references when it parses the entity declaration, and resolve them before storing the following string as the value of the entity example : A reference in write your own term the document to example; will cause the text to be reparsed, at which time the start- and end-tags of the p element will be recognized and the three references will be recognized and expanded, resulting in my happy place a p element with the following content (all data, no delimiters or markup): A more complex example will illustrate the rules and their effects fully. In the following example, the line numbers are solely for reference. This produces the following: in line 4, the reference to character 37 is expanded immediately, and the parameter entity xx is stored in the symbol table with the value %zz; . Write Own Term Paper. Since the replacement text is not rescanned, the reference to parameter entity zz is not recognized. (And it would be an essay conclusion about, error if it were, since zz is not yet declared.) in line 5, the write your paper, character reference #60; is expanded immediately and the parameter entity zz is apus history essays, stored with the replacement text !ENTITY tricky error-prone , which is a well-formed entity declaration. in line 6, the reference to write own term paper, xx is apus exam essays, recognized, and the replacement text of xx (namely %zz; ) is parsed. The reference to zz is recognized in its turn, and its replacement text ( !ENTITY tricky error-prone ) is parsed.
The general entity tricky has now been declared, with the replacement text error-prone . in line 8, the write own term, reference to essay about, the general entity tricky is recognized, and it is expanded, so the full content of the test element is the self-describing (and ungrammatical) string This sample shows a error-prone method. In the following example. the replacement text of x is the four characters lt; because references to general entities in write your own term paper entity values are bypassed . The replacement text of lt is a character reference to the less-than character, for example the five characters #60; (see 4.6 Predefined Entities ). Since neither of these contains a less-than character the result is term, well-formed. If the definition of x had been. then the document would not have been well-formed, because the replacement text of x would be the single character which is not permitted in attribute values (see WFC: No in Attribute Values ).
E Deterministic Content Models (Non-Normative) As noted in 3.2.1 Element Content , it is required that content models in element type declarations be deterministic. This requirement is for write your compatibility with SGML (which calls deterministic content models unambiguous); XML processors built using SGML systems may flag non-deterministic content models as errors. For example, the content model ((b, c) | (b, d)) is essay, non-deterministic, because given an initial b the XML processor cannot know which b in write your own term the model is being matched without looking ahead to see which element follows the b . In this case, the world thesis, two references to b can be collapsed into a single reference, making the model read (b, (c | d)) . Your Own Term Paper. An initial b now clearly matches only apus essays, a single name in the content model. The processor doesn't need to write your own term, look ahead to see what follows; either c or d would be accepted. More formally: a finite state automaton may be constructed from the content model using the standard algorithms, e.g. algorithm 3.5 in section 3.9 of Aho, Sethi, and Ullman [Aho/Ullman].
In many such algorithms, a follow set is constructed for essay on rap music and society each position in your own term paper the regular expression (i.e., each leaf node in the syntax tree for the regular expression); if any position has a follow set in which more than one following position is labeled with the same element type name, then the term, content model is in error and may be reported as an your own term paper, error. Algorithms exist which allow many but not all non-deterministic content models to be reduced automatically to essay about, equivalent deterministic models; see Bruggemann-Klein 1991 [Bruggemann-Klein]. F Autodetection of Character Encodings (Non-Normative) The XML encoding declaration functions as an internal label on each entity, indicating which character encoding is in write own term use. Before an XML processor can read the history, internal label, however, it apparently has to know what character encoding is in use—which is what the internal label is trying to indicate. In the general case, this is a hopeless situation.
It is your paper, not entirely hopeless in XML, however, because XML limits the general case in two ways: each implementation is assumed to essays us constitution, support only a finite set of character encodings, and the XML encoding declaration is restricted in position and content in write your order to make it feasible to autodetect the essay, character encoding in use in each entity in normal cases. Write Own Term Paper. Also, in many cases other sources of information are available in addition to essay on rap, the XML data stream itself. Two cases may be distinguished, depending on whether the write paper, XML entity is presented to the processor without, or with, any accompanying (external) information. We will consider these cases in turn. F.1 Detection Without External Encoding Information. Because each XML entity not accompanied by external encoding information and essays on the, not in UTF-8 or UTF-16 encoding must begin with an your own term, XML encoding declaration, in which the first characters must be ' ?xml ', any conforming processor can detect, after two to four octets of input, which of the following cases apply. In reading this list, it may help to know that in UCS-4, '' is #x0000003C and '?' is conclusion about technology, #x0000003F , and the Byte Order Mark required of UTF-16 data streams is #xFEFF . The notation ## is used to write your own term, denote any byte value except that two consecutive ## s cannot be both 00.
With a Byte Order Mark: Without a Byte Order Mark: In cases above which do not require reading the encoding declaration to determine the encoding, section 4.3.3 still requires that the encoding declaration, if present, be read and term paper subjects, that the paper, encoding name be checked to world peace thesis, match the actual encoding of the entity. Also, it is possible that new character encodings will be invented that will make it necessary to use the encoding declaration to determine the encoding, in cases where this is not required at present. This level of autodetection is enough to read the XML encoding declaration and parse the character-encoding identifier, which is own term paper, still necessary to descriptive my happy place, distinguish the individual members of each family of encodings (e.g. to tell UTF-8 from 8859, and write own term paper, the parts of 8859 from each other, or to distinguish the specific EBCDIC code page in use, and paper, so on). Because the contents of the encoding declaration are restricted to write own term, characters from the conclusion about technology, ASCII repertoire (however encoded), a processor can reliably read the entire encoding declaration as soon as it has detected which family of paper encodings is in use. Technology. Since in practice, all widely used character encodings fall into one of the categories above, the XML encoding declaration allows reasonably reliable in-band labeling of character encodings, even when external sources of information at the operating-system or transport-protocol level are unreliable.
Character encodings such as UTF-7 that make overloaded usage of ASCII-valued bytes may fail to be reliably detected. Once the processor has detected the character encoding in use, it can act appropriately, whether by invoking a separate input routine for each case, or by calling the proper conversion function on each character of input. Like any self-labeling system, the your, XML encoding declaration will not work if any software changes the entity's character set or encoding without updating the encoding declaration. Implementors of essay on rap music and society character-encoding routines should be careful to paper, ensure the accuracy of the us constitution, internal and external information used to own term, label the descriptive essay my happy, entity. F.2 Priorities in the Presence of your External Encoding Information. The second possible case occurs when the XML entity is accompanied by encoding information, as in some file systems and some network protocols. When multiple sources of information are available, their relative priority and the preferred method of handling conflict should be specified as part of the higher-level protocol used to deliver XML. In particular, please refer to [IETF RFC 3023] or its successor, which defines the text/xml and application/xml MIME types and provides some useful guidance. In the essays us constitution, interests of interoperability, however, the following rule is recommended. If an your paper, XML entity is in a file, the descriptive essay my happy place, Byte-Order Mark and encoding declaration are used (if present) to determine the character encoding.
G W3C XML Working Group (Non-Normative) This specification was prepared and approved for paper publication by the W3C XML Working Group (WG). Essay Music And Society. WG approval of this specification does not necessarily imply that all WG members voted for its approval. The current and former participants of the XML WG are: Jon Bosak, Sun ( Chair ) James Clark ( Technical Lead ) Tim Bray, Textuality and Netscape ( XML Co-editor ) Jean Paoli, Microsoft ( XML Co-editor ) C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, U. of Ill. ( XML Co-editor ) Dan Connolly, W3C ( W3C Liaison ) Paula Angerstein, Texcel Steve DeRose, INSO Dave Hollander, HP Eliot Kimber, ISOGEN Eve Maler, ArborText Tom Magliery, NCSA Murray Maloney, SoftQuad, Grif SA, Muzmo and Veo Systems MURATA Makoto (FAMILY Given), Fuji Xerox Information Systems Joel Nava, Adobe Conleth O'Connell, Vignette Peter Sharpe, SoftQuad John Tigue, DataChannel. H W3C XML Core Working Group (Non-Normative) The fifth edition of this specification was prepared by the W3C XML Core Working Group (WG). The participants in the WG at the time of publication of this edition were: John Cowan, Google Andrew Fang, PTC-Arbortext Paul Grosso, PTC-Arbortext ( Co-Chair ) Konrad Lanz, A-SIT Glenn Marcy, IBM Henry Thompson, W3C ( Staff Contact ) Richard Tobin, University of paper Edinburgh Daniel Veillard Norman Walsh, Mark Logic ( Co-Chair ) Francois Yergeau. This edition was encoded in a slightly modified version of the XMLspec DTD, v2.10. On Rap And Society. The XHTML versions were produced with a combination of the write paper, xmlspec.xsl, diffspec.xsl, and REC-xml.xsl XSLT stylesheets.
J Suggestions for XML Names (Non-Normative) The following suggestions define what is believed to peace, be best practice in the construction of XML names used as element names, attribute names, processing instruction targets, entity names, notation names, and write own term paper, the values of essay on rap music and society attributes of type ID, and are intended as guidance for document authors and own term, schema designers. All references to history, Unicode are understood with respect to a particular version of the Unicode Standard greater than or equal to 5.0; which version should be used is left to the discretion of the document author or schema designer. The first two suggestions are directly derived from the rules given for identifiers in write paper Standard Annex #31 (UAX #31) of the essay conclusion about technology, Unicode Standard, version 5.0 [Unicode], and exclude all control characters, enclosing nonspacing marks, non-decimal numbers, private-use characters, punctuation characters (with the noted exceptions), symbol characters, unassigned codepoints, and white space characters. The other suggestions are mostly derived from Appendix B in previous editions of this specification. The first character of any name should have a Unicode property of ID_Start, or else be '_' #x5F. Characters other than the first should have a Unicode property of ID_Continue, or be one of the characters listed in the table entitled Characters for Natural Language Identifiers in UAX #31, with the exception of ' #x27 and ’ #x2019. Characters in names should be expressed using Normalization Form C as defined in [UnicodeNormal]. Ideographic characters which have a canonical decomposition (including those in the ranges [#xF900-#xFAFF] and [#x2F800-#x2FFFD], with 12 exceptions) should not be used in names.
Characters which have a compatibility decomposition (those with a compatibility formatting tag in field 5 of the Unicode Character Database -- marked by your own term paper, field 5 beginning with a ) should not be used in names. This suggestion does not apply to characters which despite their compatibility decompositions are in regular use in their scripts, for example #x0E33 THAI CHARACTER SARA AM or #x0EB3 LAO CHARACTER AM. Combining characters meant for use with symbols only (including those in the ranges [#x20D0-#x20EF] and on the us constitution, [#x1D165-#x1D1AD]) should not be used in names. The interlinear annotation characters ([#xFFF9-#xFFFB]) should not be used in names. Variation selector characters should not be used in write own term paper names.
Names which are nonsensical, unpronounceable, hard to read, or easily confusable with other names should not be employed.
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